Analecto

30 de maio de 2019

O que aprendi lendo o texto de Alexandra.

Filed under: Organizações — Tags:, — Yure @ 09:55

Abaixo, o que aprendi lendo o texto de Alexandra.

  1. O trabalho é sobre contabilidade.
  2. Existem várias formas de se olhar pra contabilidade empresarial, de forma que são precisas várias abordagens pra compreendê-la.
  3. Uma dessas abordagens é a “contabilidade social”.
  4. O “balanço social”, um dos principais conceitos da abordagem social da contabilidade, é raramente empregado por ser mal compreendido.
  5. A pergunta do trabalho: qual é a relevância da responsabilidade social para a estratégia mercadológica?
  6. O objetivo do trabalho é encontrar um meio de usar a responsabilidade social (em seus aspectos contábeis, sociais e ambientais) na manutenção da marca e da imagem da empresa.
  7. “Contabilidade” é o conjunto de técnicas de cálculo e interpretação de dados financeiros, patrimoniais ou de outra forma contábeis, a fim de apurar, coletar, registrar e classificar informação relevante à empresa ou organização.
  8. A contabilidade é uma aplicação social da matemática: você calcula com fins sociais.
  9. Portanto, é uma ciência social.
  10. Cada contador trabalha em uma área específica do órgão que o emprega, de forma que cada contador ou grupo de contadores é responsável por um setor.
  11. O gerente requererá tipos diferentes de dados de cada contador da empresa, a fim de obter uma visão global do andamento dos negócios.
  12. A contabilidade não apenas estuda como controla o patrimônio de uma determinada entidade.
  13. Tal como existem “leis da física”, isto é, regularidades que permitem a previsão de fenômenos físicos, existem “leis da contabilidade”, que permitem a previsão de fenômenos contábeis.
  14. As pessoas estão mudando: estão se preocupando com o bem-estar dos funcionários de empresas, estão se preocupando com o meio ambiente, estão se preocupando com a paz…
  15. A empresa que não acompanha as tendências humanitárias em ascensão corre o risco de perder a confiança de seu público.
  16. Assim, a empresa precisa pagar seus funcionários (mesmo que minimamente) bem, ser “justa” e ter compromisso ambiental, porque, se tais atitudes atraem clientes, tais atitudes são lucrativas.
  17. Avaliar a conformidade da empresa com essas tendências é tarefa da contabilidade social.
  18. Ela produz os dados que mostram, por exemplo, o quão “ecológica” é uma empresa, qual o grau de satisfação de seus funcionários, quantas mulheres trabalham ali e coisas que tais.
  19. Mostrar dados ambientais positivos é necessário.
  20. A mudança nas tendências de consumo faz com que a contabilidade social seja mais requisitada: as pessoas não estão comprando apenas o que é barato, mas também o que é saudável, ecologicamente correto, de uma empresa responsável e justa com seus funcionários.
  21. O resultado das pesquisas sociais contábeis é o “balanço social”.
  22. Um bom balanço social, dadas as tendências modernas de consumo, pode ser usado como ferramenta mercadológica, um tipo de propaganda da empresa (“compre aqui, eu sou bonzinho com as plantinhas, olha só”).
  23. O balanço social é publicado no Brasil desde 1965, mas só começou a ser levado a sério nos anos noventa.
  24. O balanço social é qualitativo, não necessariamente quantitativo, como é o balanço financeiro.
  25. O balanço social é obtido por vias numéricas, por vias de auditoria, por vias de observação e por vias dedutivas.
  26. A contabilidade social tem papel descritivo e prescritivo.
  27. Os dados socialmente contábeis são empregos, relação trabalhista, produtividade, higiene, remuneração, frequência dos funcionários, entre outros.
  28. O público-alvo de um balanço social é a sociedade ao redor da empresa.
  29. Estratégia tem a ver também com fazer as perguntas certas, não apenas a respondê-las.
  30. Eficácia é fazer o que se manda, eficiência é fazer o que se manda com o mínimo de gastos e esforço.
  31. Planejamento estratégico: imagine qual é o objetivo que você quer atingir, trace os meios de chegar lá, estipule metas e altere os meios empregados, se necessário, dependendo da capacidade destes de completar tais metas ao longo da aplicação da estratégia planejada.
  32. Um planejamento estratégico sempre tem longo alcance, mas não necessariamente é visa resultados a longo prazo: é possível, às vezes, fazer algo grande em pouco tempo.
  33. Isso envolve alocação de recursos.
  34. Empregados alienados dos processos da empresa deixam de se preocupar com o sucesso da empresa.
  35. Administração estratégica é uma situação em que todos os administradores (táticos e operacionais) pensam estrategicamente.
  36. O plano real acabou com a inflação.
  37. O tempo de súbitas mudanças entre os anos oitenta e noventa foi péssimo pra empresas brasileiras: cada mudança inesperada na economia prejudicava vendas e lucros.
  38. Planejar é pensar nos meios pra atingir um objetivo antecipado: o que deve ser feito, em que ordem e como cada coisa deve ser feita.
  39. É preciso coletar dados sobre a situação se queremos planejar qualquer coisa, bem como definir objetivamente e concisamente o que queremos.
  40. Etapas do planejamento: formulação dos objetivos, verificação dos nossos recursos e das nossas forças (para saber quais características da empresa favorecem ou restringem a busca pelo objetivo), verificação dos recursos e do comportamento do ambiente (para saber quais forças ao redor da empresa podem ser exploradas favoravelmente e quais devem ser evitadas ou combatidas), formulação de estratégia.
  41. As pessoas sabem que o governo, sozinho, não é capaz de resolver os problemas do povo.
  42. Tais problemas só podem ser amenizados pelo trabalho conjunto entre iniciativa pública e iniciativa privada.
  43. Assim, as pessoas esperam que empresas estejam dispostas a ajudá-las com suas necessidades sociais.
  44. Propor essa ajuda é uma jogada de marketing, no caso, marketing social: a associação entre uma marca ou empresa e uma determinada causa social defendida por ela.
  45. Essas causas podem ser higiene, nutrição, saúde, transporte, educação, habitação, trabalho…
  46. Se associar a essas causas fortalece a marca.
  47. Isso aumenta seu valor.
  48. A vinculação do nome ou logotipo de uma organização não-governamental às ações de uma empresa privada é algo lucrativo, as pessoas gostam da ideia de que podem “fazer a diferença” comprando determinada marca (o motor de pesquisa Ecosia, por exemplo, usa parte da receita obtida com anúncios pra plantar árvores e ainda tem um “contador de árvores plantadas” pelo usuário do sistema).
  49. Fazer parceria com uma entidade que luta por uma causa social implica fazer “doações” à entidade, o que melhora a imagem da empresa.
  50. As causas mais comuns são saúde pública, proteção às necessidades básicas humanas (como alimentação e abrigo), proteção à criança e ao adolescente e meio ambiente.
  51. Escolha bem a causa que você quer apoiar.
  52. Se o consumidor sentir que o esforço da empresa pra apoiar uma causa social não é suficiente, o marketing social não funcionará.
  53. Responsabilidade social é um conceito diferente de filantropia: a empresa não está fazendo caridade.
  54. Até porque é preciso ser rico pra ser filantrópico.
  55. Outras formas de melhorar a qualidade da imagem da empresa é, por exemplo, não comprar de fornecedores que não estão compromissados com desenvolvimento sustentável, não adquirir produtos de quem emprega trabalho infantil e coisa e tal.
  56. A responsabilidade social não é uma atividade distinta, mas parte do gerenciamento empresarial.
  57. A tendência é que a empresa fique mais dependente da sociedade, dos empregados, dos clientes, de todo o mundo, então é preciso começar a se adaptar a isso.
  58. Características da responsabilidade social corporativa: pluralidade, abrangência, sustentabilidade e transparência.
  59. Uma empresa deve explicações a outros, além de seus acionistas.
  60. Transparência é uma exigência típica da globalização.
  61. Relatórios socioambientais devem ser obrigatórios.
  62. Existe “filantropia estratégica”: uma doação feita para melhorar a imagem da empresa, a fim de que, a longo prazo, esta possa alcançar seus objetivos financeiros.
  63. O governo não é o único que pode resolver problemas sociais.
  64. Uma doação não necessariamente é feita em dinheiro.
  65. Ecoeficiência é a incorporação da gestão ambiental na gestão empresarial.
  66. Marketing também causa impacto ambiental.
  67. O fato de não haver muitos consumidores ecologicamente conscientes não implica que a empresa continuará competitiva apesar de não investir em sustentabilidade.
  68. Se todas as empresas em um lugar investem pouco ou nada em meio ambiente, a primeira dentre elas a mudar isso se tornará pioneira.
  69. O governo cobra mais sustentabilidade de todas as empresas.
  70. Não tomar isso como algo importante pode fazer com que a empresa seja pega de surpresa.
  71. A legislação ambiental é severa no Japão, na Alemanha e na Suécia e nem por isso as empresas de lá são pobres.
  72. A menos que os executivos de uma empresa sejam ecologicamente conscientes, as atitudes ecológicas daquela empresa serão apenas superficiais.
  73. Se antecipe à legislação, aja como se o projeto de lei já houvesse sido sancionado.
  74. Se sua empresa for ambientalmente correta, outras empresas quererão fazer negócio com você.
  75. Colete informações sobre seus concorrentes.
  76. Se o fornecedor de matéria-prima aumenta o preço de seu produto ou reduz sua qualidade, a empresa que recebe desse fornecedor perderá credibilidade: poderá aumentar o preço ou a qualidade do produto final cairá.
  77. Se o produto de uma empresa não satisfaz, procure um produto equivalente produzido por outra.
  78. As cinco forças competitivas: ameaça de substituição, poder de negociação do comprador, poder de negociação do fornecedor, competidores veteranos, competidores novatos.
  79. Três estratégias de competição: produto barato (baixar o preço), produto diferente (desempenha uma tarefa de maneira única), produto especializado (aumento de qualidade na execução da tarefa).
  80. Para baixar o preço sem baixar a qualidade é preciso procurar meios de produção mais eficientes, ou seja, fazer melhor com o mínimo possível de recursos.
  81. Fazendo isso, um produto de qualidade competitiva pode ser vendido a um preço menor que o dos concorrentes.
  82. Se o preço for baixo e o custo de produção for baixo, tanto o fornecedor terá dificuldade de vender pra outro (porque você pode arcar melhor com o preço de matéria-prima) como os clientes terão que ficar com seu produto (porque ele é econômico).
  83. A estratégia do produto diferente precisa ser feita pesquisando do que os compradores precisam, criando um produto sob medida.
  84. Se o produto for mesmo diferente e cativar o público, compradores terão dificuldade em encontrar um produto semelhante e terão que ficar com o seu por falta de opções.
  85. A empresa precisa dizer ao seu público por que aquele produto é diferente.
  86. A estratégia do produto especializado é empregada por empresas que só produzem um tipo de coisa, mas, por fazerem apenas um tipo de coisa, a fazem muito bem.
  87. É o caso das empresas que focam em nichos de mercado.
  88. Essa estratégia é um híbrido das outras duas: tanto se corta custos quanto se torna mais fácil diferenciar seu produto de outros no mercado, mas isso é mais fácil procurando um público-alvo menor (seu nicho) no qual se especializar.
  89. O texto traz um estudo de caso feito com a Natura.
  90. Em 2005, a Natura ganhou US$524.000.000 só vendendo seus produtos.
  91. “Bem-estar” é a relação harmoniosa consigo próprio.
  92. “Estar bem” é a relação harmoniosa com o que lhe é exterior.
  93. A Natura tenta, através dos seus produtos, ajudar o sujeito a ter ambas as coisas.
  94. A busca permanente por aperfeiçoamento é o que melhora tanto o sujeito como o que está ao redor dele.
  95. Cada pessoa e, consequentemente, cada grupo de pessoas, tem potencial para aperfeiçoamento.
  96. A busca por aperfeiçoamento e a busca pela verdade são uma só.
  97. A vitalidade de um sistema depende da diversidade de seus elementos.
  98. Tanto no ecossistema quanto nas relações humanas, a diversidade é importante.
  99. Faça seu conceito de beleza, não aceite o conceito dos outros.
  100. Beneficie a família do seu empregado.
  101. Sua empresa deve deixar a comunidade num estado melhor que seu estado anterior.
  102. Que tal sua empresa fundar uma escola ou ajudar escolas existentes?
  103. Se você se engaja em causas sociais, não faça um alarde por causa disso, ou os consumidores pensarão que você está nessa só por interesse.
  104. Não esqueça o lucro, mas também não pense só nele: uma empresa que só tem o lucro como objetivo é descreditada.

