Analecto

28 de setembro de 2017

Presente de aniversário.

An English version of the following text can be found after the Portuguese version.

Hoje eu faço, oficialmente, vinte e cinco anos. Recebi um e-mail da Câmara dos Deputados. No Brasil, há duas formas de um indivíduo sugerir uma lei: pelo site do Senado e pelo site da Câmara. Então, depois que eu escrevi meu texto Estupro de Vulnerável, que expõe todos os problemas do artigo 217-A do Código Penal, eu resolvi levar as coisas ao modo Justin Bailey e enviei minha ideia à Câmara. Lá, ela seria enviada a alguém que tivesse saco pra ler. Isso foi em julho. Hoje, alguém com saco recebeu minha mensagem e ela será lida. Basicamente, eu proponho o retorno aos tempos anteriores a 2009, quando uma relação com um menor de idade só seria criminosa se o menor fosse forçado, prejudicado ou se os pais não concordassem com a relação. Assim, uma relação inofensiva e aprovada por todas as partes (pais, menor e interessado) não precisaria ser punida. Ela nem seria considerada “pedofilia”, apesar de ser, clinicamente, se um dos participantes fosse adulto. Vale lembrar que nem todas as relações entre adulto e menor resultam em prejuízo, com algumas sendo benéficas. Essas que são “benéficas” o povo não vê como pedofilia, porque têm para si que pedofilia é sinônimo de estupro de menor, o que não é verdade.

Em julho também, resolvi continuar com meu plano e fiz a mesma coisa no site do Senado. Deixa eu explicar: o site do Senado permite que façamos leis e as enviemos pra consulta pública. Se a nossa ideia tiver vinte mil apoios, ela será enviada à Comissão de Direitos Humanos e, se ela receber um bom parecer, será debatida na Câmara e no Senado. Depois disso, tive ainda a audácia de contactar todos os partidos políticos atualmente existentes no Brasil e sugerir pra eles as mudanças que meu texto propõe. Só um me retornou: o Partido Novo (acho esse nome péssimo, por falar nisso, é como nomear um diretório de “Nova Pasta”).

Caso você esteja se perguntando como eu pretendo reduzir os casos de gravidez na adolescência dessa forma, saiba que eu trato desse problema no meu texto, bem como outros, inclusive sexualidade infantil, aulas de educação sexual e outros, comparando o Brasil com países mais permissivos e que têm taxas menores de gravidez adolescente, como o Japão, onde a idade de consentimento é treze anos e só quatro em cada mil mulheres engravida antes dos dezenove, sugerindo que o problema da gravidez adolescente não é legal, mas educacional. Encaremos os fatos: menores terão relações entre si ou com mais velhos queiramos ou não, então é bom que estejam pelo menos informados e que os pais tenham o direito de permitir ou proibir, como tinham antes.

Fico feliz por meu texto ter sido encaminhado pra… alguém que esqueci o nome. “Alguma Coisa Forte”, talvez “Rodrigo Forte”, sei lá. O fato é que a lei anterior era superior, em termos de proporção penal e liberdade. Então, foi um bom presente de aniversário. Temos que procurar caminhos possíveis para luta.

English version below.

Today, I officially turn 25. I received an e-mail from the Lower House today. In Brazil, there are two ways for someone to suggest a law: Senate site and Lower House site. So, after I wrote Statutory Rape (a heads-up: I edited the text and added more stuff after Apertado translated it, meaning that the English version is technically incomplete), a text that exposes all problems of the article 217-A in the Penal Code, I decided to take things to Justin Bailey mode and sent my idea to the Lower House. There, it would be sent to someone who had patience to read. That was in July. Today, someone with patience received my message and it will be read. Basically, I propose a return to how things were before 2009, back when a relationship with a minor would only be criminal if the minor was forced, harmed or if the parents didn’t agree with it. That way, a harmless relationship that is approved by all parties (parents, minor and interested) wouldn’t need to be punished. It wouldn’t even be considered “pedophilia”, despite being clinically so, if the interested party is an adult. That’s because laymen think that positive relationships with minors aren’t pedophilia, because, for most people, pedophilia is just child rape, which isn’t true.

Also in July, I decided to do the same thing in Senate site. Let me explain: the Senate site allows us to write law ideas and turn them into petitions. If a petition reaches twenty thousand supports, it will be sent to the Human Rights Commission. There, if it receives a good review, it will be sent for debate in Congress. After that, I had the audacity to contact all political parties currently in existence in Brazil in order to suggest the changes proposed by my text. Only one got back at me: the New Party (I think that name is awful, by the way, it’s like naming a directory as “New Folder”).

If you are wondering how would it reduce the cases of teenage pregnancy, I address those problems in my text, as well as other problems such as child sexuality, sexual education lessons and others, comparing Brazil to more permissive countries that have lower teen pregnancy rates, such as Japan, where age of consent is 13 and only 4 in 1000 women become pregnant before age 19, suggesting that teenage pregnancy isn’t a legal, but educational problem. Let’s face the facts: minors will build relationships with each other wether we want it or not, so it would be nice for them to be at least informed on it and that the parents have the right to allow or forbid like they had before.

I’m thankful for my text being sent to… someone whose name I forgot. “Something Forte”, maybe “Rodrigo Forte”, not sure. Fact is that the previous law was superior in terms of penalty proportion and freedom. I guess it was a nice birthday gift. We gotta exploit available channels and fight.

21 de setembro de 2017

Anotações sobre o “Crepúsculo dos Ídolos”.

Crepúsculo dos Ídolos foi escrito por Friedrich Nietzsche. Abaixo estão algumas afirmações feitas no livro. Uma afirmação pode ou não coincidir com o que eu penso sobre o assunto.

  1. Defender uma causa controversa requer que o indivíduo se mantenha sereno.

  2. O triunfo requer petulância.

  3. Força em excesso prova força suficiente.

  4. A mentira é mais comum do que a verdade.

  5. Dizem que a falta do que fazer é mãe de todos os vícios.

  6. Às vezes sabemos que algo não é verdade, mas temos medo de nos opor.

  7. Dizer que a verdade é sempre simples é mentir duas vezes.

  8. O que não mata, fortalece.

  9. Se ajude para receber ajuda dos outros.

  10. Não procure adeptos.

  11. A verdade é um atentado ao pudor.

  12. Ou se tem virtude ou se tem vantagens.

  13. Tem coisas que fazemos escondido, mas querendo que outros encontrem.

  14. Não se deve olhar o passado a fim de repetir os erros lá contidos.

  15. Satisfação aumenta a imunidade.

  16. Uma mulher com virtudes masculinas é irresistível, mas uma mulher sem essas virtudes não resiste a nada.

  17. A música nos deixa alegres.

  18. Pense andando.

  19. Existem os que se movem pra resolver o problema, existem os que só olham o problema e existem os que preferem não ver o problema.

  20. É preciso saber o que desejamos e se vale a pena desejar isso.

  21. Passar por cima dos outros é necessário pra progredir.

  22. A filosofia grega, que dizia que viver não vale a pena, mais especificamente a filosofia socrática, era doentia.

  23. Um consenso pode estar errado: pode ser que muitos concordem com uma coisa errada.

  24. Julgar a vida é idiotice; a vida é a vida.

  25. Somos parte da vida.

  26. Quando alguém emite um juízo de valor sobre a vida, sendo que ele próprio faz parte da vida, está pirado.

  27. Um sábio que julga a vida está se pondo acima dela, como juiz, o que prova que ele não é assim tão sábio.

  28. Para enfurecer um adversário e colocá-lo contra a parede, ponha-o numa situação em que ele tem que provar que não é um idiota.

  29. A feiúra de Sócrates podia muito bem ser um reflexo de sua má saúde, ajudada pelo excesso de controle sobre os próprios instintos.

