29 de junho de 2018

Erasmo’s “Praise of Madness”.

Filed under: Livros, Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 14:15

The Praise of Madness was written by Erasmus of Rotterdam. Below, some paraphrases of his text.

  1. Intellectuals have fun too!
  2. The book is a parody of the ridiculous behaviors of mankind.
  3. Madness can kill sorrow.
  4. “Sophist” was not necessarily a pejorative term.
  5. Self-praise can be as sincere or even more sincere than the praise that others direct to you.
  6. Spontaneous compliments are more sincere than those that are prepared in advance.
  7. To define is to limit an idea in words, so that it can be worked out by reasoning.
  8. It is not possible to limit madness because it extends to all mankind.
  9. Definitions are abstractions, they do not correspond 100% to the things they define and often do not describe them well.
  10. The fool admires everything that is foreign, as if things that come from another country were necessarely better.
  11. Stupid people love madness.
  12. Madness is accompanied by selfishness, by lazyness, by forgetfulness, by voluptuousness, by delight, by recklessness, by laughter, by sleep and by adulation.
  13. Madness gives life indiscriminately, for many children are conceived in their parents’ stupidity.
  14. Erasmus’s criticism of the Stoics: there is no person in the world who has not committed foolishness or who does not give in to passion.
  15. If everyone were philosophers, perhaps no one had children: if you “reason dutifully”, as philosophers are supposed to do all the time, what’s the point of having children today?
  16. Another criticism against the Stoics: they condemn pleasure, but do not resist to it.
  17. If it were not for voluptuousness, life would be very sad.
  18. Children are unlimited, unpredictable and happy.
  19. Old people resemble children in many ways.
  20. The child who speaks and acts like an adult is less attractive.
  21. The old man is happier than the child, because he is more moderate.
  22. The old man and the child are so alike that they attract each other.
  23. The defects of small children reappear in old age.
  24. Life without wisdom, that is, that of a cheerful fool, is a crazy life.
  25. Too much study and philosophy makes you age faster.
  26. Wisdom angers the foolish.
  27. Madness keeps Cupid chubby.
  28. Madness makes a person derive pleasure from things that would otherwise be unpalatable, which explains why all women are beautiful in the eyes of a drunk man.
  29. Feminine aesthetics have the purpose of exercising control.
  30. Dinner with friends degenerates if the friends are not having fun.
  31. Boredom is born with us.
  32. Friendship can be crazy, too.
  33. It is not possible to be friends with a perfect person.
  34. The helpers of madness (adulation, voluptuousness and others presented above) support marriage.
  35. Marriages would be less frequent if the lovers investigated the past of each other.
  36. Peaceful cucks have long-lasting marriages.
  37. It is not possible to love your neighbor without loving yourself first.
  38. Be yourself.
  39. Self-love makes us happy with what we are, what we do and what we have.
  40. War is crazy, it has nothing to do with philosophy.
  41. Only people who are desperate or in debt fight in a war when reason says “don’t go”.
  42. The philosopher, in his pursuit for great truths, neglects immediate and practical life.
  43. The philosopher is lame in public affairs.
  44. Adulation breathes life into the popular beast.
  45. No city has adopted the laws envisioned by Plato or Aristotle.
  46. The effort expended in the study often does not pay off.
  47. The foolish obtains, by lack of shame and fear, results as good as the wise.
  48. Life is a comedy: everyone is an actor.
  49. In the midst of fools, the sage is regarded as the craziest.
  50. The difference between the wise and the fool is in the guides: the fool is guided by passion and the wise is guided by reasoning.
  51. The perfect Stoic has never existed and is an unattainable goal for humans.
  52. The Stoic would have no friends if he could really purge himself of any feeling or emotion.
  53. Life can be so bad, cruel and inhuman that wise men may choose to die, even if they can choose between dying and living forever.
  54. Words only hurt those who are sensitive to them.
  55. The normal state of the human being is ignorance.
  56. The highest sciences are those that bring less fame and wealth.
  57. The sciences that bring more profit are those that distance themselves from good common sense.
  58. The foolish is happy with the human condition, but the wise ones want to go beyond it and, in their attempt, become frustrated.
  59. The wise person has more concerns.
  60. The truth is in the wine and in the children .
  61. The scholar is more prone to hypocrisy.
  62. The establishment is an enemy of philosophy, because philosophy speaks openly against a corrupt and egocentric government.
  63. But when someone who is thought to be crazy, yet friendly, tells a harsh truth, she is received with laughter as a joke, and then, perhaps, taken seriously.
  64. The professional sage has no life.
  65. There are two types of madness: positive madness is constructive and negative madness is destructive.
  66. Having a mental disorder does not necessarily prevent you from being a good person.
  67. Likewise, healing a mental disorder can bring even greater ills to the person, especially if the disorder is a condition for individual fulfillment.
  68. Many important personalities in our history were likely disordered, but their disturbances did not prevent them from achieving their great achievements and perhaps these madmen would not have done what they did if they were normal.
  69. To each mad man their madness.
  70. Everyone is a cuck nowadays.
  71. Alchemists look for things that do not exist, but alchemists are able to deceive themselves very convincingly, so that they have no doubts about the lies that tell themselves.
  72. There is also the gamble madness, the storytelling madness, and the superstition madness.
  73. Another manifestation of superstitious madness is the sale of indulgences, as if it were possible to buy forgiveness of sins with money.
  74. The Book of Psalms is no book of spells and automatically reciting verses of it in the wind makes nothing supernatural happen, but the superstitious ones attribute to each psalm a power: bring health, bring money, marital bliss, dream fulfillment, even when text of the psalm does not allude to such things.
  75. To attribute more power to Mary than to Jesus is foolish.
  76. Offering long and expensive treatments instead of fast and cheap, but equally effective, cures is an old practice.
  77. Taking advantage of religious madness, the religious leaders try to propagate false beliefs .
  78. By preaching a different, but softer law, the religious leader maintains control over the believer, even if it means to cause his doom.
  79. Why bother with the details of your own funeral, if you will not even watch it?
  80. Ideas with more followers are the ones that are farther away from common sense.
  81. You can’t raise above madness through philosophy.
  82. The perfect philosopher is not heard by anyone, because he has completely distanced himself from ordinary madness.
  83. Adulation is not opposed to good faith.
  84. Adulation can be used constructively .
  85. It is not possible to sustain human happiness in the facts, because the facts, things as they really are, are hidden from us.
  86. Arguments and certainties are tedious.
  87. Pleasure does not depend only on things that give pleasure, depending also on the willingness to receive them.
  88. Madness is free, but wisdom costs time and effort to attain, that’s why most people are idiots.
  89. The only pagan god that could be worshiped with any property is madness, who is always present and does not require sacrifice or worship, while the other pagan gods require too much to do nothing.
  90. It is better to emulate your divinity than offering sacrifice to it.
  91. Trade, whether of objects or favors, is the most filthy human act.
  92. Human life is a whirlwind of unlawful acts .
  93. There is also the madness of the intellectuals, which leads to quarrels over matters of little importance, and the madness of the teacher, who thinks he is hot for exhausting himself among dumb and irritating children.
  94. The harder arts get more attention, even when they are the most useless.
  95. The melancholy ones torture themselves in their own work, no longer being able to derive pleasure from it, becoming slaves to praise and effort.
  96. The stupid books are the ones that sell the most, because most, who are stupid, consume them.
  97. Also crazy is the happiness of the writer who practiced plagiarism.
  98. Legislation is not as noble a job as the vulgar think.
  99. Political and legal debate is a festival of gratuitous syllogisms.
  100. Mad philosophers never agree with each other, but everyone thinks they are approaching the truth.
  101. The highest questions of theology are precisely those whose answers would not make a difference in the life of the believer.
  102. Perhaps there is no answer to many theological questions, supposing they are really questions in the first place.
  103. The apostles did not discuss theological issues and did not make a science out of God.
  104. The purpose of theological, strongly logical and metaphysical arguments is to convert those who disagree with a certain religion.
  105. Medieval theologians studied theology more than the Holy Bible itself.
  106. How can theologians describe Hell with a frightening amount of detail without ever having been there?
  107. Medieval theologians used to say that the divinity of the Holy Scriptures was above grammar, which in practice is a license to speak and write “wrongly” in order to conceive even more complex arguments, based on ambiguous readings.
  108. Some theologians seek the reverence that should be given to God.
  109. The monastic orders fight for futile reasons, the monks are proud of doing nothing.
  110. It is enough to be called a Christian.
  111. Drunken friars leak confessions.
  112. It seems that there was the practice of leaking confessions during Masses, to the public humiliation of those who attracted the hatred of the friar or the priest.
  113. It was the common practice of rhetorical preachers to begin the discourse with something that had nothing to do with the subject being discussed.
  114. The madness of kings and bishops comes from the weight of their responsibilities: you either go mad observing all the rules or you opportunely evade from rules that are not convenient.
  115. Human war has nothing to do with Jesus.
  116. Human life is governed more by fortune (chance) than by justice.
  117. The true philosopher is the most hated being that exists, for not sharing the love for money, common to all other people.
  118. When you do not have something and that something is necessary, you should look for an equivalent.
  119. Madness has nothing to do with Apollo and has much to do with Bacchus .
  120. Madness is a friend of theology.
  121. The more you are sensible, the more you are sad.
  122. Theology owes much to Aristotle .
  123. The Christian is crazy for the world.

