Analecto

9 de fevereiro de 2019

What I learned reading “Metaphysical Meditations”.

Filed under: Livros, Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, — Yurinho @ 21:24

“Metaphysical Meditations” was written by Descartes. Below, what I learned from reading this book.

  1. Throughout our lives we have learned many wrong things.
  2. So everything we build on false foundations is worth questioning .
  3. This effort can not be done immediately, but only at a propitious age, in solitude (well after retired).
  4. This is a highly destructive process and should not be attempted if other people depend on you to exist.
  5. Descartes intends to reject any information that is not clear and evident.
  6. It is not necessary to overturn each discourse at a time: it is enough to overturn its principles , which are fewer in number than the reasonings built upon such principles.
  7. The senses are the first thing he eliminates as being “doubtful”: if the senses deceive , he will reject the sensory information, for they are not clear and evident.
  8. Cartesian doubt is a decision, not a normal doubt: you choose to doubt.
  9. Doubt will be his method of this book.
  10. The senses are safe for everyday life, but that is not what we want.
  11. Descartes slept naked.
  12. How am I supposed to know… if I’m not dreaming now?
  13. As it is possible to doubt the objective reality, Descartes also rejects it.
  14. Even if the dream is like a different reality from objective reality, the mind composes this fantastic reality using elements that it finds when we are awake.
  15. If there is an evil god who delights in deceiving the intellect, then neither mathematics nor geometry would be safe.
  16. But if God exists and he is good, he would not waste time deceiving his creatures.
  17. God would not create another God.
  18. Everything is dubious.
  19. Sensory information has its use, since I will rely on it in everyday life, and there is nothing wrong with doing so.
  20. Methodical doubt led Descartes to reject everything we have for granted and reliable.
  21. To think in this way is not only laborious, but makes life impossible to be experienced.
  22. This book is like a personal doubt diary.
  23. The search for some “secure knowledge” is compared to the lever: if I have a lever long enough and a point of support safe enough, I can lift anything.
  24. Maybe I do not have a body, but can I exist without a body?
  25. I can not doubt one thing: that I am doubting.
  26. But to doubt it is necessary to think.
  27. But it is only possible to think and to deceive myself if I exist.
  28. I know that I exist because I am thinking, something that would not be possible if I did not exist.
  29. To come to the conclusion that I exist does not ensure that I exist in any particular way.
  30. The body is a tool at service for the soul.
  31. Soul is thinking substance.
  32. I’m a thinking thing.
  33. Thought itself is the only thing that passes through methodical doubt.
  34. Physical state is not essence, but accident.
  35. Achieving the nature of things is a mental effort, not empirical.
  36. If I play with an object and also with my body, but I perceive my body more sharply than the object with which I play, the knowledge of my body is more certain.
  37. What is easier in science is difficult for common sense.
  38. Under what conditions can I recognize the objective value of an idea ?
  39. To what extent does something that I think really exist?
  40. If there is a god who likes to deceive people, it needs a job or a woman.
  41. We must find out if there is a reason to believe in God.
  42. If there is, we should make sure he does not employ his industry to deceive us.
  43. We can desire things that are impossible.
  44. An idea I have does not necessarily correspond to the thing to which it should correspond.
  45. Some ideas I have seem to have been born with me.
  46. Ideas of external origin, affections: near a fire, I will feel heat.
  47. Instinct is not a secure source of knowledge.
  48. Instinct is amoral, it is agnostic.
  49. Once the exterior leaves an impression, we can recall the impression later on, without the object that caused it.
  50. Without a clear idea, there is no judgment criterion between false and true.
  51. The sense shows the Sun, instinct assumes that the Sun is the size it seems, but reason says that the Sun is bigger than the Earth.