  30. Se os instintos podem nos tiranizar, a razão pode nos tiranizar também.

  31. Uma pessoa pode ter que se forçar a ser racional.

  32. A doença do grego: excesso de razão.

  33. Por causa desse excesso de razão, o ato de satisfazer os instintos passou a ser visto como demonstração de fraqueza e não necessariamente o é.

  34. Quando a dialética abala a autoridade vigente, as pessoas esperam do dialético uma solução para o problema que ele próprio criou, o que lhe dá autoridade pra dizer o que a massa deve fazer.

  35. O ascetismo dessas morais é procurado como meio de salvação, mas essa vida clara, comedida, fria, prudente… nem sempre traz a felicidade que promete.

  36. Numa vida saudável, felicidade e instinto são a mesma coisa.

  37. Filósofos erram, pois não consideram o conceito como construção, como submisso às vicissitudes da história.

  38. A filosofia tradicional vê o devir como problemático.

  39. O ser imutável não encontra fundamento empírico mas os filósofos (falando aqui apenas dos platônicos, penso) querem que ele exista, o que os leva a admitir que o devir é ilusório e que o ser imutável é objeto de especulação.

  40. Os sentidos não mentem.

  41. O que acontece é que os sentidos nos dão uma informação imparcial, mas nossa interpretação dessa informação que pode estar errada.

  42. A filosofia tradicional parte do universal pra explicar o singular.

  43. Lógica não é sinal irrefutável de razão: algo pode fazer sentido e estar errado.

  44. Não é possível demonstrar que o mundo não é como parece ser, isto é, como nossos sentidos o captam.

  45. Uma ideia pode levar milênios para ser superada, mas ela é superada quando acaba não servindo mais pra nada.

  46. A moral pode se manifestar contra a natureza.

  47. As paixões podem trabalhar a favor da razão.

  48. Alguém que combate a ciência não luta inteligentemente contra nenhum inimigo.

  49. A moral tradicional prefere suprimir o desejo sexual, por exemplo, em vez de se perguntar como esse desejo poderia ser usado de forma construtiva.

  50. Se a paixão é uma expressão da vida, atacá-la é atacar a vida.

  51. Quem faz guerra contra os próprios desejos é quem não é capaz de usá-los a seu favor.

  52. Guerrear contra os desejos revela fraqueza de espírito: você mata o desejo porque não tolera sua sedução.

  53. O estabelecido precisa de oponentes.

  54. Uma moral que não tem como objetivo a preservação da vida é doentia.

  55. Qualquer moral que não tenha a vida como objetivo é decadente.

  56. Um humano não pode dizer como o ser humano deve ser.

  57. Quando uma pessoa diz “seja assim”, normalmente está dizendo, mesmo que não saiba, “seja como eu”.

  58. O maior vacilo que a razão pode cometer é confundir causa e efeito.

  59. A moral e a religião cometem esse vacilo constantemente.

  60. Não se pode fazer generalizações com base em um só exemplo.

  61. Não coma muito, nem coma pouco; coma o suficiente.

  62. Se eu sou virtuoso, farei o bem, mas fazer o bem não me torna virtuoso.

  63. Vício e luxo não são a causa da decadência humana, mas sinais dessa decadência.

  64. Outro vacilo: assumir causalidade onde ela não existe.

  65. Outro vacilo: imaginar causas que não existem.

  66. Outro vacilo: fingir que já se conhece o que é, na verdade, desconhecido.

  67. Se permitimos uma dor se apoderar de nós, é porque reconhecemos que a merecemos, mesmo quando não a merecemos de fato.

  68. Movimento peristáltico, como uma bela digestão, pode ser confundido com tranquilidade de espírito.

  69. Não temos razão de existir.

  70. Não há “fim”, isto é, objetivo.

  71. Moral não prova nada.

  72. O juízo moral crê numa realidade que não existe.

  73. Moral é interpretação e interpretações são pessoais.

  74. Moral é relativa.

  75. É possível falar uma coisa sem compreender as próprias palavras.

  76. Uma pessoa que não sabe o que a moral realmente é não pode tirar fruto dela.

  77. “Moral” é uma tentativa de melhorar o ser humano.

  78. Mais fácil melhorar o gênero humano pela ciência.

  79. Domesticar um animal é adoecê-lo, ao fazê-lo agir de uma forma não estipulada pela natureza.

  80. Quando se quer enfraquecer alguém, adoeça-o.

  81. Um número de processos de eugenia foram religiosamente sancionados.

  82. O Evangelho é contra o arianismo, é contra os valores de raça pura e dominante.

  83. A educação pode matar o gênio.

  84. Política e ciência são coisas diferentes.

  85. As épocas de maior avanço em termos filosóficos e científicos foram épocas de crise política.

  86. Nenhuma escola ensina a pensar.

  87. Não há mais disciplina que ensine lógica.

  88. Infelizmente, a ciência faz parte da democracia.

  89. Faz sentido um ateu moralista?

  90. Não se faz arte sem estar embriagado, mesmo que não de álcool.

  91. É possível estar embriagado de tesão.

  92. É possível estar embriagado de sonho.

  93. A sensação de força e de plenitude é o que torna a embriaguez uma fonte de inspiração artística.

  94. A embriaguez de Apolo nos leva a pintar, esculpir e descrever, mas embriaguez dionisíaca nos leva a compor, tocar e dançar.

  95. Existem ateus que querem deixar de ser ateus.

  96. Só é possível ter espírito (circunspeção, paciência, astúcia, mentira e domínio) na necessidade dele.

  97. Algumas vezes, imparcialidade é manifestação de arrogância.

  98. A filosofia de Kant é desonesta.

  99. As maiores tragédias só acontecem com as pessoas mais ilustres.

  100. Sempre seguir as regras da sociedade acaba comprometendo a pessoa.

  101. A mãe da filosofia é a atração por menores.

  102. Praticar arte só por fazer é lutar contra a moral.

  103. O objetivo do ensino superior é transformar um homem numa máquina estatal kantiana, ensinando-o, através da moral, a ter ódio de si próprio.

  104. De vez em quando, faça arte sem método.

  105. O gênio consome energia e trabalha sob pressão e arruinará sua saúde se não der uma pausa pra mexer o corpo.

  106. Mais vale um homem real do que um ideal.

  107. Doenças são sinal de decadência não causas de decadência.

  108. O anarquista culpa a sociedade e o cristão culpa a si mesmo.

  109. O socialista faz da revolução sua vingança e o cristão, muitas vezes, faz do juízo final sua vingança.

  110. Não é possível agir sem interesse.

  111. Ser totalmente altruísta, isto é, nunca pensar em si, é fórmula de suicídio.

  112. Melhor você negar seu valor do que o valor da vida.

  113. O doente terminal deveria ter direito de se matar, se quisesse.

  114. Se a pessoa perdeu a dignidade de viver, permita-a morrer dignamente.

  115. Todas as épocas se julgam no ápice da realização moral.

  116. Uma moral muito restritiva vem de um povo mais fraco e delicado, que “não suporta” certas coisas.

  117. O valor de uma moral vem de sua serventia.

  118. Nossa sociedade detesta correr riscos.

  119. Alguém que zela pela liberdade não pode se vender.

  120. Você só pode ser forte se precisar sê-lo.

  121. Pra quê serve o casamento hoje?

  122. A moral kantiana nada mais foi do que a validação dos costumes de sua época.

  123. O sacrifício heróico é o ato que desconsidera a sobrevivência do praticante em nome de uma causa maior que sua própria vida.

  124. O criminoso é um homem forte que nasceu numa época que não compreende sua força.

  125. Antes de ganhar notoriedade, todos os gênios são odiados por seu tempo.

  126. Educar sentimentos e pensamentos não te torna belo, mas educar o corpo torna.

  127. A realidade está nos acontecimentos verdadeiros do mundo, não na nossa cabeça e nem na nossa moral.

  128. Não existe mudança sem sacrifício.

14 de setembro de 2017

Attraction to minors.