21 de junho de 2018

About the removal of a TEDx Talk about pedophilia.

So, this week a TEDx talk about pedophilia appeared on YouTube. The name was something like “Why our perception of pedophilia should change.” Dude, what happened within four days after the talk was posted has both positive and negative consequences. There is a good side to what happened.

First, let’s talk about the video. The video showed a woman giving a lecture on how the social stigma related to pedophilia prevents sincere pedophiles from seeking treatment. There are several reasons for this: fear of mandatory reporting, fear of repercussion within the family, fear of losing a job, fear of losing friends, fear of violence, fear in general. Because of this highly justified fear, a lot of pedophiles remain in the closet, dealing with their problems alone, including sexual abstinence. They can not seek professional support, either for legal or social reasons. So, unless people understand that pedophiles are human beings and that many of them want help, treatment for pedophiles who want treatment can not be effectively applied. It is true, pedophilia has no cure, but there are several problems related to it, a great majority of social nature, that transform a harmless attraction, that can be satisfied by mere fantasies, into a huge problem. The treatment would not be aimed at curing the pedophile, because that is impossible, but to help him to remain law-abiding, while improving the quality of his life. This will never happen if society’s perception of pedophilia does not change. Therefore, the stigma of pedophilia, by amplifying the problems that the pedophile has to deal with, interfering with his mental balance, while preventing him from seeking help, fertilizes the fields of adult/child sex.

I bet that most people who disliked the video only paid attention to the title. Soon, there were angry cries that the TEDx channel was normalizing pedophilia and, consequently, working for its legalization. Firstly, pedophilia is not a crime. The opinion of the scientific community is that pedophilia, when it causes mental maladjustment or when it finds illegal expression, is a psychiatric disorder. Pedophilia is different from adult/child sex, as the first is a feeling and the second is an act. Because TEDx is a scientific community, it has nothing to do with laws. Their job is to provide a space for people to speak their minds. The people who decide about the laws are the politicized population, while science, if it is really science, can not act with political intention. So the TEDx channel has never intended to legalize anything. Secondly, this shows that a lot of people who raise their voices against pedophilia do not care about children’s safety! The reaction to the video was so bad that the channel took the video offline in the same week it was posted and another talk on the same channel, on the same subject, that is, on the treatment of pedophiles’ problems so that they do not break the law, already is under attack. Do you understand what I’m saying? These people are braindead. It is clear that the antipedophile movement has nothing to do with child welfare, otherwise they would not attack therapeutic ideas!

The good side of this is that the anti-pedophile movement will lose credit among smart people. These people will see the situation, nod their heads, and say “a bunch of guys who have not seen the video lobbied to censor therapeutic content of public relevance in an academic channel.” This is an attack on freedom of research and expression, a great display of ignorance that, on top of all this madness, can be harmful to children. And I’m not just talking about sexually active children or molested children, I’m talking about people who discover, as a child, that they are pedophiles themselves. Yes, there are pedophile teens who hide the feeling but absorb that stigma that comes from all sides, which worsens their self-control, their self-esteem and, of course, serves as a background for the suicide of young people. So the good thing is that this disastrous reaction works against anti-pedophiles. They are not in this because they want the safety of their children or the safety of future generation. Then why?

Simple: pedophiles are the last group we are allowed to hate. You can no longer discriminate against Jews, Muslims, homosexuals, blacks, immigrants, women, you can only discriminate pedophiles. So make no mistake: the goal of these people is not, and now this is proven enough, to protect children, but to make pedophiles’ lives hell, which goes against the ideal of protecting children. What moves those people is hatred. They want excuses to hate, because hate makes them feel good. Who’s sick now?

Sobre a remoção da TEDx Talk sobre pedofilia.

Então, nesta semana apareceu uma conversa TEDx no Youtube sobre pedofilia. O nome traduzido era algo como “Por que nossa percepção sobre a pedofilia deve mudar”. Cara, o que aconteceu em quatro dias tem consequências tanto positivas quanto negativas. Existe um lado bom no que aconteceu.

Primeiramente, vamos ao vídeo. O vídeo mostrava uma mulher dando uma palestra sobre como o estigma social relacionado à pedofilia impede pedófilos sinceros de procurar tratamento. Há várias razões pra isso: medo de denúncia obrigatória, medo da repercussão dentro da família, medo de perder o trabalho, medo de perder os amigos, medo de violência, medo. Então, por causa desse medo, altamente justificado, um monte de pedófilos continua no armário, lidando sozinho com seus problemas, inclusive com a abstinência sexual. Eles não têm como procurar apoio profissional, tanto por razões legais quanto por razões sociais. Não tem condições. Então, a menos que as pessoas entendam que pedófilos são seres humanos e que muitos deles querem ajuda, o tratamento pra pedófilos que desejam tratamento não poderá ser aplicado efetivamente. É verdade, pedofilia não tem cura, mas existem vários problemas relacionados a ela, grande maioria de ordem social, que transformam uma atração inofensiva por si, que pode ser satisfeita por meio de meras fantasias, em um problema enorme, difícil de resolver por meio das forças meramente humanas. O tratamento não seria voltado a curar o pedófilo, porque isso é impossível, mas a ajudá-lo a permanecer dentro da lei, ao mesmo tempo que melhora sua qualidade de vida. Isso nunca vai acontecer se a percepção que a sociedade tem da pedofilia não mudar. Portanto, o estigma da pedofilia, ao ampliar os problemas do pedófilo, interferindo em seu equilíbrio mental, ao mesmo tempo que o impede de procurar ajuda, fertiliza, sim, os campos do sexo com menor.

Eu aposto que a maioria das pessoas que deu dislike no vídeo não viu mais que o título. Logo surgiram gritos irados de que o canal TEDx estava normalizando a pedofilia e, consequentemente, trabalhando para sua legalização. Primeiramente, pedofilia não é crime. O parecer da comunidade científica é que pedofilia, quando causa desajuste mental ou quando encontra expressões ilegais, é distúrbio psiquiátrico. O nome do crime é estupro de vulnerável, o qual, diga-se de passagem, não precisa ser estupro pra ser tipificado como tal. Como o TEDx é uma comunidade científica, eles nada tem a ver com as leis. Seu trabalho é fornecer um espaço para que as pessoas falem o que pensam. Quem decide sobre as leis é a população politizada e a ciência, se é realmente ciência, não pode agir com intenção política. Então nunca o canal TEDx teve a intenção de legalizar nada. Em segundo lugar, isso mostra que um monte de gente que levanta a voz contra a pedofilia não está nem aí pra segurança das crianças! Cara, naquela palestra, só faltou falar em corrente. A reação ao vídeo foi tão ruim, que o canal tirou o vídeo do ar na mesma semana e outra palestra no mesmo canal, sobre o mesmo assunto, isto é, sobre o tratamento dos problemas dos pedófilos pra que eles não quebrem a lei, já está sob ataque. Tá entendo o que eu tô dizendo? Esse pessoal não raciocina. Está patente que o movimento antipedófilo não tem nada a ver com o bem-estar das crianças, do contrário eles não atacariam iniciativas terapêuticas!

O lado bom disso é que o movimento antipedófilo perderá crédito entre pessoas de bom senso. Essas pessoas verão a situação, assentirão e dirão “um bando de caras que não viram o vídeo fizeram pressão pra censurar conteúdo terapêutico de relevância pública de um canal universitário.” Isso é um ataque à liberdade de pesquisa e divulgação, um ataque à liberdade de expressão, uma grande ignorância que, ainda por cima, pode ser prejudicial às crianças. E não estou falando somente das crianças sexualmente ativas ou das crianças molestadas, estou falando de pessoas que descobrem, ainda na infância, que são pedófilas. Sim, existem adolescentes pedófilos, que escondem o sentimento, mas que absorvem esse estigma que vem de todos os lados, o que piora seu autocontrole, sua autoestima e, claro, serve de plano de fundo para o suicídio de pessoas jovens. Então, o lado bom é que essa reação desastrosa descredita o esforço dos antipedófilos. Eles não estão nessa porque querem a segurança de seus filhos ou da geração futura. Então por quê?

Simples: pedófilos são o último grupo que somos permitidos odiar. Você não pode mais discriminar judeus, muçulmanos, homossexuais, negros, imigrantes, mulheres, só resta discriminar pedófilo mesmo. Então, não se engane: o objetivo dessas pessoas não é, e agora isto está suficientemente provado, proteger crianças, mas tornar a vida dos pedófilos um inferno, o que vai contra o ideal de proteger crianças. A razão de existir dessas pessoas é o ódio. Querem desculpas pra odiar, porque odiar as faz se sentir bem. Quem é o doente agora?