19 de maio de 2019

O que aprendi lendo “A Didática Como Fator de Qualidade no Processo de Ensino Aprendizagem”.

A Didática Como Fator de Qualidade no Processo de Ensino Aprendizagem” foi escrito por Amanda e Alessandra. Abaixo, o que aprendi lendo esse texto.

  1. Ensino tradicional, o mero repasse de conteúdo, não é didática.

  2. Didática é uma forma de ensinar de determinada forma que facilite ao aluno alcançar um determinado objetivo.

  3. Assim, para que haja didática, isto é, para que haja um método de ensino, é preciso que se descubra por que eu estou ensinando e o que eu quero daquele aluno.

  4. Didática, como prática, é pedagogia aplicada: é o uso da teoria pedagógica na situação prática de ensino.

  5. Já a didática como área do pensamento é o estudo das técnicas de ensinar.

  6. A didática implica intervenção ativa do professor no processo de aprendizagem do aluno

  7. Assim, “aprender sozinho” não implica didática: só há didática se houver um professor, o que exclui do campo da didática como ciência o autodidatismo.

  8. A ideia de que a educação é direito de todos tem origem religiosa, protestante, mais especificamente: o criador da didática moderna, Comênio, era pastor e concluía que a educação é direito de todos porque é um meio de se aproximar de Deus.

  9. A educação deve partir do conhecido, em direção ao desconhecido.

  10. Com a ascensão da burguesia, a demanda pela Didática Magna cresceu.

  11. Isso porque os meios de educação clássicos, baseados na memorização e na separação entre ensino e vida concreta, não atendia às demandas burguesas.

  12. Comênio que a criança se civilizasse, enquanto que Rousseau queria que a criança não fosse corrompida pela civilização.

  13. Permitir professores sem formação naquilo que ensinam é um retrocesso.

  14. Comênio queria um método de ensino no qual os alunos aprendessem mais, sem que o professor ensinasse mais, reduzindo o ruído e o excesso de trabalho em sala de aula, tanto para alunos quanto pra professores.

  15. Ele também esperava com isso reduzir os problemas da cristandade.

  16. Não é possível ensinar sem um objetivo: é pelo objetivo que se pensa na técnica pra atingi-lo.

  17. A ação dos professores deve ser conjunta.

  18. As técnicas de ensino empregadas antes da Didática Magna ainda sobrevivem na forma de “ensino tradicional” (aquele no qual o professor leciona e espera que o aluno memorize e reproduza).

  19. Esse tipo de ensino não favorece o desenvolvimento individual.

  20. O ensino deve partir do que o aluno já sabe.

  21. Uma boa didática observa a aprendizagem casual do aluno, pra usar seus hábitos de aprendizagem espontânea didaticamente.

  22. A didática deve fazer parte de um projeto de desenvolvimento do povo.

18 de maio de 2019

O que aprendi lendo “O Protagonismo Juvenil no Ensino Médio”.

Filed under: Notícias e política, Organizações — Tags:, , — Yure @ 16:27

O Protagonismo Juvenil no Ensino Médio” foi escrito por Alda Sousa. Abaixo, o que aprendi lendo esse texto.

  1. “Protagonista” é o mesmo que “competidor principal” ou “primeiro lutador”.

  2. Hoje, essa palavra tem o sentido de “personagem principal” de uma história.

  3. A participação de alunos na gestão democrática da escola é uma forma de protagonismo escolar juvenil.

  4. A comunidade inteira deveria participar da construção da escola como espaço educacional democrático, já que ela não seria democrática de outra forma.

  5. A educação, desde a infância, deve encorajar o senso crítico e a autonomia.

  6. Antigamente, a educação básica tinha como função formar apenas o futuro universitário ou o futuro empregado, mas agora há uma demanda pra que a escola prepare o sujeito para o futuro, dando-lhe os meios pra melhor alcançar esse objetivo.

  7. É preciso que o aluno seja capaz de aprender sempre, que ele não sinta que não há mais o que aprender, que ele estava preparado pra aprender quando a necessidade surgir.

  8. Os princípios políticos do ensino médio: os da igualdade, os éticos, os estéticos, os de identidade, os de diversidade, os de autonomia, os de interdisciplinaridade e os de contextualização.

  9. Os alunos devem aprender como viver num estado democrático e republicano de direito.

  10. “Protagonismo” é coisa relacionada às ciências humanas.

  11. Estimular um protagonismo juvenil não é algo que pode ser feito alienando o aluno dos avanços de sua época.

  12. O aluno deve ser informado dos problemas sociais de seu tempo.

  13. O aluno deve ser capaz de usar e modificar as informações obtidas na escola, não simplesmente assimilá-las.

  14. A escola tem autonomia para escrever e aplicar sua própria proposta pedagógica.

  15. A criação dessa proposta habilita o protagonismo do professor.

  16. O jovem é protagonista quando é sujeito de algum ato, quando é livre para tomar atitudes que impactem a sociedade.

What I learned reading “Monadology.”

Filed under: Livros, Passatempos — Tags:, — Yure @ 14:34

Monadology” was written by Leibniz. Below, what I learned by reading this text.

