What I learned by reading “The German Ideology”.

The German Ideology” was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Below, what I learned by reading this text.

  1. All the great philosophical currents before Hegel have a position on the dichotomy between subject and object.
  2. The formal logic is Aristotelian.
  3. What contradicts itself may be false.
  4. But if something moves, it is contradictory.
  5. The attempt to know an object impartially, that is, to keep the object distant from the subject in order to know the object by itself (what we call “objective knowledge”), is a positivist idea.
  6. “Work” is the alteration of the objective world through subjective action, which can even be done without us being aware of it.
  7. Humans create “their” world.
  8. Reality is not in another world, but even so things are not as they appear to be.
  9. Our world is result of the collective work of all of us, men.
  10. Awareness is not enough if it does not lead to change.
  11. Ironically, the more objects are valued, the less value is given to those who make objects: the workers.
  12. Workers become commodities.
  13. The worker becomes the object of the object he makes.
  14. Although Engels and Marx had foundations on Hegel’s philosophy, they later became critics of Hegel.
  15. Men work, that is, only men are able to change the world instead of just adapting to it.
  16. The next generation will inherit the changes made today.
  17. Although work is good for us all, most humans, though capable of working, do not want to work (reminding that work is the ability to change objective world through subjective ways).
  18. That’s because the transformations that the upper classes order from us are not the transformations we want to make.
  19. So we use our ability to work (power to transform) to follow the interests of others, not ours, producing transformations we do not want.
  20. This is called alienated labor: we don’t recognize ourselves in the work that is done.
  21. Societies arise from the need that humans have to unite against the threats of nature.
  22. The German Ideology is an unfinished work: the original text has damaged pages and even missing pages.
  23. A text is not the propaganda that is made of it.
  24. Bruno Bauer is accused by Marx and Engels of strawman argumentation: he had a review of the Holy Family , then he criticized the review as if he criticized the book, which is not the same thing.
  25. Reducing philosophy to self-consciousness operates no change anywhere.
  26. Solving real problems requires real solutions: one does not solve the problem of poverty with “self-consciousness”.
  27. The practical materialist wants to transform the world, not only at a conceptual level, but also at concrete level.
  28. Do not confuse the concept of man with the men you see on a daily basis.
  29. It is wrong to contemplate reality, if you are not going to act upon it.
  30. Your concept of man may be invalid to the point of applying only to the men of your country.
  31. Our world is a historical construction.
  32. The human world is not autonomous, it is not static, it changes with our actions.
  33. Without human activity, science would be weak or non-existent.
  34. If human activity (work) ceased completely for one year the world would be different.
  35. The human being is a sensitive object, but he is also capable of sensitive activity, so that it is not possible to understand a man without understanding his actions as well.
  36. To say that all human beings are equal is a lie: compare a rich man to a poor man.
  37. Explaining the world is not enough.
  38. Human potential is only activated if the subject has its survival conditions satisfied.
  39. History is the product of human labor, which would not exist if men were dead.
  40. Therefore, the satisfaction of survival needs is a condition of possibility for work and, consequently, for history.
  41. Families should be studied empirically, a study that has nothing to do with the current “concept” of family.
  42. The history of mankind can not be abstracted from the history of labor, from the history of industry (in a broad sense, not in the strict sense of “factory”).
  43. Language arises from the need to communicate.
  44. The human being has to build his life, but he is limited by his physical capacity and his conscience.
  45. The human consciousness is improved by the increase of the necessity and the increase of the production, both based on the increase of the population.
  46. With the increase of the population, the division of labor begins, in principle, according to aptitudes : the strongest are those who carry things, the more intelligent are in charge of planning things and só on.
  47. Work could also be divided casually or according to need.
  48. The division of labor reaches its apex with the division between practical (material) work and theoretical (spiritual) work: some think and others act.
  49. This is where the aspiration for “pure” knowledge begins, as if we could abstract our thought from the practical world.
  50. If there is a religion, the division between thought labor and practical labor creates the need for a priestly class.
  51. The deeper the division of labor, the greater the chances that there will be those who only produce and those who only consume.
  52. The apex of the division of labor: thought without activity and activity without thought.
  53. When the work is divided, profession is imposed by need and you have to perform that function, or you will lose your means of subsistence.
  54. This makes us employ our work force in things we would not like, because we are doing what we are told to do, not what we want.
  55. The collective interest, in the form of the state, appears to have an “autonomous” existence.
  56. The class that “represents” this “collective interest” becomes dominant (see note 86).
  57. For workers to impose their interests as the “collective interest,” they must acquire political power.
  58. All struggles within a state are apparent manifestations of a deeper struggle between the ruling and dominated classes.
  59. Communism is not a state of affairs, but a movement.
  60. Communism can not prevail at the local level, but only at the global level.
  61. Communism needs the sudden action of the dominant classes, which imply that workers must ascend to power first (see note 58).
  62. The next generation uses, under different conditions, the means of production of the former generation.
  63. A phenomenon that subverts governments can surely called a “historical” thing.
  64. Those subvertions are practical, never purely spiritual.
  65. It is with practical elements that reality changes.
  66. Individuals form one another, either materially or spiritually.
  67. Revolution is necessary when the overthrowing of dominant power is not enough: we need revolution when there’s a need that those who come to dominate do so without the impurities of a pre-existing system (for example: coming to power by democracy does not eliminate social classes).
  68. New ideas are born from practical problems.
  69. We are influenced by circumstances, but that does not mean we can not influence such circumstances.
  70. If you can not put an idea into practice, it is not the repeated proclamation of the idea that alone will create the circumstances of fulfillment.
  71. Nature and history are complementary, not opposed to each other.
  72. A history that disregards the practical historical elements is eluded by the current prejudices.
  73. The social organization of states is born from practical issues, because the state is not organized without practical goals.
  74. Germany has neither the monopoly of thought nor the monopoly of historical action.
  75. It is not enough to explain without acting.
  76. Attacking something as a philosophical category does not eliminate that thing.
  77. The class that owns the means of material production also has means of intellectual production.
  78. Because of this, the ideas of the ruling class are the dominant ideas of an era.
  79. Beware of those who say that “some evils should be accepted”.
  80. Ideas are not abstracted from the people who think such ideas.
  81. An idea has no autonomous existence: it resides in the people who think alike.