Annotations on Locke’s “Two Treaties on Government.”

Filed under: Livros, Notícias e política, Organizações, Passatempos — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 12:31

Two Treaties on Government was written by John Locke. Below are some thoughts paraphrased from his text.

  1. If monarchical power is paternal in nature, why do kings dominate more than their families?
  2. If monarchy is the government that God has chosen for men, why is God not punishing democracies for existing (on the contrary, the richest nations in the world are often democratic)?
  3. Whenever common sense says, literal interpretation is better than metaphorical.
  4. If we want to prove something based on a textual source, we can not deviate from what the text says.
  5. If the power to start and end wars can only reside in the hands of the monarchs, then all the governments of the world are monarchical.
  6. It is possible to command without necessarily being king.
  7. Every inheritance implies rules to determine the heir.
  8. God would have left rules to determine the succession of Adam’s paternal power if that were important.
  9. If this were relevant and only Adam’s “legitimate” successors could govern something, while we do not know who these “legitimate” successors are, then no government is legitimate.
  10. Speculating on the succession of patriarchal power bestowed on Adam is irrelevant to currently stablished governments.
  11. Letting your firstborn succeed your throne may even be tradition, but it is an idiotic tradition if your firstborn child is stupid.
  12. What’s the point of saying that I should obey without telling who to obey?
  13. And if the father had no children, who would succeed him in a political system based on primogeniture?
  14. Political power is an agreement, not a natural right passed from father to son.
  15. It is possible to buy the birthright (Genesis 25:31), so that the firstborn does not inherit what he was supposed to be “destined” to inherit.
  16. If something is granted conditionally, it is not absolute, obviously.
  17. Moreover, if the kingdom belongs to the offspring of Adam, Jesus could not be king, for the Word already existed before Adam.
  18. If power can only be inherited by a descendant of Adam, then power can be inherited by any human.
  19. Who owns power?
  20. If power can be usurped, then patriarchal power is not inviolable, as it can be taken, even if illegitimately.
  21. There are people who are neither masters nor slaves.
  22. Father and mother are the ones who raise the kid, not necessarily the biological parents.
  23. “Injury” is an offense to one’s right.
  24. The right to inheritance comes from the paternal duty to support the children.
  25. The property of the father passes to the son with the death of the father because society thinks that it’s fair , not because “that is how it was and always will be”.
  26. It is not possible to speak about obedience without mentioning to whom it is due.
  27. If it is paternity that gives us absolute right, then the subject should not obey the monarch absolutely unless the monarch is his father.
  28. “New nothingness” is a novelty that does not change anything.
  29. Parents must agree on the child’s upbringing, and according to the fifth commandment, they have equal authority, so the boy can not turn against his father even on his mom’s command.
  30. Both parents deserve respect, not just the mother.
  31. To use biblical verses abstracted from context to facilitate their arbitrary use is to distort the divine word.
  32. It is a grave sin to kill, especially if it’s done as sacrifice to a pagan god and much more serious if the sacrificed object is your offspring (Psalm 106: 38).
  33. Acts committed by passion are extravagant.
  34. The desire to protect the child takes parents to extremes.
  35. God has given us reproductive power because he wants humanity to be perpetuated.
  36. Other cultures report Genesis’ flood.
  37. The father and the mother make the body of the son, but the life comes from God, therefore to kill someone is usurpation of the divine right.
  38. Affirmations without evidence can be denied even if you are wrong in doing so.
  39. Eve’s submission is a curse made against Eve, not an advantage conferred on Adam.
  40. If Adam were really a monarch, why did he have to work the ground for food?
  41. As Eve sinned first, she was submitted to Adam.
  42. When you have excess of wealth, not helping those in need is sin (James 2:16).
  43. God does not give us the right to dominate another to the point of making them starve if we wish, so it is not possible to use the Holy Bible to justify tyranny.
  44. It is easier to grow and multiply without monarchy.
  45. The Earth belongs to all human beings, as are all its resources, so we have an equal right to nature, so that we can not waste their resources (wasting resources means taking away from someone).
  46. Before considering whether the Bible is actually speaking in metaphors, make sure if the literal does or not make sense.
  47. Using the Bible to condemn philosophers is a tricky business: many philosophers know the Bible better than most religious people.
  48. Using the Bible as an argument against ignorant believers allows one to pass anything as truth.
  49. The human monarchy is a style of government unsuitable for the settlement of the entire earth (Genesis 1:28).
  50. No person can arrogate the Earth to themselves on the basis of natural law.
  51. The philosopher’s position that no human being has a natural right to rule another can be defended by David (Psalms 8: 6), which says that creation was put under our feet (of all mankind) .
  52. Adam and Noah had no authority over other human beings.
  53. Beautiful speech is not always correct.
  54. Possibilities are not things in fact.
  55. There is no monarch without people to rule over.
  56. To say that Adam had a right of sovereignty because he was created first is incorrect: the animals came before (Genesis 1: 25-26).
  57. Adam did not submit to Eve, but God subjected Eve to Adam on the occasion of original sin (Genesis 3:16).
  58. Do not shy away from the question you want to address.
  59. Prove as many assumptions as you can.
  60. There is little credit for the text that is based on an assumption.
  61. Abusing your people leads them to rebellion.
  62. When you do not define something clearly, you end up defining the term by its use throughout the speech.
  63. Laws made by the community are more effective than laws imposed by government.
  64. If you accuse someone of not defining the terms of the speech, you better be able to define your terms in your speech.
  65. If we are born under the authority of our parents, when we become free?
  66. One way of establishing a discourse is by attacking and destroying the current discourse.
  67. Destroying a speech can be done once and for all if its assumptions are destroyed.
  68. Freedom is not always absence of government.
  69. No one can rule anything on the bases of “inheriting Adam’s right to rule”.
  70. The love between people is an incentive to practice politics: if I love the other and this other has a problem that I can solve, why would not I solve his problem?
  71. There are communities still in a state of nature.
  72. Different people have different abilities, so we need each other to survive.
  73. For the philosopher, it is necessary to punish crimes, because we have the duty to watch over as many people as possible and a criminal can do damage to several people.
  74. Although the subjects are submissive to the government, the governments are not submitted to each other.
  75. Polemizing with Pascal , the philosopher points out that there are tribal societies that did not develop any religion.
  76. We only leave the natural state when we join a society.
  77. Wanting absolute power over another person implies declaring war against that person.
  78. Self-defense is a fair remedy from a legal point of view, because, on the verge of death, as life can not be restored by men, the person who was attacked has no time to appeal to the law.
  79. The essence of natural state is the absence of a judge.
  80. Natural freedom consists in not being subject to anyone.
  81. Civil liberty is to submit to state laws because you consented to it, because you saw benefit in it.
  82. Life is not ours, so we can not grant it to another person, through slavery.
  83. It is normal to fall into mistakes that you yourself condemn.
  84. My work force and my body are properly private.
  85. What gives rise to the right to property: the work, the agreement or both?
  86. If we needed permission to catch, for example, food from the ground, we will die in natural state.
  87. The water that flows in the river belongs to everyone, but the water I put in my jar is mine.
  88. Then private property begins when someone appropriates something that once belonged to everyone.
  89. One should not consume more than necessary.
  90. Failure to observe this principle leads to disputes over terrain.
  91. Land tenure is obtainable by contract.
  92. The rarity of something increases its value.
  93. In some parts of the world, the right that you have on your lands expires if you do not use them constructively.
  94. In the past, a person was entitled to what he could use, but now he is entitled to what he can afford, even if he never uses it.
  95. The work spent into manufacture increases the product’s price.
  96. Of all the things we use, only a small part comes from nature without going through human labor (the air we breathe, for example, but even the fruits we buy are harvested, cared for, transported to us, and then sold).
  97. Money has more effect as more people recognize its value.
  98. What made gold and silver measures of value among nations (as a sort of universal currency) were three things: durability, rarity, and difficulty to falsify.
  99. Giving to others what you do not use is better than accumulating unused things.
  100. Better that something be worn out by abuse than by disuse.
  101. The barter of things for gold ended up making gold a convenient currency, thanks to its durability.
  102. The invention of money stimulated the human being to want more than necessary.
  103. That’s because money allows you to buy the desirable possessions of others.
  104. In a community without money and without commerce, each one is left only with what’s enough for them, without generating surplus production.
  105. The existence of money allows you to sell what is not in use, that is, the surplus, in order to get money to buy something else that you want.
  106. The pursuit of money and power, after all, is a quest for security.
  107. Parents’ dominion over their children is temporary.
  108. If people could be happier without law, it would disappear.
  109. The purpose of the law is to give everyone a decent amount of freedom.
  110. The adult is one who has already acquired reason and judgment enough to govern his own life, ie, from this point of view, it is possible to be an adult before the age of eighteen.
  111. If the parents die leaving the child totally alone, this child should be cared by the state, until the tyke finds a new family or until he grows up.
  112. We are freer when we are subject to just laws.
  113. Anyone who does not reach the right level of reason will never be a free adult.
  114. The child should be treated with love, but not without justice.
  115. If the father respects the son, the son will respect the father.
  116. The mother who does not provide assistance to the child (food, education and safety) is a criminal.
  117. Parents should reward their child’s good behavior and punish their bad behavior.
  118. Reward and punishment are excessive when they result in harm to the child’s education, as both too much reward and too much punishment can spoil a child.
  119. If the father controls his son as a monarch controls his people, he jeopardizes his future independence, because the son will remain dependant on parents for a longer time.
  120. The father can give more inheritance to the favorite son.
  121. Parents are the best judges for sibling quarrels.
  122. The first society was between man and woman, then between parents and children, only then between boss and employee.
  123. If the parents divorce, the mother does not necessarily keep the children (it would be interesting if custody of children was decided in a registry office before the marriage, so that they would decide custody matters before marrying, in order to know which child stays with who in case of divorce).
  124. The slave is only treated as a second-class individual because he is not entitled to possessions.
  125. My property: my life, my freedom, my possessions.
  126. Assassins are enemies of the whole of humanity.
  127. In absolute monarchies, the monarch is often unjust: he can do everything with impunity.
  128. The rulers must be under the laws that they write and pass.
  129. Anyone who values ​​his or her life, liberty or property should participate in politics.
  130. Any group of people can set up small governments.
  131. The existence of a government does not affect the freedom of those outside it.
  132. Democracy: the majority decide for everyone.
  133. In a government in which the minority rules, dissensions occur .
  134. A democracy can agree to take decisions only when a certain number of votes beyond the majority is achieved, but should not accept suggestions from a minority of voters.
  135. If there is no record of something, it does not necessarily mean it did not happen.
  136. The development of intellectual abilities can only arise in societies that have already solved survival issues.
  137. The population chooses the ruler.
  138. All monarchies were electives at first.
  139. Government should be exercised by persuasion rather than by violence, for the purpose of government is the well-being of subjects.
  140. In ancient Israel, before the monarchy, there was no great difference between being a judge (governing) and being a war chief.
  141. The constitution of military chief often marks transition between natural state and monarchy.
  142. Governments that are not initiated by the consensus of the people are often initiated by violence.
  143. If we are all born under one government and therefore we are not free to start another, how can the rebellion be explained?
  144. You submit if you need to submit.
  145. Whoever travels is not necessarily a subject of the country where he travels to.
  146. The laws for visitors are reduced, but also are their rights.
  147. The function of the state is to secure property and the common good.
  148. When I become subject to a state, I abdicate my right to punish others.
  149. When I become subject of a state, I abdicate my right to do what I think necessary for my own good or that of others.
  150. What makes a law is the consensus of society, not the arbitrariness of the ruler, at least in a democratic regime.
  151. The State can not expropriate anything of the subjects, unless they consent, since the work of the State is also to guarantee the right of private property.
  152. If the state had the right to take away property when it wished, then, in practice, everything is owned by state and no one has private property.
  153. Any cause involving the expropriation of property is iffy.
  154. The payment of taxes is necessary, but there must be consensus on how much and which taxes to pay, which should be done in a democratic way.
  155. Laws should apply to rich, poor, famous, and anonymous.
  156. Laws should be for the public good.
  157. Laws should not sanction the collection of absurd taxes.
  158. The population must shape the legislature.
  159. If the State does not honor its duties towards the population, neither the population should honor its duties towards the State.
  160. The good of the people is the supreme state law.
  161. If declaring someone innocent won’t harm anyone, declare them innocent.
  162. If the monarch’s interest is not the public good, he is a tyrant.
  163. In this case, the ruler will want to treat his subjects as servants.
  164. If the ruler wants what is best for his people, the population will not about care whatever crime he comitted.
  165. If the judiciary is the defendant, who will judge the cause?
  166. If the monarch is a defendant, who will judge the cause?
  167. The father does not own the son.
  168. Political power, that is, collective power, for the good of all, is sanctioned by a pact between the members of a society.
  169. The father should teach the son how to use his property.
  170. The conquest of territory is not the beginning of government, but the end of an existing government.
  171. If a crime is committed by many it is still a crime.
  172. If the father can not get justice, the son may be able to get it, or maybe the daughter, or maybe the mother, so that the same appeal can be made by everyone in the family, one at a time, until it works out.
  173. In a war, the credit for victory is not just for the general.
  174. Children should not be blamed for their parents’ crimes.
  175. If I go to war against someone and win, I only have the right to what the other has lost.
  176. If you have less duties, you have less rights.
  177. God, being extremely righteous, will want to fulfill the promises he makes.
  178. The conquest is the taking of government by a foreigner, while the usurpation is the taking of government by a citizen.
  179. If there is no criterion of monarch’s choice, anyone can be.
  180. Tyrant is a corrupt politician.
  181. The king is not above the agreements he makes with his subjects.
  182. Corruption of government occurs not only in the monarchy, but also in the aristocracies, democracies and relations between citizens .
  183. If I receive inheritance from my father and my brother receives another part of the inheritance, I can not take my brother’s share.
  184. Abuse of power by police is as bad as abuse of power by politicians, and it’s not something less horrid just because the power of police has smaller reach.
  185. Unless it is for the good of all, the police should not have the right to invade my house.
  186. If someone tries to assassinate me, I do not have time to call the authorities, so resisting is self-defense, thus legit.
  187. The politician who attracts the suspicion of the people is already dead.
  188. There is a difference between the dissolution of government (deposing rulers) and dissolution of society (returning to the natural state).
  189. It is possible for society to dissolve without the rulers realizing it.
  190. War and unacceptable laws cause dissolution of society.
  191. If a ruler hands over the power to a foreigner, he ends the government.
  192. The population has the right to avoid tyranny and to get rid of it.
  193. Using the police, public money, or state offices to corrupt politics is something worth rebellion.
  194. Some politicians are stupid enough to let their malicious intentions show up.
  195. Voting without taking the debate seriously enough is a sign of malicious intent.
  196. The population should call a new legislature whenever they feel like it.
  197. If the people have a good reason to hate the government to which they are subjected, they may, if they wish, rebel.
  198. If the legislature changes to the taste of the people, the people have no reason to rebel: whatever goes bad is only their fault.
  199. To use force without authority is declaring war.
  200. Anyone who applies a coup against the government is guilty of all the evil that follows the coup, and those who backed the coup are guilty as well.
  201. There is difference between rebellion (attack) and resistance (defense).
  202. Resistance can not last forever; rebellion is necessary.
  203. In a war between people and ruler, one is not superior to the other.
  204. If the king wants to destroy the people, he ceases to be king.
  205. If the king happens to be submissive to another person, he ceases to be king.
  206. People should judge the ruler’s crimes.
  207. The should interpret the laws.