“Minor-attracted people” refers to adults who are attracted to children or adolescents and also refers to adolescents who are attracted to children. The concept overlaps with others, such as pedophilia and hebephilia. However, this category is fairly new and most people don’t see the difference between attraction to minors and pedophilia, which is, itself, charged with great amounts of stigma. Because of that, the self-esteem of minor-attracted people is severely damaged, they hide and develop self-hatred. But it’s important for the minor-attracted person to understand that they are not a threat to minors, that their attraction is fine in other cultures and that, putting things that way, attraction to minors isn’t a disease per itself, but is made such by society. That should help minor-attracted people to accept themselves wholeheartedly, to see cultural phenomena as passive of changing, improve understanding of themselves and point to help, if such is needed.

Introduction.

Try looking up the word “pedophilia” online right now. What you will likely see is a number of news articles about cases of child rape, molestation or worse. However, for a group of people, it is a very narrow picture. I am talking about minor-attracted people. Those people acknowledge that they have feelings for minors, so they are in position to judge what people say about them. And for many minor-attracted people, the news do not reflect who they truly are.

The phenomenon of attraction to minors is too diverse to be adequately described by media outlets. There are minor-attracted people who are pedophiles, but there’s also nepiophiles (attracted to babies) and hebephiles (attracted to pubescents). There are minor-attracted people who feel that their attraction, despite being illegal, does not need to be illegal, but others prefer things to stay the way they are. And most interestingly, there are minors who are attracted to much younger minors, not to mention minors who are attracted to same-age peers.

The problem is that media outlets, by spreading misinformation, makes many minor-attracted people feel isolated or despaired. They do not see themselves in the monsters portrayed in the news. So, if you are law-abiding and attracted to minors, you might think that you are one of a few or that you would soon end up breaking the law. That causes feelings of despair. Yet, that despair is grounded on a false assumption: that all minor-attracted people are active or potential criminals.

That being said, looking up information about attraction to minors in general and pedophilia in particular can be a very painful and fruitless activity. The goal of this text is to provide accurate information about attraction to minors to minor-attracted people themselves, in order to make them feel more at an ease, while stressing the need to stay law-abiding. The first section tries to define attraction to minors, the second tries to explain the difference between thoughts and actions. Hopefully, after reading this, you will be able to sleep well. Because the text has minor-attracted people are audience, I will write in second person.

Before going any further, I need to state that this guide will not teach you to break the law: there is no information on grooming, sharing of child pornography, nothing like that. If you came to this page expecting any of that, I fear you will be disappointed. The text is introductory and, despite it’s academic form, should not be seen as a scientific report. Please, check the references for further information.

Attraction to minors.

Being attracted to minors is having an erotic attachment to people who are not yet adults. Because “minor” is a cultural term, not a biological one, such as “child”, there’s no universal age for one to be called a “minor”, even though, in most Western societies, you are only an adult at age 18. Attraction to babies is called nepiophilia, attraction to prepubescent children is called pedophilia, attraction to pubescent children and adolescents is called hebephilia, attraction to postpubescent adolescents is called ephebophilia. It is important to stress that those terms imply a preferential attraction: if you felt sexually attracted to a child once, but it was an one-time occurence or if your desire for adults is higher, you are not a pedophile. Out of those, only pedophilia (and, by extension, nepiophilia) is considered a mental disorder, according to the International Classification of Diseases and the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, but only as long as the pedophile is markedly distressed by the feelings or if he has acted according to the impulse. That being said, a pedophile is not necessarily mentally ill, depending on how well the pedophile deals with his feelings. The reason why hebephilia and ephebophilia are not considered disorders, even when acted out, is because they are far too common to be considered such. Plus, the pathologization of hebephilia would have undesired effects in the forensic field (Frances & First, 2011), which could explain why the age of consent around the world can be as low as 12 in some countries.

While minor-attracted people differ in “ages of attraction”, they also differ according to political position. The age of consent is a law. Positioning yourself as favorable or against a law is a political position. There are pedophiles who are favorable to age of consent reform and there are those who are not. Minor-attracted people who are favorable to lowering or abolishing the age of consent are often called “pro-contact” or “pro-consent”. Those who are favorable to leaving the age of consent as it is or raising it are often called “anti-contact”. Those labels are not indicative of offender status: a person can be pro-contact and law-abiding. Being law-abiding is often called being “non-offending”. Neither label implies a position on child pornography: there are pro-contact minor-attracted people who would not want the legalization of child pornography, while some anti-contacts could want the legalization at least of cartoon child pornography, while being against the legalization of child pornography featuring real children.

One could ask why would you, for example, adopt either particular stance on the age of consent. While those who are pro-contact argue that some adult-child relationships, sexual or not, could be harmless or even beneficial, in a way that it would be more fair if those relationships were judged on a case-by-case basis (see quote by “Trevor” in Rivas, 2016, page 92), those who are anti-contact argue that harm still happens and that it could be devastating or that, even if those relationships could be harmless and positively recalled, they are still immoral, as the consent given by the child can always be called into question. The mere fact that such debate exists within minor-attracted communities should serve to dispel the prejudice that people who are sexually attracted to minors are always unethical. Because sexuality includes several interpersonal elements and a dynamic between the person who desires and the desired person, something that is observed even in adolescents (if there are minor-attracted adolescents, then what is said about adolescent desire in Drury & Bukowsky, 2013, page 128 and 129 applies here too), then it’s safe to say that sexual attraction is a feature of a wider erotic response that includes feelings of love (for a personal account by a pedophile, see O’Carroll, 1980, chapter 1). It is unlikely that you would defend either position disregarding children’s safety and feelings.

It’s also worth noting that minor-attracted people aren’t always adults: according to one of B4U-ACT’s surveys, most minor-attracted people feel their first attraction to an younger child at age 12 and notice that such attraction is preferential at age 14. That means that there are adolescents who are attracted to children, for example. How would a person who hates minor-attracted people as a consequence of their desire to protect children respond to this? Protecting children implies protecting minor-attracted children too. So, hating minor-attracted people in general is not something that can be conciliated with the desire to protect children in general.

Causes.

The causes of attraction to minors are not clear. It seems to be first noticed in adolescence and is resistant to change. Considering that even people under the age of 12 are sexual beings and that they have sexual play among each other (for examples of childhood sexual activity, see Campbell et al, 2013, pages 154 to 157), one could think that the problem regarding attraction to minors resides in the fact that the person, when growing up, continues to be attracted to children, but it is not always like that: some people notice that they are preferably attracted to children late in life as well. The trait, however, seems to be inherent. There is no “becoming” when it comes to attraction to minors: you are or you are not. However, one can speak of “discovery”. You discover yourself as a minor-attracted person, but you can not say that a specific event “triggered” the attraction.

For a while, it was thought that having sexual contacts with an adult would cause the child to grow as a pedophile. That line of thought is called “abused-abuser cycle theory” and is currently being contested. There seems to be no necessary link between having sexual contacts in childhood and growing up attracted to children, specially if such contact is regarded as negative.

The only thing that can be said is that attraction to minors in general and pedophilia in particular are not choices, with a handful of researchers claiming that pedophilia could be a sexual orientation. If attraction to minors happens to be a sexual orientation, an analogy with homosexuality is possible: nothing can “turn you gay”, you either are gay or are not. But you can say that you “discover yourself gay”. While that does not warrant that adult-child sex should be legal, that does mean that, if pedophiles do not choose their condition and that changing such condition is not possible, hating them for that alone is unfair. You are not responsible for the feelings you have, but only for your actions.

Characteristics.