  1. The “monad” has no parts.
  2. It is simple, and enters into the composition of other substances.
  3. If there is not something that can not be divided, it is not possible to explain the multiplicity of compound things.
  4. There must be something that can not be divided.
  5. Being simple, the spiritual units were not formed: or they always existed or “appeared.”
  6. In this case, they have miraculously appeared and also miraculously disappear.
  7. The famous statement that spiritual units “have no windows” must be understood in the sense that nothing enters or leaves the monad, being simple.
  8. If it is simple, it is totally compact in itself: it does not receive an addition and it can not be subtracted.
  9. The problem with the atom of Democritus is that it does not explain the qualitative differences between beings and substances, since Democritus conceptualized atoms as different only in format.
  10. Although the monad can not be destroyed but miraculously, it is subject to becoming.
  11. Monads change because of an inner quality: if they can not receive addition or subtraction, the monad changes alone, without an external agent.
  12. Mechanism, the idea that natural phenomena can be explained by analogy to products of human artifice does not explain perception.
  13. There are unconscious perceptions: if we only perceive, for example, sounds while conscious, how can the noise wake us from sleep?
  14. The monad does not correspond to the soul.
  15. To arouse prudence (“attainment” in Leibniz), several impressions are not necessary: ​​a traumatic experience, even one, can produce the same effect as several small bad experiences.
  16. What differs from other animals is the ability to do science, not simply reason.
  17. Classically, “soul” is the principle of movement, whereas “spirit” is only the rational part of the soul.
  18. There are two kinds of truth: reason (a priori, “every bachelor is an unmarried one”) and those in fact (a posteriori, “something happened in such and such a way”).
  19. The truths of reason are necessary and can not be otherwise, the truths of fact are contingent and can be otherwise.
  20. There are truths that do not need proof.
  21. God exists.
  22. We see that the material world is contingent, that is, subject to generation and corruption.
  23. The world can only have its origin in a necessary being, something that must exist and that always existed.
  24. God has perfect understanding, so He can only make good choices.
  25. Spiritual things follow formal and final causes.
  26. Physical things follow material and efficient causes.
  27. Enduring the bad consequences of sin are, in themselves, a form of repentance: suffering is the best way to learn your lesson.
  28. There is no action without consequences.

14 de maio de 2019

What I learned by reading “Mission of the Wise.”

Filed under: Não categorizado — Yure @ 09:40

Mission of the Wise” was written by Fichte. Below, what I learned from reading his book.

  1. The truth can be unpleasant.
  2. An intellectual is only needed in society: a knowledge that I use alone, without sharing it with others, makes no difference to humanity, nor to the country, nor to the state, nor to the family.
  3. Philosophy should pursue clear knowledge: the philosopher who strives to be difficult to understand is being an elitist moron.
  4. The first task of philosophy is to tell us what we should do now.
  5. We only know what we are because there are things outside of us with which we compare ourselves.
  6. We need reason and sensitivity, there is no need to eliminate one or the other.
  7. The main task of the human being is self-definition: he must discover what he is, how he should act and act in accordance to his concept as long as he exists.
  8. Fichte illustrates this using a variant of the categorical imperative: act in such a way that you wouldn’t need to change.
  9. In other words, act in a way that wouldn’t bring regret later.
  10. Our goal is to realize our identity.
  11. Everyone has culture to a greater or lesser extent.
  12. The human being is a sensitive and rational animal.
  13. If something brings happiness, it is good, because only good things bring happiness.
  14. Any science or any philosophy that does not contribute to improving culture or improving humanity is void, useless knowledge.
  15. How do I say that my body is me if I am not my body?
  16. Nature acts according to laws, but reason acts with freedom.
  17. When several people want the same thing, these people are, together, a society.
  18. All states are societies, but not all societies are states.
  19. What is the purpose of a government that does not make me happy?
  20. A time will come, when state will no longer be necessary.
  21. The ultimate goal of the human being is unattainable because there is no consensus on its degree.
  22. The light is destined to overcome the darkness.
  23. Every boss is a slave to the employee: if all employees go on strike, the boss will go bankrupt.
  24. When dealing with human beings, you must always take their freedom into account.
  25. It is not possible to make a person wise, virtuous or happy against the will of the person.
  26. If we were all perfect, we would be identical.
  27. The union of all individuals is the ultimate goal to be achieved by mankind.
  28. Each can contribute to the culture of the other.
  29. The wise man can not be wise alone, because wisdom is measured by formative value: if your knowledge isn’t useful to anyone eles, but you, then it’s not wisdom.
  30. Sages are within society.
  31. Where does social inequality come from?
  32. I must develop my skills as much as possible.
  33. As long as I sharpen my skills, I can use them for whatever I want.
  34. The human being has the power to transform nature.
  35. Prohibiting a behavior is ordering the opposite behavior.
  36. The human being is no longer born in nature, but only in society.
  37. If no one had invented the tolls you use today, it would be up to you to invent them.
  38. All human beings have the duty to contribute to humanity, because the accumulated work of previous generations is what the comfort of the present generation is made of.
  39. What you learned in school should be used to improve the society in which you operate.
  40. Depriving society of your contribution is to betray it, because society has kept you alive all this time.
  41. The human being has no right to work for himself alone: his work must always benefit others as well.
  42. Do not be useless.
  43. Working for others is also working for yourself.
  44. Knowing our needs, but not knowing how to deal with them, is a useless and harmful knowledge.
  45. The sciences must progress freely, science should not be censored.
  46. If science does not progress, humanity does not progress either.
  47. Those who put obstacles to science will be called out by history, in the future.
  48. Science is only one of the facets of humanity: humanity must improve in every aspect, not only in the scientific aspect.
  49. The wise only exists for the sake of society and is only useful in society.
  50. You must use your wisdom to improve society.
  51. No sense in doing research if you aren’t going to share the results.
  52. In order to progress, it is necessary to know what has been produced until now.
  53. Every man can learn more, because it’s impossible for men to know everything.
  54. The sage must have the ability to communicate.
  55. When you lie to someone, you are using them as a tool.
  56. It is possible to educate with words, but it is always better to educate by being a role model.
  57. There are people who think that cultural progress is the cause of human corruption.
  58. That “people” is Rousseau, for whom the state of nature was the best state in which humanity lived, without culture, without science.
  59. The problem is that Rousseau only came up with that statement after much study, that is, with use of culture and science.
  60. Thus, an intellectual who says that cultural progress is the cause of corruption, when he himself is only saying such thing because of the cultural progress that operates in him, is always in contradiction with himself.
  61. One frequent criticism of Rousseau is that he says a thing in his books and then does the opposite in his public life: how could a guy who abandoned all of his children achieve the cynical feat of writing a book on education?
  62. There have always been philosophers who advertise those who fund them.
  63. Rousseau only said that the intellectuals are the ruin of the world because the intellectuals of his day were, indeed, pigs.
  64. As a rational animal, a man will always want to live in a state that is better than his current state.
  65. Thus, men would never willingly remain in a state of nature, if they could have something better.
  66. In the state of nature, the human being has plenty of free time and would eventually spend some time reflecting upon his life, damaging the perpetuation of that state.
  67. Many people ruin themselves when they try to have a good life without working for it.
  68. Your reason should be used as a weapon for social change.
  69. Do not let yourself be overcome by despair, fight to the death if necessary.
  70. To complain about something without moving a finger to change the situation is the same as being a whiny weakling.

6 de maio de 2019

What I learned by reading “Metaphysics of Customs”.

Filed under: Livros — Tags:, , — Yure @ 09:22

Metaphysics of Customs” was written by Immanuel Kant. Below, what I learned from reading this book.

  1. This book is a continuation of the Critique of Practical Reason.
  2. Philosophy books are often accused of being complicated on purpose, just to seem like the author is smarter than he actually is.

  3. All authors of philosophy books should write in a way that non-philosophers can understand.

  4. Often the philosophical process can not be popularized, because it requires a language that is far from the ordinary, but this does not mean that the results of philosophical reflection or research must be offered in lay language.

  5. Popularizing a text that was not written by the person who gets the book out there gives me the opportunity to twist the book’s original meaning.

  6. If we consider philosophy as a body of different disciplines, then there are several philosophies, each giving its contribution to modern thought.

  7. But if we consider philosophy as a single discipline, then each school of thought is part of a process of purification.

  8. So we can not say that the previous school of thought has no importance: it served as a means of perfecting and purification that enables the current state of philosophical thought.

  9. A work of philosophy or science, then, is never entirely yours: it was built upon a cultural baggage that you have and that was acquired through the study of other authors, whether through teachers or books.

  10. There are laws that do not have to be promulgated.

  11. It is permissible to universalize your experience, but it is necessary to be ready when the supposed universality is refuted.

  12. An unnecessary law must cease to be law.

  13. Ethics is experimental.

  14. The path to individual happiness goes through the intimate experience of the individual.

  15. Thus, what brings happiness to one may not bring happiness to another.

  16. “Concupiscence” is the desire that can be transformed into an act, but which has not yet been transformed into an act.

