What I learned by reading “Metaphysics”.

Metaphysics” was written by Aristotle. Below, what I learned by reading this text.

  1. Curiosity is part of human nature.
  2. Art is the set of information abstracted from an inductive process with practical purpose.
  3. The hallmark of mastery over something is the ability to teach others to do that thing.
  4. The wise must know everything as far as possible, although he is not obliged to know everything in its depth.
  5. The wise must be concerned with the causes of things.
  6. Philosophy was born when people, astonished at the world, realized that they were ignorant and sought knowledge primarily to escape ignorance without necessarily aiming at practical utility.
  7. The causes of the substance are four: formal (what the thing is), material (what is it made of), efficient (what made it exist) and final (what is the purpose of it).
  8. To know something is to know those four causes.
  9. The early philosophers were interested in the cause of the world, identifying it in a simple and material element: Thales believed that the principle was the element water, Anaximus believed it was air, Heraclitus believed in fire, among others.
  10. Many of the earliest naturalistic philosophies were failures, because they suppress movement: what force impelled water, for example, to become other things (assuming that everything “came from water”)?
  11. Admitting only material causes for everything means suppressing incorporeal entities.
  12. Democritus believed that the principles were “full” and “empty” (ie, atoms and void).
  13. Pythagoras believed it was the number.
  14. Some Pythagoreans believed in the existence of ten principles, each consisting of two opposing elements.
  15. Naturalistic philosophers fall into two categories: those who believe in purely material origins (regardless of the number of principles) and those who believe in material origins and motor origins (the latter being one or multiple).
  16. Plato admitted movement, but he did not accept that Heraclitus’s doctrine of the “all flowing” was valid also for immaterial things, since if it were, nothing could be known (according to the Platonic system, concepts have to be static to be fully understood, because movement could change the concept and invalidate previously attained knowledge).
  17. The naturalists erred in many points, by suppressing the essence, by suppressing the incorporeal beings or by suppressing movement.
  18. It is soon seen that the number of ideas is a problem in the theory of ideas .
  19. The theory of forms entails “forms of forms,” ​​if abused, allowing something to be both model and copy.
  20. The origin of the movement is not clear in the theory of forms.
  21. It is not possible to apprehend something without the right sense (you can’t work with images if you don’t have sight).
  22. Everyone makes their contribution to the truth, even those who made mistakes.
  23. If something is too obvious, it is easy to miss.
  24. The causes can not be reversed indefinitely.
  25. If you want to be understood, please, speak clearly.
  26. Mathematics deals with things abstracted from matter.
  27. To solve the difficulties, it is necessary to expose them, to analyze them.
  28. Mathematics is not qualitative , but quantitative , concerned with number and quantity, not with good and bad.
  29. The essence of something is not empirically demonstrable.
  30. If nothing is eternal, nothing would exist.
  31. Eternal things and contigent things do not share the same origin.
  32. Ancient philosophy seems to imply that discord creates things, because it separates things from one another, giving them particular form, and friendship destroys things by putting everything together into one thing, making everything abdicate of particular existence.
  33. Not every potential becomes action.
  34. The philosopher’s duty is to study everything.
  35. Philosophy must question the axioms of other sciences .
  36. Logic is part of philosophy.
  37. Acceptance without proof is necessary to discourse: it is not possible to arrive at any conclusion about anything if you ask about proof and then the proof that the proof is reliable and só on.
  38. If the statement is deformed, the meaning of the terms contained in it has priority.
  39. For Anaxagoras, everything is mixed, there being no particular existence.
  40. If one’s senses were different, even for the better, it would be considered an abnormality and that person most likely would not be taken seriously.
  41. If everything were constantly changing, nothing could be said with certainty; there can be no science without regularity.
  42. The final cause also sets things in motion.
  43. Potential is the opposite of act: something is potential when it didn’t happen yet, but may happen later.
  44. “Impossible” is any false statement that is necessarily false (that is, which could not be true in any circumstance), such as “square circle.”
  45. “Good” is something that is perfect, excellent, or has reached its goal.
  46. “Genre” is a class of things (such as “mankind”).
  47. Accident is something that occurs along with the essence, but that does not modify essence (if the sky is cloudy or clear, it is still sky).
  48. Physics deals with things that are subject to movement, whereas metaphysics deals with abstract things.
  49. One substance is produced from the act of another.
  50. Essence (concept) is independent of senses.
  51. The essence of the animal is the soul (principle of movement, animal is a living being that moves by itself).
  52. Every definition is definition of the universal; accidents are not taken into account in a definition (the definition of “sky” is independent of whether or not the sky is cloudy).
  53. In “biped animal”, animal is genus and biped is difference (what differentiates that specimen from others of the same genus).
  54. You need to know what you are looking for before you start looking for something.
  55. “Calmaria” means “tranquility of the sea”: tranquility is act, sea is substrate.
  56. “Animal” is “soul in a body”.
  57. It is not possible to generate a form, but it is possible to generate an individual, which is matter and form.
  58. Not everything has four causes.
  59. Knowing an object may imply knowing its opposite.
  60. The best way to learn is in practice.
  61. Nothing comes from nothing.
  62. Stability is necessary to knowledge; it is not possible to know something that is constantly changing.
  63. One can not say that everything is true or that everything is a lie.
  64. If the sciences are hierarchical according to their objects, then theology is the greatest science.
  65. Accidental knowledge is not scientific.
  66. “Chance” is not “effect without cause,” but an unexpected effect of unknown cause.
  67. The final cause moves by attraction.
  68. The mission of each individual begins in their nature .
  69. Number and greatness are in the things, those things aren’t abstracted in nature.

Publicado por Yure

Quando eu me formei, minha turma teve que fazer um juramento coletivo. Como minha religião não me permite jurar nem prometer, eu só mexi os lábios, mas resolvi viver com os objetivos do juramento em mente de qualquer forma.

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