Minor-attracted people notice their first attraction to children around age 12. Contrary to popular belief, it is not an exclusively male phenomenon: women and girls can be attracted to people much younger than themselves as well. The feelings they have come in three levels: caring, romantic and sexual. In the first level, you may have urges to care for the young, offer guidance (see article found in the New York Post, 2007, quoted in Rivas, 2016, pages 113 to 115), protect and be available for their needs. That would help to explain why so many sex scandals involve people in positions of guidance, such as priests or teachers. On the second level, the urge is to have emotional bounding (Rivas, 2016, page 264). On the third level, the desires are geared towards what we would call “molestation”, in legal terms: touching, caressing, fondling, acts that are more often centered on the child (see quote by D. J. West, in O’Carroll, 1980, chapter 3). It has been pointed in literature that, at least when it comes to pedophiles (not including hebephiles or ephebophiles), penetration is a rare feature of sexual contact with children. Considering that those sexual feelings may coexist with loving feelings, it seems natural that pedophiles, as people attracted to prepubescent children, would refrain from penetrative activity, as it would be both painful and probably degrading for the child (see O’Carroll, 1980, chapter 6, where he explains why there should be an age of consent for certain penetrative acts). An immature child experiencing penetration is unlikely to enjoy it: losing the virginity can be a painful experience for older girls and even women, let alone for a small child. A child should never be submitted to anything beyond their level of maturity.

However, as implied by the two first attraction tiers (care and romance), you probaby would not feel gratification if the child or adolescent is unwilling. The laymen could then ask “what about the cases of child rape that we see on television?” It is now known that most people arrested for sex with minors do not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia. In laymen terms, that means that most people who are prosecuted for sex with kids are not pedophiles in the first place. There are several reasons for a person to have sex with minors and pedophilia is just one of them. The person could have sex with a minor for experimentation, revenge, desire to cause pain, intoxication, jailbaiting, mental disorder or, in extreme, rare cases, minor-on-adult rape. If only a minority of those people on television are real pedophiles, laymen are supposed to be more worried about “normal” people abusing their children. If an abuser really could be “anyone”, it’s now known that it seldom is a pedophile.

Finally, considering the social impact of those relationships and the caring and romantic feelings that coexist with the sexual feelings, it is not a surprise that many minor-attracted people choose to remain celibate towards children and adolescents (the classical example is the relationship between Alice Liddell and Lewis Carroll, as seen in Rivas, 2016, pages 247 and 248). In fact, even among those who espouse a pro-contact view, having a sexual relationship with a minor is viewed as unethical, as it can expose both the adult and the minor to the tribulations of societal intervention. So, pedophiles who have sincere feelings of love for children should remain celibate, even if they mean no harm, at least until the climate becomes more accepting of those relationships (Rivas, 2016, page 271).

Is there a treatment or cure?

Wether attraction to minors is a sexual orientation or a disorder, it is resistant to change. We know that aversion therapy, once used as an attempt to change homosexual attraction into a heterosexual one, does not work. In fact, aversion therapy was equaled to punishment, of the cruel and unusual kind, by Leinwand. Such punishment is still applied on people with problematic sexual attractions. Aversion therapy techniques include electric shock, vomit induction, high-frequency buzzing noises and other unpleasant stimuli while, at same time, it is also given to that person something that sexually arouses them (see footnotes in O’Carroll, 1980, chapter 4).

If attraction to minors can not be changed, the best we can do in the current climate is to help minor-attracted people to stay law-abiding while improving the quality of their life. When you are isolated or has the feeling of “having nothing else to lose”, you are more prone to offend. That means that isolating minor-attracted people from society is not helpful to the goals of society, nor to your goals of staying non-offending. With that in mind, the therapeutic group B4U-ACT does not advocate treatment that aims to “cure” you, especially because B4U-ACT does not see attraction to minors as an illness. Therapists who work with B4U-ACT are supposed to stick to humane treatment, focused on your well-being, which does lessen the chances of offense.

Feelings and actions.

Feeling attraction to minors is different from acting on such attraction. To make an analogy, several people have urges to do illegal things: to murder or beat up a person they dislike, to experiment with illicit drugs or playing illicit games. However, having those feelings do not guarantee that a person would act on those urges. Nonetheless, people are entitled to their fantasies. Same goes for you.

In Japan, cartoon child pornography, in the form of lolicon/shotacon manga, is tolerated. But the availability of such pornography (as with any pornography) does not seem to increase Japan’s rates of child sexual abuse at all (Diamond & Uchiyama, 1999, page 10). According to the news outlet International Business Times, both United States and United Kingdom, two territories that are very invested in fighting pedophilia, appear in the list of the five countries with highest rates of child sexual abuse. It is important to remind you that the information comes from a news outlet and that the definition of “child” in the article is not given. But lets suppose that the list is accurate. If it is, how can we explain such fact?

In a study about the presence of pornography and it’s correlation with sex crime rates, it was found out that Czech Republic had lower rates of child sexual abuse after legalizing possession of child pornography (Diamond et al, 2011, page 1039). While that does not warrant that child pornography should be legal, that could mean that the presence of child pornography makes pedophiles in particular less prone to seek encounters with real children. That could help to explain why the rates of child sexual abuse are low in Japan, but high in United States: Japan allows pedophiles to have an outlet for their feelings, giving them safe discharge. Provided that such outlet is manga, real children do not have to participate in the production at all. Because of that, there is some research being done in the subject of virtual reality child pornography, which would serve the same purpose. While evidence showing that child pornography makes pedophiles less prone to offend is inconclusive, investigating the use of child pornography with no real children as a coping mechanism is still worth a try. So, if you are against any modification on the age of consent laws, this possibility is something you should consider.

Even if no outlet is given, no one can take away their right to fantasize. It’s not possible to make thoughts and feelings illegal. As long as you find a way to have legal sexual relief, the proneness to break the law would be lower. Also, there are other forms of expression that are not sexually explicit. For example, a “boy love” novel was published on in 2018. It was not the first book of it’s kind and probably will not be last. Another example would be the movie I Love You, Daddy, released in 2017. The existence of legal fiction works with such themes shows that sublimation of the desire through artistic work is also possible and it can also be done in an acceptable, legal and even profitable way. It is also worth noting that such works may very well be done by people who are not even themselves attracted to minors.

Age of consent and culture.

The volatility of laws makes them unsuitable to defining what is sick and what is not, even though they can dictate what is socially acceptable and what is not. This is an important issue to touch for the well-being of minor-attracted people, because part of the shame they feel over their feelings comes from the fact that many forms of attraction to minors are illegal in their territory.

Age of consent varies across cultures, that is, across time and place. The first ages of consent were very low. In United States, for example, the age of consent used to be 7 in Delaware. Societal movements, especially feminism (see, for example, Sandfort, 1987, chapter 1), played a role in changing that picture. But even today, ages of consent can be very low in other places: the lowest age of consent in Japan is 13, the age of consent in Brazil is 14 nationwide and it is 12 in Philippines. The case of Brazil is specially interesting because the age of consent in Brazil was 16 in 1920, it is currently 14 and there was a proposal to lower it to 12, following, among other things, the discovery that it was interfering with teenage romances. So, from the countries I just mentioned, Brazil shows a tendency to lower it’s age of consent as time passes by. There are also countries with no age of consent, but have minimum age limits for marriage, which also can be pretty low. Those countries frequently impose constraints on sexual activity in order to keep it inside marriage. So, in some countries, if you are married, age disparity does not matter. Last, in indigenous isolated cultures, such law may also be absent (for several examples of such tribes, see O’Carroll, 1980, chapter 2). Finally, there are initiatives against the very concept of age of consent, such as the party programme of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB-PCC), which lists, as one of it’s immediate demands, the abolishment of age of consent laws and the elaboration of alternative legislation against child sexual abuse. On the other hand, a worldwide movement to raise the age of consent in the entire world could not be done without meeting a lot of cultural resistence, especially in the East. Such movement would take decades to succeed.

That means that having romantic or sexual affairs with minors is not always illegal, depending on your context. If you were born in the right place, at the right time, your attraction would be tolerated, accepted or even cherished. It is not like you are sick; you were just born in the wrong culture. While that is a fact and while the age of consent is indeed volatile, pointing that out alone should not be seen as an encouragement to break the law, nor as an encouragement to have sex with children. After all, such volatility has been exhaustively pointed out in other works (see the references for a few).