  82. For a class to dominate, it must make its interests be seen as public interests, and they usually do so by claiming to act according to higher ideals (“freedom”, “equality”, among others).
  83. As soon as the class begins to dominate, that public interest becomes the particular interest of the class that comes to dominate.
  84. To make it appear that ideas are more important than the people who think them:
    1. You abstract the idea, as if an idea could stand alone.
    2. Connect the dominant ideas to each other.
    3. Assign the resulting current of ideas to the intellectuals of the time, so that it seems that the idea arose not from an empirical, material need, but from an activity of disinterested speculation.
  85. The way we look at our times may be wrong: maybe we only understand this current year in the future, when we will look back.
  86. So we can not interpret a historical period by accepting what the period says of itself, but by what such period objectively is.
  87. Nature produces instruments of production, but they are, of course, very different from the means of production made by civilization.
  88. Instruments of natural production: the field and the water, among others.
  89. The industry that uses civilized means of production can only exist by division of labor.
  90. The division between manual labor and intellectual labor is what generates social differences between city and countryside.
  91. With the emergence of the city, the need for politics (community organization) is greater.
  92. When you divide the population between the thinkers and the workers, you create two groups with interests that are farther apart at each passing day.
  93. Cities are created by the need of defense of private property, of more means of production or of security, for example.
  94. When you totally master a craft, instead of just mastering part of it, you can perform such craft “artistically,” which allows you to draw pleasure for your work.
  95. But when you master only part of the craft, you tend to be indifferent to such craft.
  96. The seller didn’t necessarely made what he is selling.
  97. The division of labor may extend to cities, with each city exploiting a specific industrial branch.
  98. Without trade, a regional invention disappears if the region disappears (or is dominated).
  99. The first manufacture was weaving, and it became a manufactory thanks to the need for large amounts of clothing.
  100. Handmade weaving still exists, tho.
  101. Manufacture created the relationship between employer and employee, a relationship mediated by money, when before there was only the relationship between apprentice and master.
  102. If there is no further stimulus to production, capital remains stable … or diminishes.
  103. You can not increase your capital without increasing your output.
  104. In the seventeenth century, commerce and shipping expanded faster than manufacturing.
  105. During this period, there was demand for raw material produced in the territory itself and the export of such material could even be prohibited: the raw material produced in one country should not be given to others .
  106. Historically, it was necessary to make a revolution to win the rights fro free competition in a nation.
  107. The great industry has universalized competition.
  108. With this, each citizen depends on “the whole world” to maintain his level of comfort (we use goods that come from outside, as we export our goods to others).
  109. In places with a presence of the large industry, less advanced forms of production become infrequent or cease to exist (such as crafts).
  110. When private property interferes in industry or when industry is subordinated to private property, industry becomes destructive.
  111. The great industry has been destroying the particularity of each country.
  112. The industry has the same interest in all the nations in which it is established.
  113. Despite this, industrial development is not uniform across all areas of a given territory.
  114. Industry demands from the worker all of his energies, leaving no time for “higher” interests, which in turn weakens the religion and morals of a place.
  115. The conflict between productive forces and forms of interchange generates historical “collisions.”
  116. Competition brings workers together without uniting them , on the contrary: when several workers are together, but competing to each other, then each worker is effectively isolated.
  117. Because of this, the necessary union for the changes in favor of the working class is delayed, unless the great industry itself has produced means for faster communication.
  118. To say that we are the product of our nations would only make sense if the state was born before the citizen.
  119. Identical conditions, identical oppositions and identical interests make up for identical customs.
  120. The bourgeoisie is also divided into fractions based on the division of labor.
  121. As long as people feel no need to fight against an oppressive class, oppressed individuals will compete with each other.
  122. Personal freedom is possible in community.
  123. It is possible to liberate in isolation (liberating myself or others as individuals), but it is also possible to liberate myself as a class (all traders, all teachers, all workers, among others).
  124. The proletarians can only change something together and only by working with other proletarians; the help of other classes may become disruptive.
  125. When individuals free themselves, they do not necessarily destroy the conditions of existence that continue there.
  126. Even modern sheep and dogs are the product of a historical process: dogs were not always domestic animals, for example.
  127. Ending the state is something that can only be done via revolution.
  128. Colonization and conquest make the colonized or conquered territory receive the forms of exchange of the dominant country, causing the territory to experience a productive advance without going through all the stages that the dominant country had to go through in its own development.
  129. When the conquest takes place, the conquering country takes over the productive forces of the conquered country, which gives rise to new means of production.
  130. When the united individuals take ownership of the total means of production, private property may be extinguished.
  131. What is observed today, however, is the private acquisition of each isolated individual.
  132. The basis of the state is the social organization directly derived from production and exchange.
  133. Private property really begins with the concept of movable property.
  134. The state exists because private property needs to be protected.
  135. Collective institutions, when mediated by the state, acquire a political form.
  136. With private property, a demand for private law arises.
  137. Private property does not rest simply on private will.
  138. Private property is independent of the community.
  139. How can you be entitled to something you do not have?
  140. The law is not simply based on our individual will.
  141. The division of labor influences science as well.
  142. How do individuals’ lives escape their own control?
  143. Feuerbach’s philosophy is summed up in philosophy of nature, anthropology and morality.
  144. The human being only reveals his potential in community: alone, a man does not go far.
  145. This also holds true for our current needs: we depend on each other.
  146. The division of labor also occurs in Protestantism.
  147. Not everyone is happy with their condition, so being discontent is normal.
  148. You are not your profession, your job is not your essence.
  149. The set of questions addressed by the German critique comes from the Hegelian system.
  150. Many German critics claimed to have surpassed Hegel … but they could never stop depending on him.
  151. A Hegelian man understands the world only as long as it can be reduced to a Hegelian category.
  152. How can a young man “shake the world” if he is conservative ?
  153. Fighting words with words makes no difference to the world.
  154. A young man’s idea of ​​his own attitudes may be different from the celebration around such attitudes and the opinion of foreigners about such attitudes.