  17. “Free will” is the choice made on the basis of reason alone: ​​if I do something driven by strong emotion, we can say that I did it unintentionally.

  18. Human agency is not always free, but it is never completely savage.

  19. “Moral law” refers to the use of our freedom.

  20. “Legal law” refers only to external acts.

  21. The concept of duty derives from obligation, which, in turn, derives from the categorical imperative: I am obliged, by moral feeling, to act as if everyone would see me and adopt my behavior.

  22. “Imperative” is a rule that gives status of necessity to something that did not have that status before.

  23. “Duty” is something that I am obliged to do, that is, a specific, particular action that seeks to fulfill the moral necessity enunciated by the obligation, which in turn is based on the categorical imperative.

  24. If something is not forbidden, it is automatically allowed.

  25. If something is allowed, it is morally indifferent.

  26. A “person” is a subject responsible for his actions, who is capable of free will.

  27. The opposite of “person” is “thing”.

  28. An action that contradicts duty is called “transgression.”

  29. Whoever transgresses duty is always guilty, but trangressing duty knowing that what you do is a transgression makes you a criminal.

  30. Natural law precedes positive law.

  31. The maxim (rule of personal conduct) that does not take into account universality is immoral: I must act as if the whole world were to act like me.

  32. Maxims come from choice, but laws come from another source.

  33. A categorical imperative is a command.

  34. Is it not strange that the wicked are punished, but the good are not rewarded?

  35. An ethical law makes its goal clear.

  36. If you do your duties, you are only doing what you must, which is not something to be proud of.

  37. Honoring commitments even when there is no risk of punishment for disregarding such commitments is an act of virtue.

  38. An action is fair if it does not hurt anyone’s freedom while it is in accordance with a law respected by all.

  39. A judge can not issue a decision without defined conditions: there must be data on which he can base his decision .

  40. Is it lawful to do violence to those who have done no harm ?

  41. The law can not punish those who commit a crime in order to stay alive: the law can’t give a penalty that is worse than death.

  42. Do no harm.

  43. Secure your property without taking other’s property.

  44. The only innate right is freedom, the other rights have to be acquired.

  45. To lie is to say falsehood on purpose: if you say something false without knowing the truth, you haven’t lied.

  46. “Mine” is something whose use is linked to me in such a way that its use by others, without my consent, would be harmful to me.

  47. It is possible to possess something physically (having the object) or legally (having right to the object).

  48. It is possible say that I “own” a service provided to me by others.

  49. If someone already occupies a land , invading it is a violation the occupant’s rights.

  50. An empirical knowledge is always subjugated to space and time.

  51. An external object is not a far object, but a distinct object.

  52. It is possible to own something that will never be used.

  53. To say that something is mine implies that no one can use that thing without my permission .

  54. You can not have something that already has an owner, except in case of shared possession by mutual agreement between the parties.

  55. I have no right to use a person as object.

  56. The Earth’s shape (round) makes it easy for humans to meet.

  57. The unoccupied land is owned by the first person to get in there.

  58. The definite possession is only possible thanks to the laws: in the state of nature, a possession of mine can be subtracted at any moment .

  59. One should not take the land that already belongs to its inhabitants.

  60. A land on which one can not live belongs to everyone.

  61. Every human being is responsible for humanity.

  62. A contract guarantees me a promise, not necessarily the promised thing.

  63. “Sexual union” is the reciprocal use of bodies and abilities, a kind of agreement in which the bodies will be mutually used.

  64. You can’t acquire one’s members without having the right to the entire body.

  65. A “real” marriage should be made between people of the same social class, to prevent inequality in marriage.

  66. Romance without sex is friendship.

  67. The child is a person.

  68. The son did not ask to be born: if we bring a child to a life of suffering, we are criminals.

  69. That being said, you don’t have the right to have children if you can’t raise children.

  70. The child must have dual education: pragmatic (how to survive) and moral (how to be honest).

  71. A child who can survive by themselves is no longer a child.

  72. Money ” is anything that only has value when it is given: in fact, the value of money only appears when we spend it.

  73. If we have a lot of money, but we do not spend it, it’s the same as being poor.

  74. Work force can be exchanged for money.

  75. The more work there is, the more money is put into circulation.

  76. If money is easy to make, money will also be pointless.

  77. Knowledge has a price.

  78. Only legal money can be called “currency.”

  79. The author speaks for himself, the editor speaks for the author.

  80. Publishing a book without authorization puts the publisher’s profits at risk.

  81. It is possible to have merit after death.

  82. If a person lends me something, but never comes to get it back, the thing is effectively mine.

  83. One should not denigrate the image of someone who is absent and can not defend himself unless one is completely certain of what they are talking about.

  84. Slandering a dead person should be tried by the public and not by a court.

  85. Before borrowing something you should tell the owner that you will be responsible (for loss of the object, if something happens to the borrowed object).

  86. Before you lend something, determine the terms of penalty if the borrowed object is damaged or lost.

  87. You can not get something from someone who does not own the object you want.

  88. Because of this, it is wrong to buy stolen goods.

  89. However, if you buy stolen good without knowing that they were stolen, you shouldn’t be punished.

  90. I should be able to recover what is mine even if it is far away.

  91. I can not be forced to make oath.

  92. It is possible to use religion to torture.

  93. The court is the justice of a country.

  94. If I have to live with others, I will adopt the lifestyle of the majority.

  95. A constitution represents the will of the people and holds it together.

  96. The three powers that represent, or rather, should represent the general will : the legislative power, the executive rulers, the judges of the judiciary.

  97. If the executive power also has legislative power, we have a despotic government.

  98. The executive power has no power of judgment.

  99. Whoever commits a crime unintentionally does not deserve punishment, but instruction.

  100. If people cease to be interested in religion, clerical possessions are at stake.

  101. If you do not tell the police what you are doing when they ask you, you are automatically suspect and must explain yourself to the authorities.

  102. The police can not break into my house unless they have a court order.

  103. Tax money should always go into useful things.

  104. The state can force the rich to meet the needs of the poor.

  105. If you play lottery games, you will be poor.

  106. Church is not religion: “church” is a Christian institution with the public worship of God as a goal, but religion comes from within, from the spirit, it is a personal thing, not necessarily associated with special churches, temples or places (John 4: 24).

  107. Humans have spiritual need, the state can not banish religion without causing revolt.

  108. The tithing should be used to pay taxes if the church is not exempt from taxes.

  109. Justice for sale is unfair.

  110. Punishment for crime must be aggravated by the person’s social position: the president who commits crime must be more severely punished, since he serves as national role model.

  111. If you steal, you imply that it is okay to steal, which exposes your goods to being stolen.

  112. Citizens have the right to leave the country.

  113. Nothing wrong with a landlord calling foreigners to live with him.

  114. The landlord can ban an individual from his territory, that is, deport him.

  115. A genuine republic represents the people: a republic that does not represent the people is illegitimate.

  116. The ideal republic is one in which the people are sovereign.

  117. Why do not presidents fight the war?

  118. To go to war, we must renounce peace first.

  119. Where there are weapons, the law is mute.

  120. After a war is won, public property can be looted, but not the private property, that is, the property of each subject of the conquered territory.

  121. The purpose of the law is to enable perpetual peace.

  122. If you can not prove a particular position, you can try to demonstrate that the question is meaningless.

  123. It does not matter whether peace is possible or not; you have to act as if it is.

  124. Examples are illustration, not proof.

  125. Metaphysical concepts are incorporated even in statements that aim at practical utility.

  126. Even if they work and receive wages, children who have not left their parents’ home still owe them obedience.

  127. A commonly committed injustice doesn’t become a right just because it’s repeated.

  128. It is better to have little money and some freedom than to live in a luxurious place without any freedom.

  129. The church must be subordinate to the state as well.

  130. Metaphysics encompasses a set of pure rational concepts, that is, considered correct by logic, without the need for empirical evidence.

  131. The practical philosopher is one who uses reason to find the best course of action for attainment of general goals (such as “happiness”).

  132. Kant never intended to destroy metaphysics and often affirms it’s need.

  133. Do I have the strength to do what I’m asked to do?

  134. Two goals that are also duties: neighborly love and self-improvement.

  135. Perfection is personal: I can not perfect another person (think of all bad people who have great education).

  136. That means that improvement is up to the person, I can’t really improve a person if they don’t want to improve.

  137. Happiness” is being satisfied with one’s own condition.

  138. If I want to maintain my moral integrity and I can only do that if I am happy, then happiness ceases to be a goal.

  139. Self-love implies the desire to be loved.

  140. Benevolence (goodwill) is not the same as beneficence (good deed): you can say that you “wish the best” for a certain person without moving a finger to help that person out with their own needs.

  141. When you say that a certain man “has no conscience,” you mean that he does not pay attention to the accusations his conscience makes: he prefers to ignore those accusations.