18 de junho de 2018

Notes on Descartes’s “Discourse on the Method”.

Filed under: Livros, Passatempos — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 11:39

The “Discourse on Method” was written by Descartes. Here are some notes on this text. I would also like to remind that none of my notes are quotations, but paraphrases, in order to avoid problems with copyright.

  1. It’s no use having a good brain if you do not apply it correctly.
  2. Slowly walk the right path, rather than rushing on the wrong path.
  3. A friend may feel too embarrassed to criticize you, even when you need to be criticized.
  4. The method described in this book is personal and may not work with everyone.
  5. If you are recognized as “erudite”, that doesn’t mean you really are erudite.
  6. All books are valuable and all sciences must be studied.
  7. Reading and traveling are equally important.
  8. Spending your entire life in one place makes you more prone to judging other cultures using yours as reference.
  9. Nonetheless, don’t travel too much, or you will forget about where you live.
  10. Do not read fiction if you do not know how to separate fiction from reality.
  11. If poetry is an artistic gift, it is natural that not everyone can compose poetry.
  12. Truth can convince without rhetorical devices.
  13. Every person has an affinity for a certain kind of science or study.
  14. Not all things that present themselves as virtue are really virtue.
  15. The existence of many opinions can lead one to skepticism.
  16. Exact sciences can not have dubious foundation.
  17. If you are not poor, you do not have to pervert your moral principles for money.
  18. In school you learn what is already there, but in life you must be original.
  19. When a child, study the books; when an adult, study the world; when an elder, study yourself.
  20. Inventions made by more than one person and consisting of several components are less perfect than machines with less components, specially if those are developed by just one person.
  21. If there is only one legislator, all laws work for the same purpose, which is established by the legislator, which makes it easier to follow the law, as you only need to know that guiding principle rather than all laws individually.
  22. There are people who see themselves as very original and wise, which makes them feel entitled to talk about things they didn’t study about, and there are people who are too shy to be original, simply repeating what has already been said by those who have authority.
  23. If you pay no attention to controversies between scientists or philosophers, you are likely too shy to defy authority, pretending you can agree with everyone.
  24. Your character changes depending on your education, your sociocultural context and your age.
  25. Better to walk slowly than to trip and fall.
  26. Don’t take unnecessary risks.
  27. A problem must be divided into as many parts as possible, so that each part can be solved easier.
  28. First the simplest, then the most complex.
  29. The work should be revised as many times as necessary until you are sure that nothing has been omitted.
  30. A science can correct another science.
  31. Follow the advice that good people do not say with words, but with actions.
  32. Once you have decided on the goal and method, don’t drop the task until you succeed or fail.
  33. Better to change yourself than the world.
  34. We can only desire what we see as possible.
  35. We are only in full control of our thoughts and nothing else.
  36. Train your reason, to make it stronger and cunning.
  37. You don’t have to take the opinion of others as absolute.
  38. My ability to doubt is the only thing I can be always sure about, no matter the circumstance.
  39. Thought is the essence of human existence.
  40. If something is clear and distinct, you can take it for granted.
  41. The perfect forms (ideal triangle, ideal circle, ideal square …) do not exist in nature.
  42. Mathematical truths don’t lose their value.
  43. It’s not that our senses lie to us, it’s just that we misinterpret the information that comes from the senses.
  44. Some dreams are as clear as reality.
  45. Some bodily processes function automatically by their disposition and implicit energy, like machines.
  46. Circulation is the cause of body heat.
  47. If several objects tend to the same place, the fastest and strongest arrive first, pushing away the others if there is not enough room.
  48. The machine imitates human operations more perfectly than we do, but can only do a limited number of functions compared to us.
  49. The human body and human soul are mixed, although they are of a different nature.
  50. What we know about medicine is nothing compared to what we do not know.
  51. Even if your research has just a few, small findings, they are worth sharing.
  52. Don’t look for rare knowledge before mastering uncommon knowledge.
  53. Humans have the duty to be useful to others.
  54. Good lawyers don’t always make good judges.
  55. The followers of Aristotle do not dare to surpass him.
  56. A fanatic adept of an idea who challenges others to debate is like a blind man challenging someone with perfect sight to fight in the dark.
  57. You can’t rush to find truth.
  58. Start from the easiest and go ascending in complexity until you can no more, only then you can say that you have reached your limit.
  59. If you need help, it is still better to work alone than with someone who is unfit to help.
  60. I should not seek help if I do not deserve help.
  61. There is no need to be anonymous, but much recognition and fame make people pester you for more.
  62. If having a reputation is unavoidable, then try to have a good one.
  63. Let the reader judge whether your writing is good or not.
  64. Someone can use your writing as foundation for wrong conclusions.
  65. Write in your own language.

15 de junho de 2018

Notes on Voltaire’s “Philosophical Dictionary”.

Filed under: Livros, Passatempos — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 13:33

“Philosophical Dictionary” was written by Voltaire. Below are some notes made about his text.