  155. Real individuals, their material conditions, and their actions are solid assumptions upon which to begin reasoning.

  156. There is human history and natural history.

  157. Human history influences the natural history and natural history affects the human history.

  158. Good assumptions are empirical and verifiable.

  159. The bodily organization of the human being allowed him to produce his own means of life.

  160. By producing your livelihoods, you indirectly produce your entire life.

  161. However, producing your livelihoods is not something that can be done without relying on existing and natural livelihoods (such as water and air).

  162. Production is stimulated by population growth, which, in turn, stimulates trade, which in turn is conditioned by production.

  163. The first historical act of the human being was the production of his means of life, not reflective thought (because history is change and thinking alone does not change anything).

  164. The relationship between one country and another as well as the internal structure of that country depends on the development of its production and its interchange (internal and external).

  165. The first form of property was the tribal one.

  166. The second form was communal .

  167. Along with communal property develops mobile private property.

  168. Later, we have privately owned property.

  169. Nevertheless, these forms of private property are subordinated to the communal property in that first moment.

  170. Communal property increases the power of the people, while private property reduces the power of the people.

  171. The third form was feudal.

  172. The old property was centered on the city, while the feudal property is centered on the countryside.

  173. The Roman conquests stimulated agriculture.

  174. As the population grew, the number of artisans remained more or less stable, facilitating the hierarchy, within the cities, between master and apprentice.

  175. The feudal property was constituted by the property of land and by the work of the servants.

  176. Social structure and the state are the results of the actions of particular, empirical individuals who act as they can under conditions which such individuals often have no power over.

  177. Early ideas were intertwined with material life.

  178. These ideas were fundamentally linked to material activity and only in later moments did men form more abstract ideas.

  179. Abstract ideas can originate from ” sublimations ” of the everyday empirical process.

  180. Thus, for example, metaphysics bears little resemblance to the concrete fact, because it’s extremely abstracted.

  181. Thus the evolution of metaphysics is, in fact, the evolution of man: when man changes, his thoughts and the products of his thought also change.

  182. Consciousness is therefore determined by life and can not determine such a life alone.

  183. Some intellectuals stir up riots to bring their ideas back to the memory of the public who no longer remember them.

  184. The contradiction within a philosophy is a problem of that philosophy, and probably doesn’t reflect a contradiction in the world.