  52. Sensory information betray with great treachery.
  53. Appeal to degrees of being, to efficient cause: every effect has a cause and I am an effect.
  54. Nothing guarantees that the creature is equal to the creator.
  55. Nothingness can not create, with that we all agree.
  56. The creature is similar (not equal) to the creator in something, even to a lesser degree.
  57. If God exists, then I am not alone in the world.
  58. Something is imperfect if it does not go as planned.
  59. Is the cold absence heat or is the heat absence of cold?
  60. Can I conceive a complete lie?
  61. Are there any ideas that are false by nature?
  62. The idea of ​​God is too complex to be conceived by the human spirit.
  63. The existence of God only comes to mind because God shows himself to the human mind.
  64. Finite comes from infinity .
  65. If something is limited, it is because it does not exist in a supreme degree, implying a portion of non-being ( potency ).
  66. It is possible to apprehend the infinite in its form, but never in its content.
  67. If I were God, I would have no doubts about being God.
  68. We had a beginning, we are not eternal.
  69. Our parents made our bodies, but the spirit comes from God.
  70. It is different to create and produce: parents produce the child, but they did not create the human being.
  71. God does not deceive, nor he needs to.
  72. If God is perfect, he would not create a perfect nature or perfect human beings because it was not in his interest to create other gods like him.
  73. Being finite, I can not receive infinite divine power.
  74. I make mistakes because I do not know what I need to perform a certain task.
  75. If God is perfect, He will always want the best and the most advantageous.
  76. Misunderstanding is lack of certainty, but it is not total cognitive deficiency.
  77. If God is perfect and infinite, a finite mind can never understand some or several or all of his decisions.
  78. It would be strange for Descartes to say that canine teeth were designed to pierce pieces of flesh: if God is the master of all things, being also infinite, and his reasons incomprehensible for the weak human mind, we can’t say for sure what is the purpose of anything in nature.
  79. What advantage could there be for nature to be more intelligent than it already is?
  80. The understanding has limits more rigid than the will: we want several things, but we not always understand what we want.
  81. There is a difference between freedom of choice and freedom of act.
  82. One should not position oneself on what one does not understand.
  83. A defect is only defective in a certain sense.
  84. To minimize or even eliminate deception, clear and distinct truths must be separated from informations which are not clear or distinct: on the uncertain, one can only speculate.
  85. It is possible to attribute existence to something that does not exist.
  86. If I say that there is an extremely perfect being, I must prove that such being exists.
  87. If God is perfect, He is eternal.
  88. Geometry applies its precepts to material things, which makes material things quite probable, but does not guarantee that they exist.
  89. Something is “possible” if I have proof that it is possible or if I have no proof that it is impossible.
  90. Descartes points out that we have sensations because there are objects that inspire us sensations and because we have organs that interact with such objects.
  91. The body affects the spirit, which is myself, which implies the existence of the body.
  92. We have no control over what things attract us.
  93. Pain is an intimate sensation, but it is not safe: people who have had amputated limbs still have pain sensations in limbs that are no longer there.
  94. You can feel things that are not there, like when you dream.
  95. Descartes does not rule out the possibility that sensible ideas are produced within the spirit itself (as in madness or hallucination).
  96. I’m a thinking thing.
  97. The body would be useless without the spirit.
  98. The fact that we have sensations in spite of our will, since our spirit, being ourselves, is totally subject to our will, shows that sensations come from external sources.
  99. The cause of sensations is either a body or God.
  100. It is not God, because God would not want to be an object, since he is not deceitful.
  101. What is uncertain can still be known with certainty, because the spirit can correct information.
  102. If nature teaches us something through the senses, then it seems safe to admit that there is something outside us.
  103. Soul and body are not totally separate.
  104. Nature is one, always the same: if our senses do not perceive it as they should, it is our problem, not a problem with nature.
  105. The teaching of nature is concerned with what to do to stay alive and does not coincide with understanding , needing to be complemented by reason.
  106. The good interaction between body and nature requires that both be in good condition.
  107. The senses exist and the senses are safe in relation to biology, the conservation of life.
  108. The difference between dream and reality is memory: when we are dreaming, our experience is self-contained, we have no memory of previous dreams.