  1. It is not possible to know ourselves fully.
  2. Soul is life.
  3. “Three-quarters” of humanity does not care if the soul exists or not, while “one quarter” of humanity goes as far as formulating the question.
  4. The soul only becomes a philosophical problem after revelation.
  5. Thought does not come from the body, but it comes from us.
  6. The fact that there is movement (life) in organs that are not subject to our will has led the ancients to think that more than one soul inhabits the body: a rational soul, an emotional sould, a vegetative soul.
  7. Proponents of the soul can only rely on religion.
  8. The Holy Bible does not mention immortality of the soul.
  9. The Law of Moses does not speak of future life or of immortality.
  10. The theological debate is irrelevant.
  11. Friendship is a contract.
  12. Love exists in many animals, but copulation does not occur in all animals.
  13. The sexual season of the human being never ends, that’s why we don’t often talk about women going in “heat”.
  14. The human being perfects his erotic practice.
  15. Sex feels better when done with someone you like.
  16. As the human being seeks more pleasures in relation to sex, he is subject to more frustrations .
  17. Self-love is natural.
  18. Homosexuality was never mandatory in any law, but not all codes forbade it.
  19. The term “angel” has a Babylonian origin.
  20. We have more regard for the dead than for the living.
  21. Hunting can lead to cannibalism: a dead enemy is not so different from a slaughtered chicken.
  22. Cannibalism occurred less frequently in history than the human sacrifice to pagan gods.
  23. The early churches rejected, in unison, the Book of Revelations.
  24. Revelations, attributed to “John”, was probably written after John was dead.
  25. Because the book is allegorical in nature, the events narrated there may represent several historical events: as the end is near (and is), the Revelations could refer to the third world war, as it was thought that it referred to the reign of Charles IX, for example.
  26. The rumor that Socrates was an atheist was spread by a poet who wrote comedy.
  27. It is very easy to misrepresent a text to prove an intention that the writer did not have.
  28. It’s easier to remember someone who was accused of a crime, rather than a confirmed hero.
  29. The Chinese, at the time of Voltaire, were not Christians, but not atheists; they had the conception of a supreme and fair being, who avenges injustices and rewards good deeds.
  30. It is easier for a fanatic to kill than an atheist to kill.
  31. If this is the best of all possible worlds, how can one explain human misery?
  32. Epicurus’ riddle was invented by a priest.
  33. The riddle is more pertinent among religious people than among atheists.
  34. Not all potential causes generate effect, and there are things we do that do not have any great effect on the universe.
  35. The chain of effects related to the particular cause eventually ends.
  36. We can’t change we are attracted to, but we can hide the attraction.
  37. When you do not know the answer, confess your ignorance.
  38. If God is in everything, including myself, that doesn’t mean that God is part of me, just as the light that passes through the glass does not become part of the glass.
  39. Do to the other what you would like to have done to you, is the definition of justice in the dialogue of the Chinese catechism.
  40. When we refer to life and mental qualities, we use the term “soul,” but that does not mean that the soul is immortal.
  41. Animals have memories, passions and ideas, that is, they have “soul”.
  42. Belief in the immortality of the soul compels us to righteousness.
  43. But whether the soul exists or not, let’s thrive to be good people.
  44. If life ended in death, without hope of a future life, crimes committed in life and that were not punished in life would remain unpunished.
  45. If we lose our memory, we become someone else.
  46. It’s kind of strange that small cults claim the truth for themselves, as if everyone else is wrong.
  47. Not practicing evil isn’t enough without good deeds.
  48. The good friend manages to point out your flaws without hurting you.
  49. Friendship does not have to be a rule of religion, because the best friendships are spontaneous.
  50. Various moral elements of the Christian religion, such as loving one’s own enemies, already existed in other nations that had never heard of Christ.
  51. There are virtues useful only to ourselves and virtues useful to the whole world.
  52. Hospitality is a forgotten virtue.
  53. There are risks in practicing any virtue.
  54. There will be no need for revenge if good deeds are rewarded.
  55. Taste is personal.
  56. Contend causes more damage than tolerance.
  57. When preaching, talk about morals, not controversies.
  58. Morality is more important than theology.
  59. Comedy can be constructive when used for pedagogical goals.
  60. A dance party can kill as much as a battle.
  61. Maybe people would use less drugs if they worked more.
  62. Scripture need not be questioned, but human opinion about Scripture must be questioned.
  63. You can be sure and be wrong.
  64. Being mathematically sure is being 100% sure.
  65. Being logically sure is being 100% sure.
  66. The Babylonians already knew that the Earth revolved around the Sun.
  67. Many philosophers have hidden the truth for fear of persecution.
  68. It is not necessary to know physics to be holy.
  69. Eastern philosophy was not popular in the West until recently, because, in the modern era, people thought that China, for example, was an atheistic government.
  70. In the East, there was the habit of rewarding virtues and punishing crimes, but Western governments have never succeeded in rewarding virtue, limiting themselves to only punishing crime.
  71. We can talk about the properties of the body, without exactly knowing what the body is.
  72. Voltaire criticizes Berkeley : if nothing is corporeal and everything are ideas of our spirit, why do I die if I get shot?
  73. Hot and cold are relative, but thirty degrees in Celsius scale is not relative.
  74. Near and far are relative, but one kilometer is not relative.
  75. Many Platonists of the first three centuries converted to Christianity, causing the assimilation of Plato by Christianity.
  76. There is more biblical evidence against the Trinity than there is in favor of Trinity.
  77. The earliest conversions to Christianity in China began because Christians proved to be useful and quiet instead of scandalous and extravagant.
  78. Even if I preach to a hundred people, it is only natural that not all of them convert.
  79. Most people fight with the fists, but the intellectuals fight with written criticisms, sometimes motivated by envy and ego.
  80. An irritable artist feels right.
  81. The social criticism in a piece of art often escapes the audience, who is there to have fun, not necessarily to think or criticize the artist’s work.
  82. In art, giving pleasure is the main goal.
  83. The best art critic is the good artist, who does not let his judgment be harmed by envy or pride.
  84. In Greek mythology, fate is greater than the gods themselves.
  85. The human being can not change the laws of nature.
  86. If God understands all languages, there is no need to pray in Latin.
  87. Theology doesn’t teach to be fair, good or civil.
  88. Everyone has a political opinion.
  89. It is no use advising a bad ruler: he will not listen.
  90. No human government lasts forever.
  91. There are many people who are dissatisfied with the government and would rather live in another country.
  92. Laws vary from place to place also because of climate and geography.
  93. But there is no place where one should obey only the laws.
  94. One should not judge past customs by using modern customs as reference.
  95. In ancient times, touching each other’s genitals was a sign of respect and promise, not unlike a handshake.
  96. Did you know that the Holy Bible uses “thigh” as a euphemism for “sack”?
  97. Virtue is doing good.
  98. Fanaticism is the faith that kills.
  99. The mark of fanaticism is to condemn everyone who thinks differently to death.
  100. Fanatics, when speaking of their faith, tremble, gain a different glow in their eyes, increase the tone of their voice, erupt in sudden movements.
  101. The Christian fanatic has in mind the examples of celebrated murders in the Old Testament, willingly forgetting that Jesus told them to love everyone.
  102. If the fanatic sees himself as inspired by God, he believes himself to be above the law.
  103. How to persuade someone who thinks that he is killing in the name of God?
  104. Eastern religions do not have fanatics because they are predominantly philosophical.
  105. Sects of sincere philosophers also have no fanatics.
  106. When the senses are mistaken in the perception of something, it is not because our eyes are deceived, but rather that the given information has been misinterpreted by reason.
  107. Lying to a child to make her more receptive to bitter medicine is not a good idea, because when she puts the medicine in her mouth she will see that you are a liar, undermining the trust between you and the child.
  108. Lying for religious purposes leads to atheism.
  109. The belief that God rewards the good and punishes the bad is enough to lead believers to do good, rendering theology useless.
  110. Stop trying to convert atheists.
  111. We call our mental faculties “spirit” for random reasons.
  112. Considering how many things we ignore, the title of master or doctor does not mean much.
  113. Without mercy, few would be alive.
  114. God does not benefit from human actions.
  115. Giving glory to God with vain acts may be an offense to the third commandment (Exodus 20: 7).
  116. God does not need to intervene in the universe all the time because his creation has a level of autonomy.
  117. Unlike starvation and illness, war depends on human desire.
  118. There are soldiers going to war without knowing who will they fight and why will they fight.
  119. Back in old times, armies were blessed by priests, who called for God’s help in overcoming the opposing army.
  120. The Christian who participates in war and preaches against all kinds of vices commits hypocrisy: he speaks against small sins, which are not always sins, but commits the greater sins.
  121. Love is the only hope of repairing human conduct.
  122. Sins that are not committed against love seem to be smaller than those committed against love.
  123. War does more harm than all the vices committed by one person in his or her life.
  124. Virtue is useless in war.
  125. It is especially sad when those who die in war are young warriors.
  126. Not to mention children who die in attacks.
  127. Voltaire identifies contradictions between the books of the Kings and the books of the Chronicles.
  128. Idolatry is to worship an image or representation.
  129. The church-goer who reverence a statue of Mary is not worshiping the statue, but Mary, who is represented by the statue.
  130. The procession has pagan origin.
  131. Other religions also fast.
  132. If it were the statue to be worshiped and not the deity behind the statue, then there would be several Apollo gods, one for each temple, as all of them have statues of Apollo.