  185. Ideas are not the foundation of the empirical world!

  186. Philosophers are not heroes, not every philosopher revolutionizes the world.

  187. The desires we feel are a force that originates in us and dominates over us: we can not choose what feelings we have.

  188. Some authors hate when people understand their books.

  189. For example, when I understand a work correctly, I can make a relevant criticism to it.

  190. Criticism is not abstracted from critics, we can not treat concepts as independent of the people who conceive them.

  191. You should read a book objectively, not necessarily as the author wanted you to read, because some people write books expecting you to think in a certain manner, rather than allowing you to draw your own conclusions about the issue presented.

  192. If you do not read objectively, your interpretation of the text will be biased.

  193. Philosophy must participate in political life.

  194. Hegel recommended the reading of reviews because they could exceed the object appreciated by them (presumably the original work), but this is incorrect, because there are reviews that have nothing to do with the work reviewed.

  195. It is best to read the original work.

  196. Before you complain that justice does not pay attention to you, ask yourself if justice exists in the first place.

  197. Children are not metaphysicians.

  198. Teens are not metaphysicians either.

  199. It is necessary to confess that children and adolescents are generally not guided by greater principles, but by pleasure, and that one’s own conscience isn’t scary enough to keep someone’s actions within the law.

  200. You do not need metaphysics or logic to enjoy life.

  201. You are not alone in the world, not even metaphorically.

  202. The thing you think about is indifferent to what you think about it.

  203. Destroying your own opinion about something destroys neither the thing nor its universally valid concept.

  204. Changing your opinion doesn’t change your world.

  205. Believing something is not the same as conquering something, especially if you believe in something false.

  206. Do not be gullible, do not be naive.

  207. To seek a better world is to admit that the current world is not satisfying.

  208. Contrary to popular belief, the natural family is not a very important value in Christendom (Matthew 10: 35-39, Matthew 12: 46-50, Matthew 19:10).

  209. The concept of “wise man” varies from one philosophical school to another.

  210. The Stoics did not condemn incest.

  211. The theory of the social contract, that is, that the state is born of mutual agreement among men, seems to have been mentioned for the first time by Epicurus.

  212. To prove a thesis, unscrupulous thinkers omit historical details, but a “truth” that can only be sustained by the omission of things that have happened is false.

  213. When you know little, you can speak more about the few things you know, but less about the relation of these things to others.

  214. If you consider something as true, you generally do not look for another truth that replaces the first, unless you fail to consider the first truth as true for some reason.

  215. That being said, destroying something regarded as truth can not be done without proving that such “truth” is actually false, in a conceptual, but specially in a practical way.

  216. In assuming something, you’d better be able to prove such assumptions as correct.

  217. Nothingness is infertile.

  218. Not having a function doesn’t make you less of a human.

  219. There are people willing to defend falsehoods with false evidence and false logic.

  220. One does not make phenomenology of anything with only one aspect of the object of study.

  221. Industrial and exchange conditions influence society, which adapts to them, consequently also resulting in adaptation by the state, which may even lead to an adaptation of the local religion.

  222. “Obsession” is the thought that submits men.

  223. It can not be said that a politician is corrupt because the newspaper says he is, but that the newspaper says that the politician is corrupt because the corruption of the politician already exists, unless the newspaper is lying.

  224. “Sacred” varies according to culture: our Holy Bible may not be regarded as holy in other cultures.

  225. Thus, our moral customs can not be regarded as absolute, as if, for example, certain types of sexual intercourse were universally disapproved.

  226. Ideas do not punish anyone, só people are paid to punish.

  227. “Not following any maxim ” is already a maxim .

  228. Black people have historical importance: remember that Egypt, where there was a rapid development of mathematics, is in Africa.

  229. The Catholic church was an aspect of the Middle Ages, not the Middle Ages, which had a profane aspect, as all ages have.

  230. Different “stages” of human “evolution” may not be arranged in hierarchy: the previous stage may be as good or even better than the present one.

  231. For example, the Protestant Reformation does not make Protestantism any better than Catholicism.

  232. You do not change the world just by fighting ideas.

  233. The Hegelian system does not reflect the world: Hegel’s world view is not the real world.

  234. The present is not necessarily better than the past .

  235. For you, are abstract things more important than material to the point of deserving total dedication?

  236. Understanding history through a particular historical theory is not the same as understanding a historical period being studied.

  237. Arguments do not come from ignorance .

  238. Transgressing the rules of a group is something a person can do on a case by case basis, but that person may still want everyone else to respect those rules.

  239. This is because the group would cease to exist (as well as the benefits of belonging to it) if all rules were broken by all.

  240. The bourgeois family is just one kind of family.

  241. For example: among the workers, the family is very flexible, organizing itself according to real needs.

  242. The family was a social , economic need.

  243. The development of the industry ends up requiring a new type of family, but ideally the family should not exist.

  244. The underpaid teacher consoles herself by reminding herself that her job is important.

  245. It is ridiculous to say, even implicitly, that only hegelian knowledge educates a man.

  246. If you are going to plagiarize someone, at least understand the text you are plagiarizing.

  247. A work with a goal of being universal can not have as its presupposition the local history, be it of a city or a country.