  142. Do good to humanity, even if humanity does not deserve it.

  143. Maybe, in the future, mankind may be worthy of being loved.

  144. Do good also to those who do not feel love.

  145. By practicing the mutual beneficence, love can follow as a consequence.

  146. If one proof is enough, don’t give another.

  147. Having virtue “beyond measure” is already a vice.

  148. Wisdom, strictly speaking, is practical: the philosopher whose philosophy has no practical implication may well not be interested in wisdom at all.

  149. It is possible to be more virtuous than enough.

  150. The dialogical method is an attempt to bring to consciousness something that is already known.

  151. If I come to the conclusion that I have an unavoidable responsibility, I am automatically obliging myself to it.

  152. A duty to myself is automatically a duty to all mankind.

  153. I must perfect myself beyond the point where nature put me at birth.

  154. I must preserve my life.

  155. Suicide is homicide.

  156. Getting rid of a healthy part of one’s own body is not morally justifiable.

  157. Proving that masturbation is wrong is a difficult task because masturbation does no harm to anyone.

  158. It is possible to keep something in your heart and speak something completely opposite to what you feel.

  159. Drugs should only be used in medical situations: using them for pleasure is abuse.

  160. A banquet is a formal invitation to excess.

  161. “Lie” is intentional untruth: if you said something wrong because you did not know the truth, you did not lie, but you made a mistake.

  162. One should not do good through lying.

  163. The human being lies to himself often.

  164. One lies to oneself by professing something in which one does not believe because of a possibility of gaining something from it.

  165. Another example is to say that I, as a Christian, love the laws of God, when in fact I am only afraid of punishment.

  166. “Avarice” is not to spend when necessary.

  167. There is no middle ground between truth and lies.

  168. Why would you want money if you don’t want to spend it?

  169. If you find yourself above the law, you are arrogant.

  170. It is not worthy of a human being to bow before another human being, since they are fundamentally equals.

  171. If a person makes themselves a doormat, step on them.

  172. It is possible to stop paying attention to the conscience, but you can not help but hear its voice.

  173. The first command of all duties to oneself: know thyself.

  174. Although there is no relation of rights and duties between human beings and nonhuman beings, the human being still has at least duties to nature in general, as a whole, having to watch over the natural beauties in order to exercise the human capacity to love and abstain from cruelty to animals in order to preserve the human ability to feel empathy.

  175. The animal must be rewarded for a job well done.

  176. A duty to an animal is a duty to one’s own self, for it aids in the enhancement of one’s humanity, which has repercussions on the proper treatment among fellow humans.

  177. Everyone should have a religion.

  178. Human beings have an obligation to develop their capacities.

  179. Even if you are satisfied with the number of skills you already have, it is always helpful to improve their quality more and more.

  180. Organize your skills according to your goal.

  181. Science is theoretical, wisdom is practical.

  182. Physical education is as important as the study of science; the scientist, if he does not have a body or has a body that is not healthy, to the point of not serving it’s purpose, can not put the knowledge he has in practice.

  183. Your future job should be related to what you do best.

  184. Self-improvement should be directed toward the goal you pursue.

  185. As we will never reach perfection, there is always room for improvement.

  186. There are two types of duties that we maintain with others: those that imply mutual obligation and those that do not imply.

  187. Love and respect are not the same.

  188. “Philanthropy” is love to all human beings.

  189. “Misanthropy” is the opposite: it is hatred of all human beings.

  190. “Selfishness” is a form of love that doesn’t extend to other human beings.

  191. “Shyness” is a lack of means to express the love that you feel towards someone.

  192. I have to do to others what I want done to me.

  193. The principle of love is divided into: beneficence, gratitude and solidarity.

  194. You have to take care of your own body.

  195. When you feel good about the well-being of others, you are benevolent.

  196. When you work for the welfare of others, you are beneficent.

  197. It is rare to find someone who makes the well-being of others their goal.

  198. Working for the happiness of the needy is everyone’s duty.

  199. If the other is in need, granting him a benefit should not be done by seeking something in return.

  200. The limit of beneficence is selflessness: even though you should help others, you should not do that to the point of neglecting your own needs.

  201. I can not be beneficent to the other by imposing on him my own patterns of happiness: I have to know what makes the person happy and then do it to them.

  202. A person is rich when he has an excess of power to achieve his goals.

  203. The government can be unjust to the point of making it’s citizens deliberately poor, in order to make citizens need the beneficence of state.

  204. If I cause harm to someone and then repair it, it is not beneficence.

  205. Recognition is a kind of gratitude.

  206. The ancients deserve respect, but that does not mean that the new generation is always worse.

  207. It is easier to do good if evil is affecting you, because that makes you unable to be indifferent to evil.

  208. The vices that work against love: envy , ingratitude , malice.

  209. Envy that does not manifest externally is called “jealousy”, the envy that you keep to yourself.

  210. Envy is the feeling of pain originated by seeing others having a good time.

  211. Envy only occurs in people dissatisfied with their own condition.

  212. If something happens to any human being, it is in our interest to investigate.

  213. Malice and the desire for revenge go hand in hand.

  214. Revenge is never is just, because it’s an application of my own concept of justice, while justice is supposed to be universally valid.

  215. Only God can be perfectly just.

  216. No punishment should be applied when you are angry; the anger leads us to punish in excess, that is, to commit abuse.

  217. A crime that would render human nature abhorrent is what we call an “inhuman” attitude.

  218. The human being is between the angel and the animal in the scale of perfection, but that does not make it a hybrid of the two.

  219. Everything has value, even if it is negative value.

  220. A human being should treat himself as human and other humans as humans too.

  221. It is immoral to treat a human being as if it were less than human.

  222. Honor is respect to others: if they respect you, you are honored.

  223. One should not despise a human being because of one of his faults, because a fault alone does not make anyone a bad person.

  224. A “scandal” is an offense to honor accompanied by a bad example that could be followed by others.

  225. Pride is counterproductive: the more respect you demand, the less others respect you.

  226. Respect must be earned before it is claimed.

  227. “Detraction” is to publish one’s particular defect or flaw, causing scandal (it’s gossip, in other words).

  228. If you want to know about people’s private lives, you are always wrong.

  229. “Scorn” or “mockery” is to turn one’s faults into laugh matter, differing from “joke”, which is to turn qualities into laugh matter.

  230. “Friendship” is the union of two or more persons by mutual love and respect.

  231. A person who angers you or saddens you on purpose is not your friend.

  232. It is an act of love when a friend says, tactfully, that you are wrong.

  233. The real friend is there for you when you need.

  234. There is a need to reveal our secrets because we want to be accepted.

  235. The friend will hear your secrets and will not reveal them.

  236. Good friends are rare.

  237. Do not isolate yourself.

  238. Virtue should be fashionable!

  239. Virtue is not innate.

  240. There are two ways of teaching science: lecture (expository lesson) and by questioning (building the reasoning through questions thrown to the audience).

  241. The teacher has to be a role model because children also learn by imitating.

  242. Do not tell someone to be like someone eles or you might cause envy.

  243. If you are a good role model, people will copy you if they have common sense.

  244. A “good enough” heart wants to at least share its happiness with others.

  245. If the student does not know the answer, suggest one.

What I learned by reading “What if the Child Appears to Enjoy It?”

Filed under: Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , , , — Yure @ 09:22

What if the Child Appears to Enjoy It? Moral Attitudes Toward Adult-Child Sex Among Men With and Without Pedohebephilia” was written by Sara Jahnke, Sabine Schmitt and Agustín Malón. Below, what I learned by reading this text.