After this, one could wonder why the age of consent in United Kingdom and United States, for example, is so high. One of the arguments for keeping a high age of consent is that children mature at different paces: a 15-year-old could behave as if they were 12, despite another 15-year-old being capable of behaving as if they were 18. So, setting the bar high could ensure that no underdeveloped child or adolescent would consent to something they don’t actually understand.

Statistics and anecdotes.

But lower ages of consent imply that relationships at a certain age may not be violent. That prompts the question about whether sexual contact before the age of consent is always harmful or not. Can relationships between adults and children ever work? Statistical and anecdotal evidence shows that intergenerational relationships are not consistently harmful. If precocious sexual contact was always harmful, the age of consent would variate less. Plus, if that was the case, age of consent would be a much older law, like the laws against murder, violence, rape and robbery.

The consideration of positively recalled precocious sexual contact would not be included in this document if it was not recorded in literature that knowing of such information could improve your self-esteem. But a discussion about positively experienced adult-child sexual intimacy can not be done without considering the reasons for the prohibition.

Evidence fails to demonstrate the belief that adult-child sexual intimacy is always harmful. Some of those contacts are recalled as positive. One of the books used as reference for this text is Rivas’ Positive Memories, which compiles anecdotes of positively recalled, voluntary sexual contacts between minors no older than 15 with adults no younger than 18 (Rivas, 2016, page 9). Those anecdotes were extracted from other works, such as biographies, news articles, scientific papers and others. The sources can be found in the book’s bibliography. Other compilations are available elsewhere.

Some studies that could be used to prove the existence of non-violent intergenerational relationships are out there. A few of them that I can mention are Arreola et al, 2008; Arreola et al, 2009; Bauserman & Rind, 1997; Carballo-Diéguez et al, 2011; Condy et al, 1987; Dolezal et al, 2014; Kilpatrick, 1987; Lahtinen et al, 2018; Leahy, 1996; Mulya, 2018; Rind, 2001; Rind, 2016; Rind & Tromovitch, 1997; Rind & Welter, 2013; Rind & Welter, 2016; Rind et al, 1998; Sandfort, 1984; Sandfort, 1987; Tindall, 1978; Ulrich et al, 2005-2006; Wet et al, 2018. These studies offer both statistical and anecdotal evidence that sexual contact between adult and child may be both harmless and voluntary (that is, non-violent). You may notice that some of those studies are fairly recent, while others are ancient. It would be interesting to check them if you would like to read more on the subject. But it is not my goal to expose the data that was gathered by those researchers.

It is also worth mentioning that none of those studies take a definite pro-legalization position. For example, Mulya, 2018, says that anecdotes of positively-recalled adult/child sexual intimacy should not be seen as a personal attempt at making those relationships legally acceptable. On the same way, Lahtinen et al, 2018, only tries to explain why some children do not report sexual contact with adults to the authorities when such contact happens and one of the study’s findings is that some children do not report because they do not see the contact as something worth mentioning while a handful do not report because they enjoyed the experience. But the study does not conclude that such experiences should be made legal, but, rather, than children should be encouraged to report, no matter how they evaluate the experience. That being said, the mere exposure of this data should not be seen as encouragement to break the law. Plus, scientific data alone can not operate changes in the law either and, if science wants to be impartial, it must not be concerned with politics or the law, but with the facts.

If intergenerational relationships can be positive, why is adult/child sexual contact still illegal? The answer relies on informed consent. The belief that children can not consent seems to be the only reason why those contacts are still considered always abuse (see citation by Archard, in Jahnke et al, 2017, page 3). But what does it mean “to consent” in this context, as many of those contacts are regarded as “voluntary” by the supposed victim?

Informed consent is needed when risk is present: whenever you are about to do something dangerous, you need to be aware of the consequences of an act and must be able to take a free decision on wether to take the risk or not (see Lavin, 2013, page 5). Sex is regarded as risky, in the sense of potentially harmful. If sex is potentially harmful, everyone who engages in sexual practices must give informed consent, that is, must be aware of the consequences and be able to take a free stance on taking the risk or not. The problem with adult/child sexual contact is that, while some adults are not fully aware of the consequences of their acts and while power imbalance is inherent to human relationships, children are both ignorant of the consequences and in a position of social disadvantage towards the entire society. Informed consent is based either on information or favorable power dynamics and neither thing is present for the child in such a relationship. And that also explains why the age of consent varies across cultures: different countries have different attitudes towards sex, more or less informed youth, wider or narrower extent of children’s rights, at different given historical contexts. So, when someone says “children can not consent”, what they are saying, in functionalistic terms is:

  1. children are not informed enough to give a valid consent to sexual relationships that are inherently unequal, and;

  2. this issue is important because sex is risky, that is, potentially harmful.

Because giving consent to an act without information on the consequences is a null choice and because giving consent in a situation where you can not really say “no” (as a dangerous adult could attempt to force the child if consent is denied) is also null, the child’s consent is null or, at least, not informed, thus legally invalid (in which case, the child could have consented, it’s just that the law will disregard such consent). It doesn’t matter if the child said yes: if their consent is null, the act is equivalent to rape, even if just in purely legal terms (hence the term “statutory rape”). That is the rationale behind informed consent and the reason why adult/child sexual contact remains illegal. Even the act was genuinely freely engaged in and even if no harm, but only benefit, resulted from the act, it was still immoral.

For many things, parents and guardians consent for their children (Lavin, 2013). So, when it comes to sexual matters, even if the age of consent were to be abolished, that does not equal full child liberation. The child would still be cared for and nurtured by their parents, who would be responsible for them and held accountable for the harm that the child could suffer from anything, sexual or not. Because of that, many parents would not accept their children getting into such adventures, even if the child comes to voice their desire to participate.

In any case, children have their own maturing pace and each individual child develops differently. They are supposed to learn about their sexuality in their own way. This is a very tricky situation, because the introduction of adult elements in a sexuality that is still fourishing could harm the development of said sexuality, which could result in frustration for the child after they grow up or even immediately. We still would have to consider the possibility of selfish adults tricking or manipulating the child or otherwise trying to make their interest prevail over the child’s interest. If that’s a possibility, legalization remains risky. I am sure that you can be a loving person, but others may not be as much. And finally, a child and an adult in a sexual relationship could be looking for different things: the adult could be looking for physical intimacy and emotional bounding, while the child would be motivated by curiosity and pleasure. If the motivations are different, the relationship might not be fulfilling for either.

Plus, even if there is positively recalled adult/child sexual contact and even if anecdotal evidence shows that there are minors craving such encounters, the act, when discovered, will cause damage to both parties of the relationship, due to the judicial proceeding and probably therapy afterwards. I reiterate that acting on those desires in a cultural context that is disapproving of such conduct is a display of irresponsibility. Pro-contact minor-attracted people are interested in changing the laws (see Sandfort, 1987, chapter 3 for an example of attempted age of consent reform in the Netherlands), but should not be interested in breaking the laws, not only because of their own safety, but also because of how the child might respond to the intervention (for an anecdote on how societal intervention alone can harm both adult and child, see Rivas, 2016, pages 27 to 32)

Conclusion.

If you will not necessarily commit any crime, if most people who perpetrate sexual offenses against children are not pedophiles in the first place and if such attractions have been, are and could be acceptable depending on cultural context, then you have no reason to feel ill. If that is all that you needed to hear or read, you could drop the issue altogether and stop caring about it, as it is the charge that is attributed to the feelings, rather than the feelings themselves, that cause the shame and the guilt. That implies that society makes you feel ill, not the feelings that are present in you.