  248. To change what is said of a thing does not change the thing.

  249. Good will alone is not enough.

  250. Having goodwill without taking action is a sign of helplessness.

  251. Without economic conditions, there will be no political concentration.

  252. A social movement may not be represented by the image that is made of it.

  253. When there are economic conditions, industrial conditions and competition, absolute monarchy becomes a hindrance.

  254. Your boss pays you little because the government allows and the government allows because the boss pays a high tax to that government: it’s like the boss bought from the government the right to pay you a low wage.

  255. Do not put limits on your thinking.

  256. A belief without actions is infertile.

  257. Money has no power in itself, but is made powerful by society.

  258. Gathering the workers in a block to fight for a common goal is very difficult.

  259. Strikes can only achieve good results if they are revolutionary.

  260. True revolutions involve weaponry.

  261. Directions for the future can not be found in speculative philosophy, which is explanatory and non-prescriptive by nature.

  262. The bourgeois state maintains itself with the freedom of work, that is, with the competition among the workers.

  263. Thus, the defeat of the state can be done by suppressing labor: if everyone quite their jobs, what will happen to the state?

  264. The child has human rights!

  265. The child must be liberated!

  266. If there is anything wrong with society, fix it.

  267. You are not to blame for not getting along with society, but society is to blame.

  268. For example, we can not say that the child who works and suffers because the job is too heavy for her is to blame for not liking her situation.

  269. No, society is to blame for allowing and sometimes stimulating child labor.

  270. In fact, to say that it is your fault and that it is only up to you to change yourself is to discourage your cooperation with others in favor of a beneficial social change for all, and therefore an invitation to isolation.

  271. The state of need must be abolished.

  272. Society allows personal development.

  273. The reward of the worker is more work: notice how everyone wants to pay as little as possible for your service.

  274. Communism is a practical movement that pursues practical goals through practical means.

  275. No Communist is bogged down in theoretical questions; the thing is to identify the problem, draw up the action plan and act accordingly.

  276. The Communist does not want everyone’s salary to be the same!

  277. At most, communists would want the end of the salary, but if there is salary, it can not be the same for all functions.

  278. The fact that you have many possessions does not give you the right to take advantage over those who do not have as much as you.

  279. Take advantage of your citizenship.

  280. Beware of those who do not see you as a human being, but only as a worker.

  281. Communism is amoral.

  282. Sentimentality is not an argument.

  283. You are not your profession.

  284. Many Christians cease to be Christians because they can no longer endure their misery.

  285. You can not demand complete abnegation from anyone.

  286. One of the attributes of private property is its marketability.

  287. People treat you differently when you are rich.

  288. Capitalist relationships are social.

  289. A revolutionary idea can be appropriated and used in a reactionary way.

  290. Fighting against concepts is not the same as fighting against the things to which the concepts refer.

  291. A coreless book is a bad book.

  292. To dissuade a person from his or her behavior, talk about the practical consequences of such behavior, not abstract concepts.

  293. The selfish harms himself with the practical negative consequences of his selfishness.

  294. Our lives influence our principles, which are also created for the sake of life.

  295. Some dichotomies, once explained, disappear.

  296. Communism is amoral.

  297. The general interest is always professed by private groups.

  298. The general interest and private interest may coincide.

  299. To satisfy a longing is to satisfy oneself.

  300. Our image we have of ourselves will not be the image that future generations have of us, but that does not mean that their image about us is true, as if we did not know what we are now.

  301. To say that the satisfaction of your desire is not the real satisfaction, the satisfaction of oneself, is to try to put yourself against yourself, casting doubt on your self-concept.

  302. There are those who use the maxim “love your neighbor as yourself” to justify selfishness (“each one is the neighbor of oneself”).

  303. We do not cease to exist when we no longer perceive ourselves.

  304. The development of our abilities depends on favorable circumstances: it is no use for you to have a medical talent and not have the resources to actually attend to medicine classes in order to perform such a function.

  305. Your multiple skills can not develop without an environment that provides development.

  306. So, personal success does not depend only on yourself.

  307. A hidden talent stays unnoticed, until the circumstances uncover it.

  308. You are limited by your ability and your environment.

  309. Doing what you can is not omnipotence.

  310. There is no sense in a “revolutionary” discourse that defends a conformist idea.

  311. Some real contradictions can only be reconciled in appearance and with a lot of rhetoric.

  312. An idea that makes no difference in your life has no value to you.

  313. A text that uses a key term in different senses throughout the text without saying that such a term is being used in different meanings is dishonest: the term must be correctly defined in each new use.

  314. A word should not have its meaning distorted.

  315. Do not use etymology or phonetics to equate terms with patently different meanings , as if they could be applied in the same way.