  133. The term “idolatry” has a Christian origin.
  134. Sacred things can become idols.
  135. It was not the statue of Jupiter that struck the lightning, nor the statue of Neptune that stirred the seas.
  136. Protestants attack the Catholic Church by calling it idolatrous, but the images of the saints are not the saints.
  137. The human being seems to have been made to believe in God, since various civilizations have their religions.
  138. It is not possible to read universal history without feeling ashamed of being human.
  139. Murder is usurpation of divine right, because only God has the right to take one’s life.
  140. The sages of ancient times, even though they did not publicly profess this opinion, often came to the monotheistic conclusion: if there is any God somewhere, he is the only one.
  141. The Muslim has more reason to call Christians idolaters: most of Christianity is Catholic and Catholics, even when they do not worship the images, do a great job making it look like they do.
  142. It is our needs that lead us to serve each other.
  143. The enemy is not inequality, but dependence.
  144. Voltaire already saw human society as divided into two classes: oppressor and oppressed.
  145. Voltaire says that the active pace of labor prevents the worker from perceiving his own misery.
  146. The existence of dominators is possible because the human being tends to maximize pleasure.
  147. If everyone could survive their own work, there would be no bosses, no money, no exploitation, no wage labor, no slavery.
  148. Equality is the natural state of the human being.
  149. Some nations were so badly governed that they passed laws that forbade the citizens to move to another place.
  150. The right thing to do is to govern so well that the citizens would want to stay and that the others would want to come here.
  151. It is especially bad to subject yourself to those who have less ability than you.
  152. All peoples, to put a brake on the secret crimes, created some sort of equivalent to the Christian hell.
  153. For the Jew, soul is life.
  154. The problem is that many bad people become rich.
  155. Belief in Hell has political purpose.
  156. The total flood narrated in Genesis seems impossible: there is not enough water in the world.
  157. If the flood was universal, then it was a miracle.
  158. It is useless to explain the flood scientifically if it has been universal and therefore miraculous.
  159. It is naive to think that animals are machines just because they are “irrational.”
  160. Training an animal shows that animals do not always act the same way.
  161. The presence of language is not the only sign of reason, emotion or feelings.
  162. Animals feel pain.
  163. It does not matter whether animals have souls or not: the fact is that they feel, remember, live, communicate with one another, learn …
  164. Many statements about animal souls are gratuitous, as if they did not want to give a deep reflection on creatures considered to be irrational.
  165. Don’t try to study something without making sure it exists.
  166. Machines have no soul, as they are operated by humans.
  167. It is not possible to judge without lerning about.
  168. Laws vary from country to country, state to state, city to city, but the morals may vary from person to person.
  169. Many fair laws lead to unfair punishment.
  170. There are many dangerous laws.
  171. Good sense leads us to legislate, but inner justice leads us to legislate well.
  172. The conquered country is under arbitrary laws.
  173. The dog of a despot lives better than his servants.
  174. In Athens and Rome, a religious rule could only exist if the state allowed it exist.
  175. Priests and pastors are also servants of the state.
  176. The priest should not kill a guy because he is a sinner: the priest should pray for sinners and not judge them.
  177. Priests should not be exempt from taxes.
  178. Laws that need to be interpreted are easily corrupted.
  179. Taxes should be proportional.
  180. The law that forbids something good is invalid, as no one will respect it.
  181. Freedom is the power to choose between the options that I have, but there are things beyond my ability to choose, that is, freedom is not absolute.
  182. This means that freedom is the same in all animals.
  183. Freedom is the same in all, what varies is the number of options I can choose from.
  184. We make choices aiming for our happiness .
  185. “I want just because” is absurd.
  186. Our freedom is rational.
  187. We can not choose what we are attracted to, but we can choose not to act on it.
  188. Indifference is a choice, not lack of choice: not caring is already a position.
  189. It is easy to remain virtuous when there is no temptation to face.
  190. Some used to say that it is lawful to steal if we don’t use what we stole, but see if that makes any sense.
  191. Rich and poor will likely die anyway, so why not die rich?
  192. The excess of wealth is bad.
  193. Giving a long, intricate answer to a question is as suspicious as not answering.
  194. Geometry is safer than metaphysics.
  195. Nothing comes from nothing.
  196. No mythology conceives an universe that has come from nowhere.
  197. The only people who are offended by the eternity of matter are people who believe in Judeo-Christian revelation, because God created things from nothing.
  198. Most metaphysical and theological questions are irrelevant in moral terms.
  199. The child is not evil by nature.
  200. The first ambitious person, Satan, corrupted the earth.
  201. Not all those who are exposed to moral evils will contract them.
  202. Inherent evil is like animals that hunt without guilt.
  203. Practicing evil requires free time.
  204. There is less evil on earth than you think.
  205. The migration of souls to other bodies after death is a dogma of Eastern origin and is older than many think.
  206. If miracle is an admirable thing, then everything is a miracle: what miracle is greater than that of being alive?
  207. The miracle, however, strictly speaking, is the divine providence that acts without the causality chain.
  208. To say that God would not want to “break” the rules of creation, even if he wrote those rules, to favor a select people who have an agreement with him (such as the Jews, for example) is to deny divine compassion.
  209. For those who believe, but not in miracles, the execution of miracles is contradictory: divine creation would not be perfect, they say, if God had to break the rules sometimes.
  210. For the secular everything always has logical explanation, including miracles.
  211. Imagine if the academy received a report of a miracle that is happening somewhere, then they send a professor to the scene to interrupt the miracle and ask person performing it to perform the miracle in an university, assisted by doctors and physicists, so they could make sure that the miracle really has no scientific explanation.
  212. Obviously it was not Moses who wrote Deuteronomy, since the Pentateuch ends with the death of Moses and the statement that his tomb was never found (Deuteronomy 34: 5-6).
  213. According to Orthodox tradition, the Law was burned during the Babylonian exile.
  214. Leviticus forbids marrying sisters-in-law, but Deuteronomy does mind it.
  215. “Homeland” is the set of families in a given territory.
  216. The obsessed pursuit of high titles (as in politics) reveals more self-love than love for the motherland.
  217. Kings prefer the monarchy, the rich prefer the aristocracy and the people prefer democracy, so that the “best form of government” depends on personal interest …
  218. Hatred towards nations opposed to the ideas of your nation, unfortunately, seems to be part of patriotism.
  219. You are a patriot when you do not care when your nation enriches itself at the expense of others.
  220. The early churches were communities.
  221. The popes were not perfect.
  222. Prejudice is an opinion without judgment.
  223. The child is full of them, receiving values ​​from the parents before they are old enough to judge them.
  224. Crimes committed in name of the Christian religion outweigh crimes committed in the name of any other religion.
  225. If you talk about something to someone, do not give evidence unless the listener asks for it.
  226. When someone does not think like you and you get angry with that person, you are manifesting pride.
  227. In the past, it was believed that the soul resided in the chest, because strong emotions are felt in the heart first.
  228. To give forced meanings to clear texts is to work against the understanding of the text.
  229. Why did Solomon have so many horses in times of peace, if not take his women to pleasant trips?
  230. When you read a text and concludes that the text says the opposite of what the writer intended, you are mocking humanity.
  231. We only have five senses, and there is no way to imagine what it would be like to have another.
  232. There may be, somewhere, beings with more than five senses.
  233. Thought and feeling are equally interesting.
  234. Feeling is also a faculty given to us by the divinity.
  235. Some lies are believed because someone with a bad reputation said the truth.
  236. The Law does not prohibit the mystical interpretation of dreams: Daniel (2:36 onwards) practiced it, albeit with the help of God.
  237. Obtaining divine forgiveness is possible.
  238. It is better not to sin than to sin and then repent.
  239. The most horrible times were rich in superstitions.
  240. The oligarchy is worse than tyranny.
  241. A tyrant is easier to seduce, but an assembly of the corrupt people can not be seduced.
  242. Summary of Western society: you are either an anvil or a hammer.
  243. Tolerance is to forgive the defect of the other.
  244. Before the advent of Catholicism, the Church was not unique.
  245. The Jews do not force others to convert.
  246. Jewish tolerance should be imitated by Christians, but the stereotype that Christians have of the Jews is only that of a warrior nation and they love to use examples from the Old Testament to justify their hatred towards everyone.
  247. It is monstrous to bash a person who thinks differently.
  248. There are historical examples of Christians who have allied themselves with Muslims to wage war against other Christians.
  249. Francis I allied with the German Lutherans against the emperor, while burning Lutherans in France.
  250. If there are two religions in one territory, they will attack each other, but if there are thirty religions in a territory there will be no attacks.
  251. Virtue is beneficence towards the neighbor.
  252. Temperance is a personal virtue and is of lesser importance than the virtues that serve the collective.
  253. You are virtuous in doing good to others, not just yourself .
  254. As we live in society, we are only really good when serving others.
  255. If you live isolated, you are not doing any harm, but you can’t be considered virtuous, because you are not doing good to anyone either.
  256. It is possible to be holy without being virtuous.
  257. In the same way, if one is vile, they are not vicious if his vileness does not harm anyone.
  258. Virtuous today, vicious tomorrow.