If that is the case, you  could use some company to at least cope with the feeling of isolation. There are legal communities online and offline that minor-attracted people can rely on, to exchange experiences and have guidance from people who share the attraction. Of course, you are also encouraged to avoid illegal communities. B4U-ACT has a peer support group, for example. Other communities such as Boychat/Girlchat, Virtuous Pedophiles and the JORis groups of NVSH (this last one in the Netherlands) are also options. Out of those, only Virtuous Pedophiles has strict requirements for membership, as the person who joins their group needs to also be anti-contact. I should remind the reader that anti-contact and pro-contact are not indicative of offender status. B4U-ACT, Boychat/Girlchat and the JORis groups of NVSH do not have such requirement. As B4U-ACT wants to reach as many minor-attracted people as possible, it does make sense that it would not push any particular view on the contact issue: when the Paedophile Information Exchange operated in the United Kingdom, it’s pro-contact activism pushed some members away (O’Carroll, 1980, chapter 11). When it comes to age of consent reform, support groups and political activism are tough to conciliate, if not impossible. That being said, if a support group for minor-attracted people wants to reach as many people possible, it must avoid any definitive position on the age of consent, which would encourage participation by both pro-contact and anti-contact minor-attracted people. Such attitude would also keep the organization itself safe. The JORis groups and B4U-ACT also hold real life meetings on occasion, but, while the JORis groups tries to be a support group where people can introduce themselves and talk about their struggles to receive peer support, the real life meetings held by B4U-ACT are academic in nature and researchers also participate. While people attend to B4U-ACT’s meetings on their own, some people are referred to the JORis groups by the justice system.

Not viewing attraction to minors as something negative and having others who understand and listen is crucial for the well being of minor-attracted people, avoiding a dreaded mindset of “having nothing to lose”, which would make the minor-attracted people prone to desperate actions, such as suicide. If people hate minor-attracted people because it is believed that they always offend the law and all of those who offend the law are attracted to minors, then there is no reason to hate them, as that belief is demonstrably wrong. They are not worth hating. In fact, if you are non-offending, you pass as perfectly “normal”. A lot of people are probably friends with at least one person like you.

To dispel the prejudices that exist regarding minor-attracted people, the best solution would be the coming out of them. It is much safer to “come out” online, in dedicated accounts, and many have done so on Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, WordPress, Tumblr, Medium and so on. Freedom of speech is a human right and freedom of thought is something that can not be taken from you. No petition can change that. If you can come out online, especially if you know how to separate your public, real life identity from a dedicated online account identity, it is already helpful. The prejudice against minor-attracted people only exists because people can say whatever they wish about a silent minority. How many minor-attracted people are out there? The lowest guess, according to B4U-ACT’s facts page, is 600.000 adults, only counting United States. How many exist in other countries? Are all those people bad?

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RUTKIN, A. Could sex robots and virtual reality treat paedophilia? Retrieved from: < https://www.newscientist.com/article/2099607-could-sex-robots-and-virtual-reality-treat-paedophilia/ >. Date of access: 09/09/18.

SANDFORT, T. Boys on their contacts with men: a study of sexually expressed friendships. New York: Global Academic Publishers, 1987.

SANDFORT, T. Sex in pedophiliac relationships: an empirical investigation among a nonrepresentative group of boys, in The Journal of Sex Research, volume 20, number 2, pages 123 to 142. Routledge, 1984.

SHORTLAND, G. Student, 14, raped and killed his maths teacher before disposing her body in a wheelie bin. Retrieved from: < https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/real-life-stories/student-14-raped-killed-maths-7672822 >. Date of access: 09/04/18.

SOL RESEARCH. Cases in the research. Retrieved from: < http://www.consentingjuveniles.com/cases >. Date of access: 09/11/18.

THOMPSON, A. Staff member at prestigious school had sex with boys “under duress”, court hears. Retrieved from: < https://www.theage.com.au/national/nsw/armidale-school-sex-boys-court-teacher-20180907-p502hr.html >. Date of access: 09/10/18.

TINDALL, R. H. The male adolescent involved with a pederast becomes an adult, in The Journal of Homosexuality, volume 3. Routledge, 1978.

TOURJÉE, D. Most child sex abusers are not pedophiles, expert says. Retrieved from: < https://broadly.vice.com/en_us/article/mgmzwn/most-child-sex-abusers-are-not-pedophiles-expert-says >. Access date: 09/03/18.

ULRICH, H. ; RANDOLPH, M. ; ACHESON, S. Child sexual abuse: A Replication of the Meta-analytic Examination of Child Sexual Abuse by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman (1998), in The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, volume 4, number 2. Center for Inquiry, 2005-2006.

VIRTUOUS PEDOPHILES. F. A. Q. Retrieved from: < https://virped.org/f-a-q.html >. Date of access: 09/01/18.

WET, N. ; ALEX-OJEI, C. ; AKINYEMI, J. ‘I’m in love with an older man’: reasons for intergenerational sexual relationships among young women in South Africa, in Culture, Health & Sexuality. Taylor & Francis, 2018.

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. International classification of diseases, 11th edition. Retrieved from: < https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en#/http%3a%2f%2fid.who.int%2ficd%2fentity%2f517058174 >. Date of access: 09/01/18.

13 de setembro de 2017

Olha, um modelo de monografia!

Filed under: Passatempos — Tags:, , , — Yure @ 16:56

Hikari e eu estávamos trocando mensagens. Ela está coautorando um “manifesto” comigo e perguntou se, porventura, meus trabalhos seguem um padrão ou modelo. Sim, o manifesto segue um modelo que eu construi com base no manual de estilo da minha universidade. Basicamente, eu construi um modelo de monografia. Como Hikari quis o modelo, supus que outros pudessem querer. Então eu resolvi submetê-lo aqui.

https://pedrapapeletesoura.wordpress.com/monografia/

6 de setembro de 2017

To my three new followers who speak English.

Filed under: Computadores e Internet, Livros — Tags:, , , — Yure @ 16:47

I’m very thankful for you guys following me, but I feel compelled to make three warnings about this blog, before you guys can go any further. No problem, they aren’t criticism or hating, it’s just that I feel like I need to say that.

Even though I comment in your blogs in English, this blog has a majorly Brazilian audience. As such, most of my entries are written in Portuguese. In fact, the only entry that I have and that is bilingual is my review of Rind Report (A Meta-Analytic Examination of Assumed Properties of Child Sexual Abuse Using College Samples), in Portuguese and English. That was a first. This blog is mostly focused on philosophy reviews and I’m only recently tackling the subject of attraction to minors. Currently, I’m reading and reviewing Rivas’ Positive Memories, the review will also be bilingual. So, this first warning is just to say that most of the content isn’t in English. My original Estupro de Vulnerável, however, got a partial translation at Brongersma.

The second warning is that I noticed that at least two of the three new followers are atheist. I’m not going to preach to you or try to convert you and I have atheist (and anti-theist) friends online, whom I have a decent relationship with. Entries about religion are very rare here, but I make them once in a blue moon. So, hopefully, you guys won’t be offended by it. And don’t worry; I’m pretty liberal, even sexually, so I won’t make any entry bashing anyone for whatever reason. In fact, I’m pretty lost about my beliefs, not attending to any church and never having such interest ever since the beginning.

The third and last warning is that I noticed that your blogs have comments set for approval only. It’s understandable, given the sensitive nature of the themes discussed. But I don’t do the same. My comments are unmoderated. Ever since I published a small study, when I was only sixteen, about how masturbation is not sinful, I receive hate non-stop. It’s been eight years since and that entry is my most accessed one. And now I’m super interested in reading about attraction to minors. I’m digging Ipce to bleeding and am up to write reviews on the stuff they have on Host and Books Reborn, both in Portuguese and English, so you may think that it’s insane. It’s probably insane. But I need people to critique. I can’t improve my own views on any subject without hearing the opposite view. Sure, a lot are not willing to “debate”, but just to bash, but I try to be tactful to those as well and encourage them to expose why they think like that, so I can hone my own argumentation and maybe respond to them. So, if you see someone trying to feast on my flesh, that’s a normal day for me. The only moderation condition is links. If a comment has at least one link to another page, I must check it myself to ensure it’s safe for others.