  1. The aim of the study is to verify how minor-attracted people and people who are not attracted to minors judge, from a moral point of view, sexual contacts between adult and child in which the child does not suffer direct physical or mental damage as a result of the experience .
  2. To attain such goal, 120 minor-attracted people and 89 others were interviewed.
  3. According to the study, in the sample analyzed, 7.5% of minor-attracted people are as permissive or even less permissive than subjects who do not have such attraction, in regards to sexual situations between adult and minor, even when not there is damage attributable to the experience.
  4. On the other hand, 4.5% of subjects who do not have such attraction can be as permissive as a pro-consent minor-attracted person.
  5. Both groups agree that even if the experience does not cause direct harm, there is a real risk that the child will suffer secondary stigmatization .
  6. About 4% of the German population has pedophilia (attraction to prepubescents) or hebephilia (attraction to pubescents).
  7. The views that minor-attracted people hold about relationships between adults and minors are usually addressed with a clinical bias (as a “justification” for their feelings or actions) or forensic bias (as a “risk factor”).
  8. But neither bias takes those views seriously, which leads to a distorted interpretation of what goes on in the subject’s head.
  9. For most minorattracted people, the ideal relationship is summed as “caring adult finds a consenting child.”
  10. So to appraise their opinions impartially, the authors wrote a questionnaire to be applied to minor-attracted populations in order to know their moral opinion of such ideal relationships.
  11. The questionnaire was applied over the Internet.
  12. There are researchers who say that pedophilia and hebephilia are sexual orientations .
  13. The proposal to include hebephilia in the DSM-V (as a disorder) failed .
  14. The term “child” is used throughout the text to designate anyone under the age of fourteen.
  15. When a minor-attracted person is interviewed by a person from the clinical field, his or her opinion is studied according to the cognitive distortion framework: unless the pedophile thinks like everyone eles, he is lying to himself or attempting to justify his desires.
  16. So part of the treatment for pedophilia would be to change the subject’s opinion and make him think like the rest of society.
  17. Questionnaires to measure the degree of “distortion” of a particular subject are flawed because they are based on the moral assumption that all contacts between adult and minor are violent regardless of the nature of the act, even in absence of actual violence.
  18. Since most minor-attracted people do not really support violence against children, those questionnaries end up being useless: a pedophile can say “forcing a child to have sex is bad” because that is what the questionnaire asks, but the questionnaire does not ask “what if the child is not being forced?” or “do you agree that it’s bad even if the child enjoys it?”.
  19. Thus it is not possible to measure a person’s opinion on adult-to-minor relationships from the assumption that all such contacts are violent, because such questionnaires only ask for one side of the opinion, not the whole opinion.
  20. Pedophiles often don’t have our same concept of “rape”: for them, something is rape only if the contact was forced.
  21. That means that pedophiles generally don’t believe, as society believes, in ” consensual rape.”
  22. So if you happen to find a pedophile and ask him “don’t you think that raping kids is wrong?”, he’ll probably say “of course it is wrong!”, because the word “rape” is invokes the idea that the contact was unwilling.
  23. If this consensual adult/child sex was legal, pedophiles would still be against child sexual abuse.
  24. This study aims to fix this: one must access the whole view, not just one side of it; it is necessary to know what pedophiles think of non-violent relationships between adult and minor.
  25. A good questionnaire would be one that gives arguments both for and against this type of relationship, with a scale that measures how much the subject agrees with each argument.
  26. This is useful because it probes the person’s opinion on a moral level and because morals is what guides most of our voluntary actions.
  27. Nevertheless, it is necessary to remember that attitude and behavior are different things: you can say that you will not do it, but can you stand against temptation?
  28. Most people reject adult-child relationships, with or without violence.
  29. Among clinicians and researchers, the reasons for rejection are:
    1. Inherent damage.
    2. Secondary victimization.
    3. Children’s inability to issue informed consent.
    4. Inherent exploitation.
    5. Children’s inability to understand the sexual nature of the act.
  30. None of those arguments is safe from criticism.
  31. In addition, although this is the consensus of the majority when the subject is pre-pubertal , this consensus becomes more and more disputed when it comes to puberty.
  32. On inherent damage: from a statistical point of view, if we separate the negative effect attributed to the relationship from the negative effect from other sources, the damage attributed to the relationship seems smaller or negligible, which suggests that it is not the relationship that causes the damage, but associated variables (presence of force, threats, nature of the libidinous act, whether or not the act was discovered, family reaction, legal or medical intervention, among others).
  33. In addition, there is evidence of relationships that are not only remembered as harmless, but even as beneficial by the minor, even after the minor grows up.

  34. If we want to condemn something because there is a risk of harm, any form of risk should be eliminated, including the risk of trauma that can result from legal reaction to the act.
  35. Secondary victimization: the child can be harmed by the social reaction to the act, even when the act is in itself harmless.
  36. In some cases, the negative reaction is determinant in the appearance of negative symptoms in people who had precocious sexual experiences.
  37. If the child feels guilty or embarrassed, for example, he or she may internalize those feelings in their self-concept, thus developing low self-esteem.
  38. This is called nocebo effect, the opposite of the placebo effect, in which a symptom is attributed to a cause which, alone, would be incapable of generating such a symptom.
  39. Even if the contact is never discovered, the child who grows up in an environment that demonizes that kind of experience will eventually repudiate what happened.
  40. Informed consent: unless the child has enough information to understand what they are getting into, the relationship is immoral.
  41. The child needs to understand the nature of the act and its consequences, before deciding whether or not to participate in such a thing.
  42. For some researchers, this is the only valid argument against adult-child relationships in general: if a child understood the nature of the act and its consequences, its experience is not immoral, as long as it is also consensual.
  43. Sexual exploitation: if the child sees adults as people with authority, kids supposedly would never deny their advances.
  44. This image comes from studies that focus on cases where exploitation occurred.
  45. But there is research that challenges the belief that exploitation is a necessary element in adultminor relationships .
  46. About sexual incompatibility: when an adult and a child do something sexual together, they are looking for different things (the child is supposedly in the pursuit of affection or satisfaction of curiosity, while the adult is looking for pleasure), but such an argument only makes sense if sex is more than mere recreation.
  47. The girl likely isn’t looking for anything explicitly sexual when she gets in contact with an adult, it may even be that she does not even realize that an ongoing sexual relationship is sexual.
  48. Are there any children who desire adults in the same way that adults can desire minors?
  49. This argument rests on the idea that child sexuality and adult sexuality are qualitatively different: if they are not, the argument is destroyed .
  50. In addition, this argument implies the existence of a gray area around puberty, when sexuality is becoming adult.
  51. There is a scientific interest in studying minor-attracted people who aren’t incarcerated.
  52. The authors of the study decided to collect subjects (attracted to minors or not) and to show them these five arguments against adul/child sex, to see how they evaluate those arguments when applied to a hypothetical experience in which there is affection and love, but pain and violence are absent
  53. Between January and March 2016, the study authors recruited subjects through the Internet.
  54. Minor-attracted people were recruited through legal sites where such subjects meet, such as Krumme 13 and Jungsforum .
  55. Among the minor-attracted people, 21% are primarily or exclusively attracted to girls, 64% are primarily or exclusively attracted to boys and 15% do not have such preference.
  56. Among those attracted to adults, 88% are heterosexual.
  57. All subjects who participated in the study, both those attracted to minors and those attracted to typical subjects, had more education than the average population, although most minor-attracted people had not enrolled college.
  58. Among minor-attracted people, 14% had already been prosecuted for sex crimes involving children, while 20% were under treatment because of the attraction.
  59. The study probed the feelings of minor-attracted people in order to know how often they were interested in “persons with no secondary sexual characteristics” (prepubescent), “persons with maturing secondary sexual characteristics” (pubescent) and “People with mature secondary sexual characteristics” (post-pubescent).
  60. Most minor-attracted people are also attracted to adults.
  61. Participants had to morally judge a hypothetical situation in which a girl between the ages of 10 and 12 engaged in libidinous mutual acts (without carnal conjunction) with an adult who did not force her and who asked her for permission, obtaining such permission without any bribe.
  62. The girl then, at the end of the experience, states that the experience was pleasurable.
  63. Participants had to judge the moral value of such experience according to the criteria of direct harm, indirect harm, validity of consent, presence or absence of exploitation and sexual compatibility.
  64. Most subjects with typical attraction claim that experience, even under such conditions, is harmful.
  65. The opposite has been said by most minor-attracted people.
  66. However, with regard to secondary victimization, both groups voiced similar opinion.
  67. About half of the minor-attracted people stated that the girl was sufficiently informed to participate in the experience, but almost no person with typical attraction shares this view.
  68. Most minor-attracted people did not judge the experience as exploitation, but the opposite is seen in typical subjects.
  69. Finally, more than half of minor-attracted people saw the sexuality of the man and the girl’s sexuality as compatible, whereas the subjects with typical attraction saw their sexuality as too different for true reciprocity.
  70. If a minor-attracted person seeks therapy, starting the discussion by stressing that secondary victimization is a risk would be a good way to find a common ground with which both client and therapist can agree with, allowing a good relationship between the two, at least in the first moment.
  71. Girl lovers had higher adherence rates to the informed consent argument.
  72. No relation was found between permissive attitude and criminal history: the pro-consent will not necessarily break the law.
  73. There are people with typical attraction who are also attracted to minors.

What I learned reading “Onanism and Sexual Abuse”.

Filed under: Notícias e política, Organizações, Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , — Yure @ 09:22

Onanism and Sexual Abuse: A History of Two Obsessions” was written by Agustín Malón Marco. Below, what I learned by reading this text.