14 de junho de 2018

What now?

Filed under: Notícias e política, Organizações — Tags:, — Yurinho @ 16:45

Well, I have completed my readings of the Federal Constitution and the Statute of the Child and Adolescent. So what else is there to do? Well, now comes the really difficult part, which is to build a bridge between the scientific articles and books I have and the laws. In fact, from what I have observed, the ban on child sexuality conflicts with the rights guaranteed to children and adolescents. Then one may speak of vexation, humiliation, and oppression. I have a lot to read and write before the final text (codenamed the Lolipill) is finished. I like to think of it as my “informal masters dissertation.”

A friend of mine gave me two advices: to write about the age of consent within the context of the minor’s sexual self-determination and to write with lawyers and judges as target audience. And that was where my previous text, the Statutory Rape, was failing. It had no target audience in particular. We know that, after all, laws are enforced by the judiciary. When one law conflicts with another, the judge must decide what to do. Considering that there are judges who absolve relationships engaged before the age of fourteen, it would not be entirely alien to believe that it is possible to strengthen the legal arguments of defense lawyers hired by a defendant. As I said before, there are three ways to eliminate a law, one of which is the implosive way. If the law does not convict or has difficulty convicting, what is its use?

Although I can not legally tell you to break the law, it is not illegal, as far as I know, to help you defend yourself if you are about to face trial, especially if you are underage. True, law enforcement is not my area, but reading the laws is not even that hard and I do not think I’m stupid to the point of not having understood anything I’ve read. So, although I can offer arguments, their validity depends on the judge. This is going to be fun. Let’s see how far we can go with this idea!

E agora?

Filed under: Livros, Notícias e política — Tags:, — Yurinho @ 16:38

Bom, eu já terminei as leituras da Constituição Federal e do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente. Então, que mais falta fazer? Bom, agora vem a parte realmente difícil, que é fazer a ponte entre os artigos científicos e livros que eu tenho e as leis. De fato, pelo que eu pude observar, a interdição à sexualidade infantil conflita com os direitos garantidos às crianças e aos adolescentes. Então, pode se falar de vexame, de humilhação e de opressão. Eu tenho muita coisa para ler e escrever antes de o texto final estar concluído. Gosto de pensar nisto como minha “dissertação de mestrado informal”.

Um amigo meu me deu dois conselhos: escrever sobre a idade de consentimento dentro do contexto da autodeterminação sexual do menor e fazer isso tendo em vista o público jurídico. E era nisso que meu texto anterior, o Sobre Estupro de Vulnerável, estava falhando. Ele não visava o público jurídico. Nós sabemos que, no final das contas, as leis são aplicadas pelo judiciário. Quando uma lei conflita com outra, o juiz deve decidir o que fazer. Considerando que existem juízes que absolvem relacionamentos engajados antes dos catorze anos, não seria completamente alien acreditar que é possível fortalecer a argumentação jurídica dos advogados de defesa contratados por um réu. Como eu disse antes, há três formas de se eliminar uma lei, uma delas é a forma implosiva. Se a lei não condenar ou tiver dificuldade de condenar, qual é seu uso?

Embora eu não possa legalmente dizer pra você quebrar as leis, não é ilegal, que eu saiba, ajudar você a se defender caso você já esteja prestes a encarar julgamento, especialmente se você for menor de idade. É verdade, direito não é a minha área, mas a leitura das leis nem é tão difícil assim e eu acho que não sou idiota ao ponto de não ter compreendido nada do que li. Então, embora eu possa oferecer argumentos, sua validade depende do juiz. Isso vai ser engraçado e bem divertido. Vejamos até onde podemos ir com esta ideia!

11 de junho de 2018

Annotations on the Statute of Children and Adolescents.

Filed under: Notícias e política, Organizações — Tags:, , , — Yurinho @ 22:46

The Statute of Children and Adolescents was written in Brazil. Here are some notes on that text.

