Analecto

30 de outubro de 2017

Annotations about “A Cidade do Sol”.

Filed under: Livros, Notícias e política — Tags:, — Yure @ 13:40

A Cidade do Sol was written by Tommaso Campanella. Below are some annotations I made about his work. An annotation reflects what the author thinks about the subject and may or may not reflect what I think about the same subject. Any questions about my personal opinion can be asked in the comments.
1. Astrology doesn’t work with people who think.
2. Divine presence doesn’t nullify free will, so much that we can say any blasphemy whenever we want to.
3. The number’s power resides on what it represents, not in the abstract number.
4. Tomás seem to confirm that astrology only foresees irrational behavior, not rational, meaning that I can resist to the influence of celestial bodies.
5. To defend astrology, Campanella claims that it’s not a necessary science, that is, that astrology can’t always predict something correctly, but is rather a source of advice.
6. Campanella admits that Tomás already thought like that.
7. God made an universal causality (physics) which represents his will, in a way that he doesn’t need to personally interfere in anything.
8. The amount of knowledge produced in this century is bigger than the amount produced in the previous thousand years.
9. According to Campanella, the Christian religion must dominate the entire universe.
10. Campanella says that Jesus was a philosopher.
11. The universe isn’t ruled by randomness.
12. Campanella says that the transmission of original sin is a transmission of guilt, in the sense that we are paying for what Adam and Eve did, but that doesn’t mean that we all sinned like them, literally.
13. According to the Campanella, the Trinity is a single God, with Father, Son and Holy Spirit being like “organs” of said God.
14. A person who knows what is good and can act accordingly can not do anything evil, implying that one is only evil due to either ignorance or impotence.
15. Evil is absence of good.
16. Campanella says that the world is a huge animal.
17. Only God can be worshiped.
18. The Earth gets closer to the Sun at every passing year.
19. Every prayer must end in “according to God’s wishes”.
20. Campanella proposes a religion with offerings and sin expiation, not unlike Judaism.
21. Laws must be simple, short, clear and shown in public.
22. If someone receives death penalty, says Campanella, the mob should have the right to kill them.
23. Campanella says that food must be eaten at the season they can be naturally harvested.
24. Campanella also says that no one should consume wine before age 19, except in cases of medical excuse.
25. If we stopped consuming animal-derived food, why should not we also stop consuming vegetables or fruit, as both animals and plants are equally alive?
26. Campanella says that God made the causes of a phenomenon available for us so that we could make use of those causes.
27. You should only fight back, not start a fight.
28. For Campanella, fertilizing the ground is like applying make-up and should be avoided.
29. Campanella says that the tract with foreigners should be done at the harbors, as foreigners shouldn’t be allowed in the city to avoid corruption of customs.
30. Whatever is not needed should be sold or exchanged.
31. Money should only be used in the tract with capitalistic societies, says Campanella, and should have no role within the community.
32. If you can win a war without annihilating the enemy, do so.
33. Campanella says that those who show fear in war must be thrown in a cove with lions, while having just a stick to defend themselves.
34. Campanella also defends death penalty for the first person to flee from the war, unless everyone in the army disagrees with the decision to kill him.
35. After the battle, the wives and the children take care of the wounded husbands and fathers.
36. He also says that children should watch the war while mounted on horses.
37. The opponent must be given a chance to surrender before the war actually starts.
38. While this is actually anti-Christian, Campanella says that warriors should pray for victory in the war.
39. A good way to learn about war strategy is judging the strategies used in history.
40. Campanella defends starting a war with a nation that poses a threat to all other nations, meaning that he would probably approve an attack on North Korea if he was alive today.
41. If you wonder why some people mix religion and war, that’s because religion soothes the fear of death, which hinders progress in war.
42. Women, says Campanella, should also participate in war.
43. Campanella says that only elders are excused from work, meaning that there should be jobs for disabled people.
44. Campanella says that women aren’t a particular possession, but part of public wealth, meaning that there’s no marriage, which doesn’t mean freedom to rape.
45. Poverty, as well as excess of wealth, is cause of moral decadence.
46. If everyone worked, that is, if no one was unemployed, then no one would need to work more than four hours a day, filling free time with studies or sports.
47. If everyone could produce their own food, for example, there would be no need of slavery, argues Campanella, but we know, nowadays, that this is not true: many people keep slaves despite having territory and means to produce grains, vegetables and means to raise animals for food.
48. All physiological acts are honored, so. no need to feel shame for going to the bathroom, says Campanella.
49. Campanella says that a woman who exercises doesn’t need make-up to look beautiful and be desired.
50. Campanella says that women who hide their true look by using makeup, long dresses or high heels must receive death penalty.
51. State, he says, should interfere in sexual activity.
52. The interference of the state in sexual activity is to ensure that the next generation will be better than the previous.
53. The kid is named by the state according to his characteristics and the kid earns a second name that reflects his life achievements.
54. As a defendant of astrology, Campanella says that the state should give sincere effort into ensuring that all children are born under the same astrological configuration, in order to be more fraternal and empathetic to each other.
55. A woman who has given birth can only rest for fifteen days.
56. A man, says Campanella, can only have intercourse with a woman with characteristics that are the opposite of his own (fat man with slim woman, emotive man with stoic woman, for example) to increase the chance of balanced children, but we know that it makes no sense today.
57. People who didn’t expiate their sins can’t have intercourse, says Campanella, and the man must retain his seed for at least three days before the act.
58. The state decides who can have intercourse and with which people, as well as when the intercourse will take place.
59. Anal sex, says Campanella, should be crime.
60. Age of consent (for intercourse only) should be 21 for men and 19 for women, but there should be none for people who can’t reproduce.
61. Food must be prepared under the guidance of medics.
62. Real knowledge comes from the relationship between sciences, not from dominating a single one.
63. Government must last forever, unless the people find someone who is better suited for the task.
64. The king must be an intellectual.
65. All jobs are worth being honored, says Campenella, and one shouldn’t treat another person with disdain because of the function they exercise.
66. Those who have the best performance in school become ministers.
67. Physical education should be taught in all levels of school.
68. From age 3 to age 7, says Campanella, physical education should be the only content to be taught.
69. The school curriculum is the same for everyone; no such thing as education “for the rich”.
70. Criminal penalties work by depriving a person from the use of some public services, rather than arresting her. 71. A person who is old enough can be called “father” or “mother” by an youngster, who can be called “son” by anyone who is old enough (Campanella is against nuclear family).
72. Private property gives room for selfishness, which ruins character, meaning that Campanella advocates a form of “theocratic communism”.
73. There should be no classrooms; kids should learn outdoors, guided by the teacher, even while walking together.
74. Campanella says that there should be a book with all knowledge in the world in it, which is impossible today.
75. If a society has too many laws, no one would be able to remember them all, let alone follow them dutifully.
76. Evil, in a republic, comes from poverty or excess of wealth, says Campanella.
77. Every vice is a lack or excess.
78. Private property is against nature.
79. Private property began because someone noticed that he could restrict access to public lands or nature, claiming it “his” territory, meaning that private property has roots in stealing things from the weak or ignorant.
80. Paying taxes is needed to grant minimal survival conditions for the poor.
81. The state should distribute the jobs according to affinity; each person works at what she does best.
82. There are no natural gender roles.
83. Sinning against nature means doing something that harms one’s own survival or the survival of the species.
84. No sense in worrying about fornication if your partner is sterile.
85. “Becoming a single flesh” means having a child.

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