If you are interested in what I have written about the Rind Report, there’s a link to it in my Índice page. The review of Positive Memories may take a while to complete, because I just began. The next on the queue, after Memories is Carroll’s Radical Case. And that’s all. Hopefully, I didn’t confuse anyone.

Anotações sobre o nascimento da tragédia.

Filed under: Livros, Música, Passatempos — Tags:, , , — Yure @ 16:15
  1. A tragédia nasce do espírito da música, diz o autor.

  2. Por que os gregos tinham necessidade do gênero trágico, eles que eram tão felizes?

  3. Pessimismo não é sinal seguro de declínio.

  4. Foi Sócrates quem matou a tragédia grega. A razão descreditou a tragédia.

  5. A racionalidade pode ser sinal mais seguro de declínio do que o pessimismo.

  6. A ciência é questionável. Infelizmente, ela pode ser questionada erroneamente também.

  7. A ciência não pode pensar a si mesma. Esse é o trabalho pra arte ou pra filosofia. Nietzsche prefere a arte.

  8. A tarefa do livro é ver a ciência sob a ótica do artista.

  9. É possível ser tão lúcido a ponto de ficar louco? Sim, é possível.

  10. O cristianismo, pelo ódio ao mundo, leva o cristão a fechar os olhos aos prazeres desta vida em prol de vagas promessas, diz o autor. Importante lembrar que se trata do cristianismo mais tradicional. O judaísmo não tem, por exemplo, um “céu” pra onde as almas vão. Para os judeus, só há um mundo onde humanos podem viver: este. É o mesmo com as testemunhas de Jeová. Essa crítica de Nietzsche só se sustenta no cristianismo que afirma a existência de dois mundos.

  11. Para o cristão, esta vida é sem sentido. Nietzsche vê nisso um sintoma de grave doença.

  12. A moral, diz Nietzsche, é o começo do fim.

  13. Uma filosofia que afirma o valor deste mundo em detrimento do outro mundo cristão é uma filosofia anticristã. Só que hoje, com o movimento cristão alternativo ganhando força, existe um cristianismo que afirma só um mundo. Então, Nietzsche já não é mais tão anticristão como costumava ser no seu século.

  14. O espírito trágico, diz Schopenhauer, não vê neste mundo nenhuma razão de apego. Assim, ele conduz o indivíduo à resignação. Nietzsche discorda. Pra Nietzsche, o espírito trágico não traz nenhuma resignação.

  15. Pra alguns, é melhor que nada seja verdade do que o inimigo ter razão de alguma coisa. Esse pessoal frequentemente se dirige e seduz os jovens.

  16. Não adianta ouvir de ouvidos tampados.

  17. O consolo do cristão é a vida futura. O consolo do ateu é o riso mundano, diz o autor. No entanto, o cristão pode se consolar de ambas as formas, já que essa vida futura pode estar bem longe. Ou não (Mateus 24:36).

  18. A arte plástica e a arte musical nascem desse confronto entre o dionisíaco e o apolíneo. O impulso dionisíaco produz a música e, no seu combate com o apolíneo, é estimulado a produzir mais música. O impulso apolíneo produz artes plásticas, como a escultura, da mesma forma que Dionísio produz música. Mas a tragédia ocorre quando os dois estão juntos, lado a lado, o que não necessariamente quer dizer que eles estão em concórdia.

  19. Apolo e Dionísio são relacionados aos dois estados de inspiração do artista: Apolo é o sonho, Dionísio é a embriaguez. Isso porque Dionísio é também o deus grego do porre.

  20. Dizem os antigos que os deuses apareciam em sonhos, nos dando uma ideia de como eles eram em aparência. Aí o pessoal esculpia eles. E é quando estamos bêbados que mais dançamos. Festa sem álcool não existe.

  21. Para alguns poetas, a poesia é a arte de interpretar sonhos.

  22. Não é possível praticar artes plásticas sem imaginar a cena a ser representada antes de começar, diz o autor. Isso não é verdade; eu sei, por experiência própria, quando desenho, que a cena pode ser imaginada conforme a representação progride. Não há necessidade de ter uma cena completa em mente antes de começar. É como desenhar por associação livre, um jogo de perguntas e respostas entre você e o papel.

  23. A sensação de que o mundo físico é falso é sinal de aptidão para a filosofia. Porque a filosofia diz que as coisas não são como parecem.

  24. Tem sonhos mais reais que a realidade. Se você não acordasse, nunca iria saber.

  25. Para desespero de Descartes, sim, existem casos em que um sonho continua o outro. Como saber se estou acordado agora, então? Porque, pra Descartes, a única diferença entre sonho e vigília é que um sonho não continua o outro, mas um dia no mundo real continua o dia anterior. Se um sonho pode continuar o sonho da noite anterior, como é que eu vou poder diferenciar com segurança?

  26. Viver sóbrio, mesmo que torne a vida mais longa, torna a vida mais chata. A pessoa que não se permite um excesso, que é excessivamente controlada e comedida (tipo eu), tem uma longa vida chata, em comparação com a curta vida louca do bêbado festeiro, que ao menos o faz feliz.

  27. Tomar um porre de vez em quando não necessariamente é ruim.

  28. O porre é a concretização da instrumentalidade humana.

  29. Nem todas as festas são dionisíacas. Nem todo o sátiro é Dionísio. Existem festas em que a pessoa se embebeda e produz arte. Mas existem festas em que a pessoa se embebeda e vira um animal.

  30. Tem gente que preferia não ter nascido.

  31. O sofrimento é necessário à arte, porque nos permite imaginar como as coisas poderiam ser diferentes. Assim, a arte que consola vem da realidade opressiva.

  32. Às vezes é preciso estar bêbado pra dizer a verdade.

  33. A música representa, à sua maneira, os mesmos objetos que a arte plástica, mas sem mostrá-los. É como quando você nomina um tema: “Ambiente Aquático”, “Louco Dançarino”, “Exodia”, são todas músicas sem letra, mas que representam alguma coisa por similitude, isto é, sem mostrar o objeto a que se reportam. Existem exceções, como músicas com letra e músicas cujo nome tão somente se refere às técnicas usadas (“Prelúdio e Fuga em A-Menor”, pra dizer que a música usou a técnica de prelúdio, a técnica de fuga e é tocada em a-menor).

  34. A poesia imita a música. Mas palavras não podem imitar o simbolismo universal da música, que se dirige ao coração, em um nível mais penetrante que o da palavra.

  35. Ninguém sabe exatamente como a tragédia grega começou, mas porque ninguém se importou em sequer fazer a pergunta com seriedade.

  36. Para que a arte funcione, precisa ser reconhecida como arte e não como realidade. É o que Kant diz do sublime, de certa forma, quando afirma que o sublime só pode ser apreciado sem perigo real.

  37. Não existe plateia sem show.

  38. A comédia é a “descarga artística da náusea do absurdo”. É tão doido que chega a ser engraçado. E porque é engraçado que é tolerável.

  39. Para Nietzsche, o sátiro é superior ao ser humano, por viver a realidade inteira com toda a sua intensidade. A civilidade impede o ser humano de fazer o mesmo.

  40. O poeta quer retratar a realidade, mas como, se ele não a viver?

  41. Na tragédia, Dionísio é representado pelo coro, enquanto que Apolo é representado pela cena. Som e imagem se juntam, embora não se misturem, num espetáculo com todos os elementos de um e de outro.

  42. Uma pessoa sábia ainda pode errar e se tornar miserável. Paralelo com Salomão.

  43. Alguém escreveu: “um sábio mago só pode nascer de um incesto.” Isso porque magos não são seres naturais, mas que resistem à natureza, ao passo que o parecer da época era de que incesto é algo antinatural.

