What I learned by reading the “Phaedo”.

“Phaedo” was written by Plato. Here are some things I learned from reading his book.

  1. The book tells of Socrates’ speech before his death.
  2. After Socrates’ trial, he was imprisoned for a few more days before finally taking the poison.
  3. Many people watched Socrates die …
  4. Socrates died happy.
  5. Some of those present were also happy, others were sad, but most did not know what to feel.
  6. Pleasure and pain follow each other, like a pendulum.
  7. If our life belongs to God, we have no right to take our own lives.
  8. It is good not to accept others’ opinions so easily.
  9. People who practice philosophy tend to care less about the body and more about the soul.
  10. Our senses are limited so we can not give them full credit.
  11. Truth is attainable by thought, not by body.
  12. The body provides pain, which harms our ability to reason.
  13. Beauty, justice, goodness are things that can not be seen or heard and can only be studied by thought, not through the senses.
  14. You are too attached to your body, if you are too scared of death.
  15. Some people who claim to be “virtuous” are just sacrificing some pleasures in favor of other pleasures that are indulged in private, vices that could be more vicious than those that are openly avoided.
  16. The senses get close to the truth, but can’t touch truth.
  17. To forget is to lose knowledge.
  18. We are body and thought.
  19. Philosophy teaches how to refuse satisfaction to bodily appetites, when such is needed.
  20. Socrates had full faith in his words: he was convinced that death would not harm him.
  21. Hatred for words and hatred for mankind, both come from the same place: disappointment.
  22. Most people are a middle ground between good and bad.
  23. Extremes are rare.
  24. When encountering arguments that are opposed to yours, may you feel tempted to become skeptical of all answers, as you may realize that no answer is 100% accurate.
  25. Seek the truth for yourself and share, but don’t expect everyone to agree with you.
  26. Convincing others is a consequence, but should never be the goal of rational thought.
  27. Anaxagoras said that the mind or intelligence commanded all things, but when it comes to explaining the things of our world, he never resorts on that concept of intelligence, preferring to explain phenomena using natural causes.
  28. I’m sitting because I want to.
  29. The famous “navigations”: the first itinerary consists in seeking to know things sensually and the second consists in using only the reason.
  30. What makes beautiful things beautiful is the presence of a quality called “beauty”: to say why something is beautiful, we must define what beauty is in itself.
  31. Socrates accepted the spherical model of the Earth, although he thought it was in the middle of the universe.

Publicado por Yure

Quando eu me formei, minha turma teve que fazer um juramento coletivo. Como minha religião não me permite jurar nem prometer, eu só mexi os lábios, mas resolvi viver com os objetivos do juramento em mente de qualquer forma.

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