  1. Children and adolescents deserve full protection (Article 1).
  2. “Child” is someone who is not twelve years old yet, while a teenager is someone between the ages of twelve and eighteen.
  3. The child and the adolescent enjoy the rights inherent to the human person, that is, they have human rights (Article 3), which they can enjoy with dignity and freedom .
  4. The rights of children and adolescents are equal between boys and girls.
  5. The family, the community, society in general and the public power have the duty to ensure, with absolute priority, the access to rights relating to life, health , food, education, sports, leisure, culture, dignity , respect , freedom and family and community coexistence (Article 4).
  6. Discrimination, violence, cruelty and oppression of children and adolescents can not go unpunished (Article 5).
  7. Cruel, degrading treatment or physical punishment are reasons to call the tutelary council.
  8. Vaccination is mandatory if recommended by health authorities.
  9. Again, the child has human rights (Article 15).
  10. The child has the right to opinion and expression (article 16, section II).
  11. The child has the right to respect, that is, to the inviolability of his physical and mental integrity , which includes preserving his autonomy (article 17).
  12. It is the duty of everyone to protect the child and the adolescent from any inhuman, violent, terrifying, vexatious or embarrassing treatment (Article 18).
  13. The child and the adolescent have the right to be cared for without the use of physical punishment or cruel or degrading treatment, such as humiliation, threat or exposure to ridicule (article 18-A, II, a, b, c).
  14. A mother can turn her child over for adoption.
  15. You can not discriminate against your foster child.
  16. Family power is exercised equally by the father and the mother, who, if they disagree, should seek justice to resolve the difference.
  17. “Natural family” is the community formed by one or two persons (the father, the mother or both) and their descendants.
  18. “Substitute family” is the community formed by a person who adopts (or guards) and by one or more people who have been adopted, guarded or protected.
  19. If you are eighteen, you can adopt a child, even if you are single.
  20. If the child has the ability to understand more advanced content (artistic or scientific), he or she has the right to access that content.
  21. If the teenager works, he has the right to study at night.
  22. Parents are required to enroll their children in school.
  23. The educational process must respect the cultural, artistic and historical values ​​of the student’s social context.
  24. As an apprentice, you should still study.
  25. You can be an apprentice and make money.
  26. Everyone should prevent violations of the rights of the child (Article 70).
  27. A child or adolescent may, if authorized by the judge, travel without the parents (but can not stay without parental permission in a hotel or pension, for example).
  28. It is permissible to activate a measure of protection to the child or the adolescent when one of its recognized rights is threatened, even if threatened by the government (article 98).
  29. When applying a protective measure, the action must aim at the best interest of the minor (Article 100, subsection IV).
  30. In addition, the minor must be heard and his opinion taken into account (Article 100, subsection XII).
  31. The age of criminal responsibility in Brazil is eighteen.
  32. The adolescent caught in an infraction has the right to be given a lawyer (article 111, item III).
  33. Every child or adolescent has the right of access to the public prosecutor’s office, the judiciary and public defense (Article 141).
  34. If the minor decides to request these organs, he is entitled to free legal aid if he needs it (Article 141, paragraph 1).
  35. In spite of this, the minor must be represented by his parents, guardians or curators (article 142).
  36. If the interest of the child or adolescent who requests these entities conflicts with the interest of the parents or guardians, the justice will give him / her a curator (article 142, single paragraph).
  37. The judge of childhood and youth may, if it seems correct, grant the minor the capacity to consent to marriage (Article 148, only paragraph, letter c).
  38. A teenager can not be prosecuted unless they get a lawyer for him (article 207).
  39. The law against child pornography (Article 240 and especially 241-A) makes no mention of any relaxation if the person recording the video is the child or adolescent, meaning that it is true that an adolescent may be penalized for sending “nudes “.
  40. The teenager (even if he is 17 years old) has nudes of his partner, he can also be penalized for this (article 241-B).
  41. “Simulations” (photo montage or “any form of visual representation”) are also punishable (Article 241-C, but does this include drawings of children who do not actually exist?).
  42. The government should inform children and adolescents of their rights, in language they understand, through the media.

Anotações sobre o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente.

Filed under: Notícias e política, Organizações — Tags:, , , — Yurinho @ 22:30

O Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente foi escrito no Brasil. Abaixo, algumas anotações feitas sobre esse texto.

  1. A criança e o adolescente merecem proteção integral (artigo 1).
  2. “Criança” é alguém que não tenha doze anos completos ainda, enquanto que adolescente é alguém que tenha entre doze e dezoito anos.
  3. A criança e o adolescente gozam dos direitos inerentes à pessoa humana, ou seja, elas têm direitos humanos (artigo 3), dos quais podem gozar com dignidade e liberdade.
  4. Os direitos da criança e do adolescente são iguais entre meninos e meninas.
  5. A família, a comunidade, a sociedade em geral e o poder público têm o dever de assegurar, com absoluta prioridade, a efetivação dos direitos referentes à vida, à saúde, à alimentação, à educação, ao esporte, ao lazer, à profissionalização, à cultura, à dignidade, ao respeito, à liberdade e à convivência familiar e comunitária (artigo 4).
  6. A discriminação, a violência, a crueldade e a opressão à criança e ao adolescente não podem ficar impunes (artigo 5).
  7. Tratamento cruel, degradante ou castigo físico são razões para chamar o conselho tutelar.
  8. Vacinação é obrigatória se recomendada pelas autoridades sanitárias.
  9. Novamente, a criança tem direitos humanos (artigo 15).
  10. A criança tem direito à opinião e expressão (artigo 16, inciso II).
  11. A criança tem direito ao respeito, ou seja, à inviolabilidade de sua integridade física e psíquica, o que inclui a preservação de sua autonomia (artigo 17).
  12. É dever de todos proteger a criança e o adolescente de qualquer tratamento desumano, violento, aterrorizante, vexatório ou constrangedor (artigo 18).
  13. A criança e o adolescente têm direito de ser cuidados sem uso de castigo físico ou tratamento cruel ou degradante, tal como humilhação, ameaça ou exposição ao ridículo (artigo 18-A, inciso II, a, b, c).
  14. Uma mãe pode entregar seu filho pra adoção.
  15. Você não pode discriminar seu filho adotivo.
  16. O poder familiar é exercido igualmente pelo pai e pela mãe, os quais, se estiverem em desacordo, deverão procurar a justiça pra resolver a diferença.
  17. “Família natural” é a comunidade formada por uma ou duas pessoas (o pai, a mãe ou os dois) e seus descendentes.
  18. “Família substituta” é a comunidade formada por uma pessoa que adota, guarda ou tutela e por uma ou mais que são adotadas, guardadas ou tuteladas.
  19. Se você tem dezoito anos, pode adotar um filho, mesmo que você seja solteiro.
  20. Se você não gosta da sua nota, pode reclamar com coordenadores e diretoria.
  21. Se o menor tiver capacidade de compreender um conteúdo mais avançado (artístico ou de pesquisa), ele tem direito a acessar esse conteúdo.
  22. Se o adolescente trabalha, ele tem direito a estudar de noite.
  23. Os pais são obrigados a matricular seus filhos na escola.
  24. O processo educacional deve respeitar os valores culturais, artísticos e históricos do contexto social do aluno (isso provavelmente inviabiliza uma base nacional comum curricular).
  25. Se você não tiver catorze anos, só pode trabalhar como aprendiz.
  26. Como aprendiz, você ainda deve estudar.
  27. Você pode ser aprendiz e ganhar dinheiro.
  28. Todos devem impedir a violação aos direitos da criança (artigo 70).
  29. Uma criança de dez anos ou mais pode ir a um espetáculo sozinha, desde que o show seja adequado a sua faixa etária.
  30. Uma criança ou adolescente pode, se autorizado pelo juiz, viajar sem os pais (mas não pode se hospedar sem autorização dos pais em um hotel ou pensão, por exemplo).
  31. É permitido ativar uma medida de proteção à criança ou ao adolescente quando um de seus direitos reconhecidos é ameaçado, inclusive se ameaçado pelo governo (artigo 98).
  32. Ao aplicar uma medida protetiva, a ação deve visar o melhor interesse do menor (artigo 100, inciso IV).
  33. Além disso, o menor deve ser ouvido e ter sua opinião levada em consideração (artigo 100, inciso XII).
  34. A idade de responsabilidade penal no Brasil é dezoito.
  35. O adolescente flagrado em ato infracional tem direito a advogado (artigo 111, inciso III).
  36. Toda a criança ou adolescente tem direito a acesso ao ministério público, ao poder judiciário e à defensoria pública (artigo 141).
  37. Se o menor resolver requisitar esses órgãos, ele tem direito a assistência judiciária gratuita se necessitar dela (artigo 141, parágrafo 1).
  38. Apesar disso, o menor deve ser representado por seus pais, tutores ou curadores (artigo 142).
  39. Se o interesse da criança ou adolescente que requisita esses órgãos conflita com o interesse dos pais ou tutores, a justiça lhe dará um curador (artigo 142, parágrafo único).
  40. O juiz da infância e da juventude pode, se lhe parecer correto, conceder ao menor a capacidade de consentir com casamento (artigo 148, parágrafo único, alínea c).
  41. Um adolescente não pode ser processado a menos que arrumem um advogado pra ele (artigo 207).
  42. A lei contra pornografia infantil (artigo 240 e principalmente o 241-A) não faz menção a qualquer relaxamento caso a pessoa que grave o vídeo seja a própria criança ou adolescente, ou seja, é verdade que um adolescente pode ser penalizado por passar “nudes”.
  43. O adolescente (mesmo que já tenha 17 anos) que guarda nudes do parceiro também pode ser penalizado por isso (artigo 241-B).
  44. “Simulações” (montagem de foto ou “qualquer forma de representação visual”) também são puníveis (artigo 241-C, mas será que isso inclui desenhos de crianças que não existem na realidade?).
  45. O governo deve informar crianças e adolescentes sobre seus direitos, em linguagem que eles entendam, através dos meios de comunicação.
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