  316. Making something complex or absurd sound easy to laymen facilitates the acceptance of the argument, even when the argument is wrong.

  317. Changing the subject in the middle of the reasoning hinders your understanding and, consequently, hinders your ability to criticise.

  318. “No” can be understood in more ways than one.

  319. Do not take concepts as reality: neutralizing, exposing or overturning a reasoning does not change the world, unless some practical action also happens.

  320. The excess of examples hides the lack of content in an argument.

  321. What’s the point of believing in an idea that will not benefit you?

  322. The judgment that people who are inferior to you have of your actions does not matter.

  323. Criticizing one’s religion does not work if one feels benefited by religion.

  324. To criticize one’s religion is to criticize the representation you have of that religion.

  325. You decide which books deserve your attention.

  326. The police is a bourgeois power.

  327. Prison does not improve your morals.

  328. You have the vocation and the mission to satisfy your needs.

  329. If you work fourteen hours a day, you are literally working as much as a beast.

  330. If your conditions are bad, it is your mission to change them.

  331. Some workers do not get enough resources to survive.

  332. Lack of determination is a determination.

  333. The nature can prove that your reasoning is wrong.

  334. In hypocritical societies, naive people see “the sacred” everywhere.

  335. Self-renunciation is not freedom.

  336. The primitive man is not totally free as is commonly thought; he is subject to other kinds of “chains”.

  337. It is possible not to understand the elements that limit your freedom.

  338. The balloon was invented before the train.

  339. New inventions are born from need.

  340. No one regrets new beneficial inventions, no one lamented the invention of the train just because it could not fly.

  341. Some inventions perpetuate men’s subordination to money, but this is because men generally do not want to get rid of money, but to have more and more of it.

  342. There is negative freedom (freedom not to do) and positive freedom (freedom to do).

  343. If your body feels pain, that pain is yours, not just your body’s pain.

  344. No one is born to be a slave.

  345. When someone is dismembered, the torturer is interested in causing pain, not in having the leg for himself.

  346. When you are a spoiled bourgeois, problems seem to be solved by themselves, but problems that are not solved “by themselves” are also held to be unsolveable.

  347. There are philosophers and other intellectuals who are só just out of obligation and would not want to be so, because the division of labor may also be unfair even to the elites.

  348. A book may simply not explain its key terms, making the terms are not intelligible in or out of context.

  349. Sensations occur in you without you having to accept them, but they are still properly your sensations.

  350. Nobody can and no one wants to deprive the worker of his right to eat.

  351. It is possible to make a speech dishonestly by using homonyms in a chaotic way , sometimes as synonyms, sometimes as not being synonyms.

  352. It is possible to use a word abstracted from its meaning.

  353. It is very difficult to put workers in union.

  354. The social status of a child isn’t inherent to the child, but attributed to the child as consequence of the parent’s status.

  355. Royalty does not just depend on recognition.

  356. The law derives from power .

  357. A type of right (such as human rights ) does not act against other types of rights (such as children’s rights ).

  358. The existence of law and state is independent of the will of the dominated classes.
  359. The will to eliminate the law or the state only arises under certain conditions; generally, these are not goals that most pursue.

  360. Crime is the struggle of the isolated individual against the ruling laws.

  361. Democracy is not exercised for just one moment, it does not end after the elections.

  362. After all, you can make choices that you regret later.

  363. To destroy the state is not a question of mere will, it is not a question of mere change of attitude.

  364. Without a Penal Code, there’s no punishment for a crime.

  365. The violence done by the state is not always moral , the violence done by the citizen is not always a crime.

  366. The will alone can not free the body?

  367. An oppressor can not be convinced by reason.

  368. If you do not feel shame, no amount of words will instill shame in you.

  369. Do not rely on a speech that calls you to conformism.

  370. Only a state that is “sacred” will promote censorship.
  371. The republic is older than the constitutional monarchy.

  372. You do not attack the state by attacking the idea of state, but by attacking the state itself.

  373. The employer generally does not like the worker’s child.

  374. Nothing wrong with asking for salary increase.

  375. When there are many wealthy people, the state ends up in debt.

  376. When the bourgeoisie has enough money, it can buy portions of the state.

  377. If your philosophy has conscience as a foundation, eventually you will do moral philosophy.

  378. No one is poor because they wants to, no one likes to be poor.

  379. Generally, you do not need state authorization to compete with others.

  380. The difference between the poor and the rich is beyond their patrimony: it is not only a question of who has more.

  381. The price of something is not arbitrary, but determined by things such as production costs.

  382. The demand changes every day, nothing guarantees that you will continue wanting certain merchandise tomorrow.

  383. Competition is conditioned by supply and demand.

  384. Competition can drain even one’s spiritual assets, such as their religion, their decency, and their modesty.

  385. The honor, decency and even the sound religious doctrine are taken away from workers if the elites see fit .

  386. If you give something because you were forced to, it is not giving it “kindly”.

  387. To say that things compete, not people, is as valid as saying that it is the weapons that kill, not its users .

  388. Money is not as popular as it sounds.

  389. The state will not die on its own, we can’t expect government to “die from old age.”

  390. Good will is not enough.

  391. The philosopher who has his ideas constantly denied by reality is powerless in the face of reality.

  392. We can not change the conditions of the world without organizing ourselves and without doing public acts.

  393. “The price I see fit” is arbitrary and is not the same as “fair price”, which is defined by the laws of the market, supply, demand and costs of production.