  44. A sabedoria humana foi um acidente. Para o autor, ela não é natural. Pra mim, se ela é acidental, é um feliz acidente.

  45. O princípio do mal é a individuação. Não poderíamos fazer mal um ao outro se fôssemos um só.

  46. A música atinge todo o seu potencial na tragédia. Caso você ainda não tenha percebido, “tragédia”, aqui, é o gênero de teatro.

  47. Para Nietzsche, as religiões começam a morrer com a ortodoxia. Quando você faz um cânon oficial, descartando tudo o mais como mito, você impede a depuração e revitalização da religião. Então, como o cristianismo subsiste? Porque, verdade seja dita, não existe ortodoxia no crisitianismo… Existe uma Bíblia Sagrada, é verdade, mas não há interpretação oficial fora da Igreja Católica. Por exemplo, o Protestantismo encoraja cada cristão a ter sua interpretação da Bíblia. Como é possível uma ortodoxia assim? Nietzsche, contudo, fala de cânon histórico, mas o fenômeno cristão mostra que é possível que uma religião subsista com cânon histórico, desde que não haja cânon doutrinário. Se houvesse uma só interpreação da Bíblia, o cristianismo seria destruído quando essa interpreação fosse descreditada, mas o que se observa é que, quando uma interpretação cai, duas aparecem no lugar.

  48. A tragédia grega morreu de suicídio. Trágico.

  49. O suicídio da tragédia ocorreu quando Eurípides começou a escrever tragédias em que o destino poderia ter sido evitado. Isso fez com que a população, que antes encarava o destino com indiferença (“qualquer coisa pode acontecer a qualquer momento, então é inútil me preocupar”), passou viver em estado de alerta (“qualquer coisa pode acontecer a qualquer momento, mas eu posso evitar, então devo me preocupar o tempo todo”). A tragédia, que antes promovia a aceitação da vida, passou a promover a sua negação. Não é a vida como é que importa, mas como ela deveria ser.

  50. A tragédia foi sucedida por outro gênero que melhor atendia às pessoas que agora pensavam dessa forma: a nova comédia.

  51. O valor formativo do trabalho de Eurípides o tornava requisitado. Não se ia mais ao teatro pra sofrer com os personagens, mas pra aprender.

  52. Antes, era possível encarar a miséria humana com indiferença, mas agora ela era temida.

  53. A única crítica que o arrogante escuta é a dele próprio.

  54. Derrotar um gênero artístico requer a prática desse gênero.

  55. Eurípedes arruinou o gênero trágico por causa de Sócrates! Parece que foram contemporâneos. Como Eurípedes não gostava da atual forma da tragédia grega, ele começou a conversar com Sócrates, que também não assitia as tragédias. Foi pela influência socrática que Eurípedes concebeu sua interpretação da tragédia, a qual ele levou a efeito.

  56. Quando Eurípedes percebeu que estava destruindo o gênero trágico, ele tentou fazer uma peça nos moldes da tragédia tradicional, mas já era tarde demais. Destruir e depois pedir desculpas não conserta o que foi destruído. Além do mais, considerando que Eurípedes não entendia a tragédia tradicional e passou sua vida discordando dos mestres, não duvido que sua retratação tenha sido uma porcaria de peça.

  57. Eurípedes removeu o elemento dionisíaco das suas tragédias, ao passo que nunca conseguiu chegar totalmente ao apolíneo. Havia um vazio em suas peças que precisava ser preenchido. Ele preencheu com ajuda de Sócrates. Com filosofia.

  58. A tragédia euripidiana conta o final da peça já no prólogo.

  59. Uma peça que estimula a pensar é uma peça que desencoraja a sentir. Tudo bem você refletir depois sobre a peça, mas é contraprodutivo estimular essa reflexão durante a peça. Durante a peça, você deveria assistir.

  60. Se Sócrates não era artista, como é que Eurípides deixava Sócrates ajudar?

  61. A poesia é a verdade para idiotas. Porque algumas pessoas só entendem a verdade através da arte, não pelo discurso científico.

  62. Platão ia ser poeta, se não tivesse se encontrado com Sócrates e virado filósofo.

  63. O romance é uma fábula intensa.

  64. A influência socrática sobre Eurípedes deu à luz “tragédias” que enfatizavam a ligação entre felicidade e virtude. Só que essa é uma ligação que não é necessária: muitos bons sofrem. A tragédia anterior, que mostrava o sofrimento como ato do destino, algo que poderia sobrevir a qualquer um, não é mais realista, ao menos nesse ponto?

  65. A tragédia encontra seu elemento dionisíaco (musical) no coro. Remover o coro da tragédia é remover Dionísio. Sem Dionísio, não há mais tragédia, uma vez que a tragédia é Apolo e Dionísio.

  66. Sócrates não começou a batalha contra Dionísio, mas apenas ajudou a terminá-la, transformando, por meio de Eurípides, a expulsão de Dionísio em uma moda a ser seguida.

  67. Os gregos eram tão originais que alguns artistas preferem não estudá-los, pra não verem que algumas de suas ideias, aparentemente tão originais, já foram tentadas e desenvolvidas antes. É por isso que um dos meus amigos não lê TV Tropes.

  68. Alguém contente consigo próprio não pode ser derrotado por simples inveja ou mentira. Por isso as pessoas temem ou se envergonham perto dele.

  69. A busca pela verdade dá sentido às pessoas. Querem procurar a verdade, mas não necessariamente encontrá-la. Porque, se encontrarem, o que farão da vida depois disso? Já pensou como seria nossa vida se não houvesse mais nada pra aprender? Se soubéssemos tudo? Talvez ela até fosse melhor, mas nem todos a levariam numa boa, porque não iriam saber o que fazer com a vida. A busca pela verdade inalcançável, esquecendo que é inalcançável, é uma autoajuda, um meio de dar significado a uma vida que, de outra forma, não teria sentido.

  70. Uma luta intelectual não pode ser somente assistida. Quem assite, tem que lutar também.

  71. A filosofia e a ciência não podem se sustentar sozinhas. O ser humano precisa da arte. E o grego que havia começado a curtir a tragédia de Eurípedes percebeu também, em algum tempo, que o conhecimento humano tem limites. A frustração de se deparar com esses limites criou uma nova demanda pela tragédia, mas como voltar a ela agora, uma vez que o grego havia aprendido a detestar Dionísio?

  72. O comentário mais fiel de uma cena é feito pela trilha sonora que toca junto com ela.

  73. Se a música combinar com a cena, o entendimento da plateia é melhorado.

  74. É por isso que se canta, em vez de simplesmente declamar poesia.

  75. A cientifização da arte faz com que encaremos gênios que não pactuam com essa cientifização como incompreensíveis. E no entanto são os melhores.

  76. Uma classe de escravos que percebe que está sendo tratada injustamente e passa a desejar vingança é algo perigoso ao estabelecido. Quando um escravo começa a querer se vingar e a vingar até as gerações futuras, não há religião que o pare (“se Deus existe e é bom, deve ser contra a opressão!”).

  77. Tem muito pastor ateu.

  78. Não é possível saber tudo.

  79. Causalidade, tempo e espaço são coisa da nossa cabeça.

  80. Uma sociedade científica deve deixar de existir quando começa a ser ilógica. Uma cultura científica ilógica está caduca.

  81. Para Nietzsche, a ópera não é uma criação de artistas, mas de leigos.

  82. O problema da ópera (e de muitas músicas por aí) é priorizar a letra sobre a melodia, a harmonia e o pulso.

  83. Nem todas as pessoas sensíveis são artistas. Sensibilidade não é o mesmo que aptidão artística.

  84. Não existe estado sem indivíduos.

  85. A educação e as notícias predispõem uma pessoa a julgar um trabalho de arte de determinada forma.

  86. Um crítico de arte pode julgar uma obra com critérios que não têm nada a ver com arte.

  87. Um pouco de dissonância ajuda a música.

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