  109. When we are awake, however, we have memory of dreams and reality as well.
  110. Metaphysics has its function. Y6&4KU42%CWVSPNY!pt^t3He6xzE9Z99GK Throughout our lives we have learned many wrong things.
  111. So everything we build on false foundations is worth questioning .
  112. This effort can not be done immediately, but only at a propitious age, in solitude (well after retired).
  113. This is a highly destructive process and should not be attempted if other people depend on you to exist.
  114. Descartes intends to reject any information that is not clear and evident.
  115. It is not necessary to overturn each discourse at a time: it is enough to overturn its principles , which are fewer in number than the reasonings built upon such principles.
  116. The senses are the first thing he eliminates as being “doubtful”: if the senses deceive , he will reject the sensory information, for they are not clear and evident.
  117. Cartesian doubt is a decision, not a normal doubt: you choose to doubt.
  118. Doubt will be his method of this book.
  119. The senses are safe for everyday life, but that is not what we want.
  120. Descartes slept naked.
  121. How am I supposed to know… if I’m not dreaming now?
  122. As it is possible to doubt the objective reality, Descartes also rejects it.
  123. Even if the dream is like a different reality from objective reality, the mind composes this fantastic reality using elements that it finds when we are awake.
  124. If there is an evil god who delights in deceiving the intellect, then neither mathematics nor geometry would be safe.
  125. But if God exists and he is good, he would not waste time deceiving his creatures.
  126. God would not create another God.
  127. Everything is dubious.
  128. Sensory information has its use, since I will rely on it in everyday life, and there is nothing wrong with doing so.
  129. Methodical doubt led Descartes to reject everything we have for granted and reliable.
  130. To think in this way is not only laborious, but makes life impossible to be experienced.
  131. This book is like a personal doubt diary.
  132. The search for some “secure knowledge” is compared to the lever: if I have a lever long enough and a point of support safe enough, I can lift anything.
  133. Maybe I do not have a body, but can I exist without a body?
  134. I can not doubt one thing: that I am doubting.
  135. But to doubt it is necessary to think.
  136. But it is only possible to think and to deceive myself if I exist.
  137. I know that I exist because I am thinking, something that would not be possible if I did not exist.
  138. To come to the conclusion that I exist does not ensure that I exist in any particular way.
  139. The body is a tool at service for the soul.
  140. Soul is thinking substance.
  141. I’m a thinking thing.
  142. Thought itself is the only thing that passes through methodical doubt.
  143. Physical state is not essence, but accident.
  144. Achieving the nature of things is a mental effort, not empirical.
  145. If I play with an object and also with my body, but I perceive my body more sharply than the object with which I play, the knowledge of my body is more certain.
  146. What is easier in science is difficult for common sense.
  147. Under what conditions can I recognize the objective value of an idea ?
  148. To what extent does something that I think really exist?
  149. If there is a god who likes to deceive people, it needs a job or a woman.
  150. We must find out if there is a reason to believe in God.
  151. If there is, we should make sure he does not employ his industry to deceive us.
  152. We can desire things that are impossible.
  153. An idea I have does not necessarily correspond to the thing to which it should correspond.
  154. Some ideas I have seem to have been born with me.
  155. Ideas of external origin, affections: near a fire, I will feel heat.
  156. Instinct is not a secure source of knowledge.
  157. Instinct is amoral, it is agnostic.
  158. Once the exterior leaves an impression, we can recall the impression later on, without the object that caused it.
  159. Without a clear idea, there is no judgment criterion between false and true.
  160. The sense shows the Sun, instinct assumes that the Sun is the size it seems, but reason says that the Sun is bigger than the Earth.