  394. You can not take something from someone by violence and then say you did not take anything from that person.

  395. Usually, you ask for a raise after you are doing something to make you deserve a raise.

  396. The increase in salary does not guarantee an increase in the quality of work.

  397. Receiving payment is not profit: profit and salary are different things.

  398. The boss does not need the employees’ money, since he probably already has a hundred times more than each of them.

  399. What is the meaning of an intellectual work that has no pretensions of triggering practical changes in the world?

  400. If the workers took all the boss’s money and distributed equally among themselves, they would not have enough.

  401. No one employs a guy who only wants to work for the highest possible wage.

  402. The price of something in worldwide market has nothing to do with the wages of those who produce the item.

  403. The price of something on the world market has nothing to do with the wages of those who produce the commodity.
  404. Price is defined by supply and demand.

  405. The strike is only one type of protest: more united and more organized workers can protest in other , perhaps more effective ways .

  406. Your work is copyable, the product of your work can be usurped (plagiarism).

  407. In a world where there is division of labor, talent is never enough to succeed: you also need the luck of being born into the elite or able to become elite.

  408. Even though you have an elite education, your success is still conditioned to the demand for your work.

  409. The division of labor is also bad on the other hand: there is a greater demand for the work of few intellectuals.

  410. Ideally, no one should be attached to a profession: you should be able to perform whatever function you desire whenever you wish.

  411. Do not fight against phrases , but against the conditions that make the phrases plausible .

  412. Your money is not proportional to your ability.

  413. Which means the fact that you work hard will not guarantee that you will manage to pay your bills at the end of the month.

  414. The problem is not the inability to get money, but money itself.

  415. The fact that you do not have money is not always your fault.

  416. To say that everything belongs to everyone is not the same as saying that each one has his own belongings, because the former doesn’t imply private property.

  417. When two opposing forces come to an agreement, they will break this agreement at the first opportunity.

  418. You need a boss to give you wages in exchange for work and the boss only tend to you because he needs a worker: such relationship wouldn’t exist without a need.

  419. People do not elect a ruler expecting him to act as a worker.

  420. The relationship of helpfulness is only one of the many human relations: not everything is exploitation of the potential of others.

  421. How you will be exploited, this depends on the social position of the exploiter.

  422. The more you work, the more you need to have fun.

  423. On the other hand, if your options are few, you may want to turn to vicious fun.

  424. Because fun isn’t “vital”, you always have the feeling that fun is useless.

  425. Each one has fun the way they can , which gives rise to “the amusements of the poor” and the “diversions of the rich”.

  426. You can not solve a problem by forgetting the problem.

  427. The developmental capacity of the child depends on the developmental capacity of the parents: children with parents who have more developed potential will also be more likely to develop their own potential.

  428. This problem is largely due to the lack of opportunity and can be mitigated by providing opportunities for realization and discovery of personal talent.

  429. Biological differences do not imply that people of any kind will all be always inferior.

  430. Nature is not a definite limitation of potential.

  431. It can not be said that a “dumb person” will never be anything in life: everyone has potential for something and must have their talents stimulated after discovery.

  432. The more we hate something we claim to be a lie , the more we admit to ourselves that it is true .

  433. Some of our characteristics do not depend on our humanity: we humans use language, but the fact that I speak German or French in particular does not depend on my humanity, but on the circumstances.

  434. Languages ​​derive from other languages, either by direct descent or by mixture, in addition to being modified by other factors .

  435. Not knowing what a human is doesn’t invalide your humanity.

  436. On the other hand, there are people who have no humanity.

  437. It is because social classes are inherently different that every relation between proletarian and bourgeois is, in addition to a relationship between individuals, a relationship between classes.

  438. Unless these classes are equaled or cease to exist, it will not be possible to deal with subjects without an implicit class relation.

  439. The advantage one has over another only makes sense in society.

  440. The division of labor deforms and determines the subject, which receives as a fate: either he thinks or he works, he either exploits others or works for others.

  441. The next generation inherits the means of production from the former (which does not prevent them from seeking new means of production).

  442. You will develop, but you must fight against the forces that try to condition your development.

  443. Private property transforms the means of production and the means of exchange into destructive forces.

  444. However, using these means of production and exchange, it is possible to end the division of labor and private property, if this is done by individuals who pursue this goal.

