Art is the set of information abstracted from an inductive process with practical purpose.
The hallmark of mastery over something is the ability to teach others to do that thing.
The wise must know everything as far as possible, although he is not obliged to know everything in its depth.
The wise must be concerned with the causes of things.
Philosophy was born when people, astonished at the world, realized that they were ignorant and sought knowledge primarily to escape ignorance without necessarily aiming at practical utility.
The causes of the substance are four: formal (what the thing is), material (what is it made of), efficient (what made it exist) and final (what is the purpose of it).
To know something is to know those four causes.
The early philosophers were interested in the cause of the world, identifying it in a simple and material element: Thales believed that the principle was the element water, Anaximus believed it was air, Heraclitus believed in fire, among others.
Many of the earliest naturalistic philosophies were failures, because they suppress movement: what force impelled water, for example, to become other things (assuming that everything “came from water”)?
Admitting only material causes for everything means suppressing incorporeal entities.
Democritus believed that the principles were “full” and “empty” (ie, atoms and void).
Pythagoras believed it was the number.
Some Pythagoreans believed in the existence of ten principles, each consisting of two opposing elements.
Naturalistic philosophers fall into two categories: those who believe in purely material origins (regardless of the number of principles) and those who believe in material origins and motor origins (the latter being one or multiple).
Plato admitted movement, but he did not accept that Heraclitus’s doctrine of the “all flowing” was valid also for immaterial things, since if it were, nothing could be known (according to the Platonic system, concepts have to be static to be fully understood, because movement could change the concept and invalidate previously attained knowledge).
The naturalists erred in many points, by suppressing the essence, by suppressing the incorporeal beings or by suppressing movement.
It is soon seen that the number of ideas is a problem in the theory of ideas .
The theory of forms entails “forms of forms,” if abused, allowing something to be both model and copy.
The origin of the movement is not clear in the theory of forms.
It is not possible to apprehend something without the right sense (you can’t work with images if you don’t have sight).
Everyone makes their contribution to the truth, even those who made mistakes.
Eternal things and contigent things do not share the same origin.
Ancient philosophy seems to imply that discord creates things, because it separates things from one another, giving them particular form, and friendship destroys things by putting everything together into one thing, making everything abdicate of particular existence.
Quando eu me formei, minha turma teve que fazer um juramento coletivo. Como minha religião não me permite jurar nem prometer, eu só mexi os lábios, mas resolvi viver com os objetivos do juramento em mente de qualquer forma.
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