  1. The aim of the study is to show how the discourse against masturbation, typical of the seventeenth and eighteenth century, has several characteristics in common with the current discourse against child sexual abuse.
  2. The problem here is that the discourse on child sexual abuse is falling into the same pitfalls in which the discourse against masturbation has fallen.
  3. The main similarities are in the way we deal with the problem, that is, in the means of fighting it.
  4. The problem of child sexual abuse must be understood historically and sociologically, so that our actions return to normalcy, as happened with masturbation.
  5. The greatest family taboo is incest, but it is also the most easily broken.
  6. Contemporary pedagogy is the fruit of new ideologies, new authors, new programs, new institutions, new centers of attention and new obsessions.
  7. Understanding the modern obsession with child sexual abuse requires us to understand our present concept of childhood and its relationship with the concept of family.
  8. The obsession is the result of the synergy between three concepts: childhood, family, sexuality.
  9. Childhood brings sexuality in itself, consequently, it brings sexuality to the family.
  10. We are concerned protecting the child from the sexuality of the world, but we also have the concern to protect the child from his or her own sexuality.
  11. The child has sexuality, but such sexuality can stimulate the child to contract “bad” habits, such as not looking for partners or seeking unacceptable relationships.
  12. The war against masturbation lasted for two centuries.
  13. At first, the bias against masturbation was pedagogical in nature, but then it became a medical concern and a psychological concern: masturbation as a bad habit, then as unhealthy practice, then as mental degeneracy.
  14. Some traces of the past are visible today.
  15. Just as libidinous acts before the age of fourteen are seen as sexual abuse, masturbation was once seen as “self-abuse”.
  16. The adults around the child who is known to practice masturbation are viewed with suspicion.
  17. The ills attributed to masturbation had no empirical foundation.
  18. The evils attributed to relationships between adults and minors are subject to debate .
  19. In the old days, we wanted to protect the boy from himself, but now we want to protect him from others.
  20. This is important because the child does not yet have defenses against attacks from older people.
  21. This kind of relationship is inherently unequal , even more when it occurs in an incestuous setting.
  22. Unless the boy has sufficient knowledge to understand these relationships and to defend himself, he remains vulnerable to the harm that could (not necessarely would) ensue.
  23. The fight against masturbation was a struggle against something natural and normal, but the fight against child sexual abuse is a fight against what could harm the child .
  24. Much of the damage attributed to masturbation was caused by the social reaction to the act.
  25. The same is true for relationships between adults and minors: some minors do not want to break up such relationships and only begin to suffer when others find out.
  26. The legal process in which the minor will have to participate can be traumatic in itself.
  27. But to say that some relationships between adult and minor are harmless is politically incorrect.
  28. Nobody is willing to admit that society’s response to adult/child relationships is exaggerated.
  29. Arguing that relationships between adults and minors can be pleasurable to the minor is seen as an excess of liberalism .
  30. The age difference that would be sufficient to qualify a relationship as necessarily negative varies from author to author, from culture to culture.
  31. A feminist who advocates the incest model may say that feminists who disagree with such model are not real feminists .
  32. These feminists who like the incest model (according to which libidinous acts within the family are unacceptable) are also against pornography and prostitution.
  33. They are also against BDSM .
  34. One of the similarities between the war against masturbation and the war on child sexual abuse is the attempt to prevent the phenomenon from occurring or to detect it immediately after it has occurred.
  35. The means to prevent masturbation were exaggerated.
  36. Such means were harmful in themselves.
  37. Likewise, the means we use to prevent sexual abuse are also exaggerated and even controversial.
  38. For example, we teach children to recognize signs that their relationship with an adult is or is becoming sexual, but there are so many signs…
  39. This is aggravated because we have the idea that the worst contact is incestuous, so the boy must learn to police his parents.
  40. Detection is the hardest part.
  41. Because of this, development of detection means is a fertile branch.
  42. They will detect abuse even in a child who has not been abused.
  43. Because the girl often does not tell if something sexual happened to them, it is assumed that the symptomatic girl who denies abuse is lying, as was the case of masturbation, in which, when “signs” of masturbation were detected, it was assumed that the girl was masturbating, as she would never confess that she was masturbating in secret.
  44. These signs of masturbation could be anything from bad sitting posture to the boy’s skin color.
  45. Signs of sexual abuse, what are they?
  46. Can they be safely attributed to abuse or can they also be caused by third variables?
  47. This is even more serious in the United States, where the moral panic about pedophilia has reached the heavens.
  48. Much of the investigation into sexual abuse begins with conviction, intuition, and aims to prove that abuse has occurred, even when it has not actually occurred.
  49. Such attitude also existed in the nineteenth century, when medical professionals were more interested in proving that the girl was fond of masturbation, than actually knowing if she was indeed masturbating (after all, if she were, she would not say).
  50. Such an attitude, to prove that abuse has occurred at all costs, is starting to become unpopular
  51. Many libidinous acts that occur before the age of fourteen are innocent , that is, harmless .
  52. This is because there are factors around the libidinous act that make it positive or negative, for example: age of the participants, level of education of the minor, sexual orientation, personal situation, nature of the act, previous relationship with the adult and repetition frequency.
  53. The fact that a libidinous act was pleasurable in childhood does not prevent its reformulation as abuse after the child grows and reinterprets the experience.

  54. The same was true for masturbation in the past: when the boy grew up and learned that his experience was “actually” damaging or risky, he would, of course, repudiate what happened.
  55. Statistically speaking, a good number of relationships between adult and minor can not be called “abuse” in the strict sense of the term, although this does not invalidate the existence of destructive experiences.
  56. A harmless experience can be sold as negative by making it seem dramatic.
  57. This was also true at that time when mankind was fighting masturbation, because masturbation was seen as the worst thing that could happen to anyone.
  58. The prevalencen rates of masturbation and the prevalence of libidinous acts between adult and minor are enormous, and their deleterious effects are seen as universal (which leads us to question how such a problem was only “discovered” in the last third of the last century).
  59. The prevalence of child sexual abuse varies according to the definition of abuse, which causes some prevalence rates to be really high.
  60. If you include voluntary and harmless experiences under the abuse umbrella, of course you will get high prevalence rates.
  61. If the negative consequences (promiscuity, fear, mood swings, compulsion, hyperactivity, phobias, introversion, guilt, depression, suicidal tendency, fatigue, low self-esteem, fear of men, sexual problems, tendency to excessive alcohol or drug use, suicide, desire to prostitute, personality problems, among others) of these relationships are inevitable and if the prevalence is so high, how come I don’t see traumatized people more often?
  62. The list of symptoms of abuse is based on assumptions taken from the practice of physicians dealing with particular cases, not from studies with solid empirical foundations.
  63. There is no fixed list of signs and symptoms of adult/minor relationships.
  64. In addition, using such a list would obscure other causes for such symptoms, since several causes can reproduce such signs and symptoms (not every depressed or alcoholic person is depressed or drunk because of child sexual abuse, for example).
  65. If the guy has had sex before the age of fourteen, is marginalized, unemployed, poor and depressed, a hysterical clinician could say that the guy has depression because he had a precocious relationship, rather than blaming marginalization, unemployment or poverty.
  66. Assigning a problem to the wrong causes will lead to a wrong treatment.
  67. The belief in the necessarily deleterious potential of early relationships has been elevated to the degree of truth without evidence: it is true that a lot of these experiences are abusive, but to say they are all abusive is an exaggeration.
  68. The root of the movement against masturbation is the institutionalization of the bourgeois way of life: it all began because the rising bourgeoisie valued self-control and focus on the long-lasting pleasure gained through hard work but rejected momentary pleasure and unproductive fun.
  69. So the struggle against masturbation was, at least in the beginning, just a way of passing class values ​​to the next generation.
  70. The bourgeoisie (always active) tried to be the opposite of the feudal aristocracy (indolent).
  71. For the bourgeois could only do two things: to work or to sleep.
  72. For John Money, society’s excessive interest in the problem of adult-child relationships comes from an anti-sexual bias in our society, just as in times of struggle against masturbation (what began as a merely moral matter of class values ​​branched into things like sin, disease and degeneration).
  73. According to John Money, the child abuse industry (companies and other organizations that profit from combating adult-child relationships) is a symptom of the “sexual counterrevolution” fostered by institutions like government and church , manifesting itself in laws through politics .
  74. Whom benefits from such law?
  75. The discussion against the “moral perversion” of our children quickly degenerates into attacks against sexuality itself.
  76. For some, bathing with your own children is sexual abuse.
  77. Because, these people think, the boy can feel pleasure and think that such thing is normal .
  78. Criticism against early relationships may be based on misconceptions about child sexuality.
  79. This combat is profitable and there are people who use it only for their own benefit: if the child sexual abuse industry justifies it’s existence if there is demand for their services, then the demand needs to increase, even if it is the industry itself that has to increase such demand (through alarming campaigns and poorly done studies).
  80. In the future, we may look at our obsession over relationships between adults and minors in the same way that we look at our previous obsession over masturbation.
  81. The obsession with child sexual abuse has led to the hysteria of satanic ritual abuse in the United States and everyone knows what happened .
  82. It seems that, at least in the United States, the pedophile is as rejected as a serial killer or a terrorist.
  83. The problem of child sexual abuse can be used as a distraction , in order to turn people’s attention away from poverty, social inequality or even away from other types of child abuse, such as physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect .
  84. The normal, sly guy can understand that he can also benefit from this moral panic: the mother who accuses her husband of abusing the children to win a custody battle and receive child support, the son who accuses his parents of sexual abuse for get rid of the family, the girl who accuses the teacher because she doesn’t like him or because said teacher does not correspond her feelings for him, it is very hard to lose this kind of case.
  85. The laws have gone too far and are endangering harmless people.
  86. We can’t fight what we don’t understand.