  161. Sensory information betray with great treachery.
  162. Appeal to degrees of being, to efficient cause: every effect has a cause and I am an effect.
  163. Nothing guarantees that the creature is equal to the creator.
  164. Nothingness can not create, with that we all agree.
  165. The creature is similar (not equal) to the creator in something, even to a lesser degree.
  166. If God exists, then I am not alone in the world.
  167. Something is imperfect if it does not go as planned.
  168. Is the cold absence heat or is the heat absence of cold?
  169. Can I conceive a complete lie?
  170. Are there any ideas that are false by nature?
  171. The idea of ​​God is too complex to be conceived by the human spirit.
  172. The existence of God only comes to mind because God shows himself to the human mind.
  173. Finite comes from infinity .
  174. If something is limited, it is because it does not exist in a supreme degree, implying a portion of non-being ( potency ).
  175. It is possible to apprehend the infinite in its form, but never in its content.
  176. If I were God, I would have no doubts about being God.
  177. We had a beginning, we are not eternal.
  178. Our parents made our bodies, but the spirit comes from God.
  179. It is different to create and produce: parents produce the child, but they did not create the human being.
  180. God does not deceive, nor he needs to.
  181. If God is perfect, he would not create a perfect nature or perfect human beings because it was not in his interest to create other gods like him.
  182. Being finite, I can not receive infinite divine power.
  183. I make mistakes because I do not know what I need to perform a certain task.
  184. If God is perfect, He will always want the best and the most advantageous.
  185. Misunderstanding is lack of certainty, but it is not total cognitive deficiency.
  186. If God is perfect and infinite, a finite mind can never understand some or several or all of his decisions.
  187. It would be strange for Descartes to say that canine teeth were designed to pierce pieces of flesh: if God is the master of all things, being also infinite, and his reasons incomprehensible for the weak human mind, we can’t say for sure what is the purpose of anything in nature.
  188. What advantage could there be for nature to be more intelligent than it already is?
  189. The understanding has limits more rigid than the will: we want several things, but we not always understand what we want.
  190. There is a difference between freedom of choice and freedom of act.
  191. One should not position oneself on what one does not understand.
  192. A defect is only defective in a certain sense.
  193. To minimize or even eliminate deception, clear and distinct truths must be separated from informations which are not clear or distinct: on the uncertain, one can only speculate.
  194. It is possible to attribute existence to something that does not exist.
  195. If I say that there is an extremely perfect being, I must prove that such being exists.
  196. If God is perfect, He is eternal.
  197. Geometry applies its precepts to material things, which makes material things quite probable, but does not guarantee that they exist.
  198. Something is “possible” if I have proof that it is possible or if I have no proof that it is impossible.
  199. Descartes points out that we have sensations because there are objects that inspire us sensations and because we have organs that interact with such objects.
  200. The body affects the spirit, which is myself, which implies the existence of the body.
  201. We have no control over what things attract us.
  202. Pain is an intimate sensation, but it is not safe: people who have had amputated limbs still have pain sensations in limbs that are no longer there.
  203. You can feel things that are not there, like when you dream.
  204. Descartes does not rule out the possibility that sensible ideas are produced within the spirit itself (as in madness or hallucination).
  205. I’m a thinking thing.
  206. The body would be useless without the spirit.
  207. The fact that we have sensations in spite of our will, since our spirit, being ourselves, is totally subject to our will, shows that sensations come from external sources.
  208. The cause of sensations is either a body or God.
  209. It is not God, because God would not want to be an object, since he is not deceitful.
  210. What is uncertain can still be known with certainty, because the spirit can correct information.
  211. If nature teaches us something through the senses, then it seems safe to admit that there is something outside us.
  212. Soul and body are not totally separate.
  213. Nature is one, always the same: if our senses do not perceive it as they should, it is our problem, not a problem with nature.
  214. The teaching of nature is concerned with what to do to stay alive and does not coincide with understanding , needing to be complemented by reason.
  215. The good interaction between body and nature requires that both be in good condition.
  216. The senses exist and the senses are safe in relation to biology, the conservation of life.
  217. The difference between dream and reality is memory: when we are dreaming, our experience is self-contained, we have no memory of previous dreams.
  218. When we are awake, however, we have memory of dreams and reality as well.
  219. Metaphysics has its function.

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