  445. The only just determination for our development is the connection we have between us, though such a connection is not free from economic, supportive, and productive elements.

  446. You can only declare something as “unmatched” after trying to compare it with other things.

  447. Read without allowing the books to distort your view of reality: the only thing that ensures that the author of the book is right is how well that book describes reality.

  448. A word can not do anything outside the realm of words: words are not things.

  449. The philosopher who claims that the lack of ideas is the death of philosophy is trying, even if inadvertently, to kill philosophy.

  450. If a concept has no relation to reality , it is a meaningless concept.

  451. True socialism has practical motives and practical goals: it is not a movement that only does theory.

  452. Communism was not born of “pure thoughts,” just as any philosophical, political, or economic system does not spring from mere thought.

  453. A legitimate movement is based on practical needs .

  454. Socialism must be presented in a way that anyone can understand it, because otherwise it will be a movement for intellectual elites, when we need the workers to make it a thing.

  455. Socialism is revolutionary, not “philanthropic.”

  456. There is no socialism without the working class.

  457. Socialism is a French idea.

  458. When the subject’s mind is still small, it is easier to convince him with the narrative genre (novels, chronicles, fiction, comics, and other forms of popular literature) than with the essay genre (scientific article, monograph, theses, and other forms of scientific literature).

  459. The narrative genre can function as propaganda.

  460. Sometimes it is better to think of an idea as subject to time than to think of it from the viewpoint of eternity: if something is urgent, thinking about whether it should last forever can result in wasted time.

  461. Animals masturbate.

  462. Strange is a person with political engagement labeling behaviors as “natural” or “unnatural.”

  463. There is no “false” private property and “true” private property: private property exists only in one way.

  464. The communist who wants to succeed as a communist can not pretend that class struggles do not exist: he must admit it, not disguise it.

  465. Germany is not the world’s judge.

  466. Nationalism is a bourgeois idea.

  467. “Happy life” is not a natural state: it’s either handed to you or acquired.

  468. For some people, getting back to square one is development.

  469. Appealing to nature is a technique that has already been used to justify social inequality and slavery.

  470. “Natural human affinity” is a historical construction.

  471. The police is the consequence of the division between men.

  472. The police is not the only force to exercise coercion over the human will.

  473. Abstraction does not precede fact, abstraction must not lose a real connection with fact.

  474. Our life is not all fruition, and work often enters the group of activities which you derive no happiness from.

  475. Germany is a country like the others and can not claim to rise above other nations.

  476. A nation can not claim the right to be a guide of the world .

  477. It is an insult to hear that a foreigner knows your nation better than you.

  478. Cursing at your opposers isn’t the same as critiquing them.

  479. If you say that you are wiser than others, you’d better be able to prove it…

  480. A review of a work is not the reviewed work.

  481. A review of another review is also not the reviewed work.

  482. Several people marry for interest, not for love.

  483. A good biographical account is chronological and is not abstracted from the motives of the narrated acts.

  484. To hide a plagiarism, some authors criticize the author they copied.

  485. Everyone will have to work eventually.

  486. Do not talk about what you did not read .

  487. The history of the state is directly linked to the history of economy.

  488. Moral is the restraint of human passions.

  489. Some people take only fantasies seriously.

  490. The end of marriage was already occurring at the time the book was written.

  491. Human life is the foundation of religion and politics, not the reverse.

  492. The means of production, better with each generation, end up producing excess goods, which may not be consumed.

  493. When you write a book, you generally do not expect your readers to write theirs, but only that the reader’s formation is improved.

  494. Overproduction only unleashes a crisis when it begins to affect the exchange value of commodities.

  495. Do not think that your plagiarism will not be detected just because you plagiarized someone who has little importance to you .

  496. Incidentally, that person of little importance may be more intellectually qualified than you (after all, you copied them).

  497. The parliament and the aristocracy can create crisis on purpose in order to get support from the people in a cause of their choice.

  498. Miracle workers take advantage of people’s ignorance about the natural world or the social world .

  499. These miracle workers also rely on the fear they can instill in their hearers.

  500. They try to incite emotions so that they can be believed more easily, because emotion suspends reason.

  501. German idealism is no different from other national ideologies, no better than them.

  502. Ignoring is not refuting: saying that your opponent is too weak to deserve refutation does not refute him.

  503. A materialism that only considers its objects as concepts is blind to the revolution.

  504. Evidence is given in practice.

  505. The quest for truth is a practical quest.

  506. Men change the circumstances around them.

  507. Revolution is a change of circumstances.

  508. What is sensitive is practical.

  509. The human relations are part of the human essence.

  510. Social life is practical life.

  511. Interpreting the world is not enough; you have to transform it.

Publicado por Yure

Quando eu me formei, minha turma teve que fazer um juramento coletivo. Como minha religião não me permite jurar nem prometer, eu só mexi os lábios, mas resolvi viver com os objetivos do juramento em mente de qualquer forma.

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