What I learned from “The ‘Participating Victim’ in the Study of Erotic Experiences Between Children and Adults.”

The ‘Participating Victim’ in the Study of Erotic Experiences Between Children and Adults: An Historical Analysis.” Was written by Agustín Malón. Below, what I learned by reading this text.

  1. In the twentieth century, there was an increase in scientific and lay interest in relationships between adults and minors.
  2. The focus of the text is the concept of ” participating victim” or ” voluntary victim”: the child or adolescent who, when found in an relationship with an adult, does not want the relationship to end.
  3. This classification can be explained in emotional and ideological terms, rooted in the rise of the victim paradigm.
  4. Relationships between adults and minors only became a problem in the last third of the twentieth century, with the child abuse paradigm.
  5. Before that time, the adult who was in a relationship with a minor was not seen as a monster or a demon, as is the case today.
  6. It is no longer investigated whether experience was harmful or not: it’s assumed to be harmful.
  7. This reality is only sustained by the indiscriminate labelling of all those minors as victims.
  8. Such relationships are now demonized in five levels: legal (it’s crime), moral (it’s immoral), personal (it’s unwanted), existential (it’s traumatic), and medical (it’s harmful).
  9. In order to explain any occurences of adult/child relationships that may de-authorize this disapproval, it is necessary to redefine the boy who desires such relationships, to construe his experience as unwanted (even if it was wanted), and to find negative effects.
  10. So the child, in theory, would never want that kind of relationship, which is always negative and traumatic.
  11. The author questions: how can scientific literature deny the existence of children who desire such relationships, are active participants and do not want a break-up?
  12. There is an implicit political goal in the child abuse paradigm: there are things we can not say about the minors involved and things we need to presume about all the minors involved.
  13. In other words, saying that the child would want a relationship with an adult could lead accusations of victim-blaming, even when the experience was voluntary and innocuous.
  14. Thus, in the seventies and eighties, literature that was opposed to the view of inherent harm was viewed with suspicion.
  15. The author of the text is concerned only with providing a historical account of the evolution of this rejection to relationships between adult and minor: he is not interested in discussing morality , consent or acceptability .
  16. The existence of positive relationships between adults and minors is not enough to make this kind of relationship acceptable.
  17. The authors studied by Malon have vaguely used the term “minor,” without saying what age this “minor” is, if a child or adolescent.
  18. Nevertheless, the term “minor” is often used in the literature to refer to subjects between nine and thirteen years of age.
  19. In works like those of Finkelhor, the age of the participants is often omitted.
  20. Before the 1980s, child sexuality was generally considered normal , even when the child or adolescent desired adults (which does not mean that such adventure was allowed by law).
  21. The fact is that the child’s willingness to participate in these relationships was taken into account back then.
  22. In the 1970s, there were very few studies in English on adult-to-minor sex, and the growing feminist wave attempted to fill that demand using victimology.
  23. The modern Western rejection of relationships between adults and minors would not be possible without feminism.
  24. Although there were several studies that challenged the vitimological view, they were ignored as a minority.
  25. Although the vitimological view was the “standard” view in the West, both its detractors and proponents were aware of children and adolescents who made the advance or consented to an advance.
  26. When the victim paradigm came into vogue in the West, the problem of the desiring child was ignored or seen as something of lesser importance.
  27. But before, scholars tried to find out why some children desired adults and why some did not.
  28. Incest became a reason for judicial intervention.
  29. The literature that most grounded such attitude change in relation to consensual relationships between adult and minor was the clinical literature, focused on incest, while the literature of more comprehensive focus gave a central role to the child’s view of experience .
  30. Child protection services are aware that some children make the invitation, consent, initiate, accept or even seduce others (that is, they try to “seduce”).
  31. The idea that the consent of the child is invalid appears for the first time in the twentieth century, in 1969 more specifically.
  32. In the thirties, Bender and Blau’s The Reaction of Children to Sexual Relations with Adults is released: sixteen children are interviewed and the tone of their narratives is strangely optimistic
  33. The children were emphatic in saying that their experiences were positive and guilt-free.
  34. They also had an active role in these relationships, not mere recipients of adult advancement.
  35. They could either deny the advance or encourage the adult.
  36. The child is not innocent.
  37. The interesting personality of these children may have helped to seduce the adult with whom they related.
  38. These relationships only stopped after discovered, not because they could not report, but because they did not want to stop.
  39. The disapproval of this type of relationship in the 1930s was moral, not medical: it was not feared that the girl could be traumatized, but feared that she would grow promiscuous.
  40. In the fifties, A Study of Girl Sex Victims is released: the authors tried to understand which aspects of the child’s personality predispose the girl to accept advancements from adults or to attempt seduction.
  41. This study examined seventy-three girls who, between the ages of four and sixteen, had intercourse with adults.
  42. Twenty-one were “casual victims”, that is, victims in the strict sense; forty-four were “participating victims”, that is, they wanted contact and did not feel victimized; eight could not be classified in either group.
  43. The victims participating in this study fall into two groups: those who are sexual by symptom (their sexuality is problematic because the family or the social context are problematic) and those who are sexual by personality .
  44. Is the latency period really a thing?
  45. The pre-adolescent is a sexual being, although we try to rationalize this tendency as a desire for affection.
  46. Although nothing can suppress child sexuality, its correct channeling is one of the tasks assigned to education .
  47. Because of this, we tend to treat deviations in child sexual conduct as problems of poor education.
  48. All children have impulse and sexual responsiveness , but not to the same degree.
  49. However, the fact that the child is sexual does not imply that the child can make a personal bacchanal out of his or her life.
  50. Adults can tolerate child sexuality, but seldom promote it or stimulate it.
  51. Child sexuality is normal, but it should not manifest itself in illicit ways.
  52. One of the factors that predisposes the girl to sexual initiation with others is the lack of love at home (which leads her to look for other adults from whom to receive attention) and a poor education, especially a deficient sex education (she learns in practice, which can be aided by the limited conception of guilt ).
  53. Another factor is the low self-control against particularly strong impulses.
  54. To some researchers, this is problematic, but there are those who disagree.
  55. For example, according to Kinsey, sexual initiation by an older person is beneficial to the boy, who learns about sexuality more easily and more quickly than if he had to discover them alone or with someone as inexperienced as himself.
  56. With the victim paradigm, girl sexual desire is seen as mere curiosity, search for affection or even as a bargaining tool to obtain material goods, since the girl, insofar as it is assumed that she is the victim of sexual crime, can only have a sexually passive role, being inadmissible to the victimology that a girl would want pleasure .
  57. If the child does indeed enjoy pleasure, it is still possible to rationalize that this pleasure has been “forced“, rather than spontaneous.
  58. Thus, the child who consents and says that the contact was pleasurable is still a victim of sexual crime.
  59. But some people make the distinction legal child victim and factual child victim.
  60. The child who understands that his or her parents could be held responsible for the child’s actions may seek to do illegal things to put the parents in trouble as a form of revenge.
  61. Another factor that can cause the child to seek illegal relationships is precisely the prohibition imposed on sexuality, a prohibition that incites curiosity and challenge .
  62. If you say to your child, “sex sucks, do not do it,” you may spark temptation.
  63. A child discovered in an illegal relationship with an adult may not learn the lesson and look for another adult.
  64. In such cases, admission that the act was “bad” is a false admission: the tyke will do it again at the first opportunity.
  65. Illegal relationships alone do not cause guilt in the child, who only begins to feel guilty with the social reaction to the act or upon learning the taboo.
  66. There are several reasons that take a child to not disclose what is happening or has happened.
  67. They may not disclose due to threat, bribe, desire to continue, love for the perpetrator, fear of parents’ reaction, among others.
  68. If you read a scientific article on child sexuality from the thirties or fifties, you feel as if the authors had permission insult to the children subjected to the study (calling them rebellious, disobedient, lascivious, among others things), something that would be unacceptable today.
  69. Nowadays, we accuse those papers, perhaps rightfully, to be blaming the victims.
  70. Another factor that predisposes the child to seek relationships is the need for alternative sources of affection.
  71. We generally don’t agree that children can exchange pleasure for affection.
  72. The girl may seek such affection for a number of reasons: parents may not love her enough, she may want to escape domestic stress, perhaps she wants to challenge her parents’ authority, prove to herself that she is “independent”, to be approved by someone…
  73. Some children show more interest in adults than in same-aged children, preferring adult companions.
  74. If the family is chaotic, the child will seek stability elsewhere.
  75. What does victimology do in face of the boy who flees from an abusive family, then seeks and finds the stability he needed away from home, with another adult?
  76. This is especially embarrassing in cases where the relationship continues even after the minor has become an adult himself, after the partner has served their sentence.
  77. The sample from the Bender and Blau study can not be generalized because the children were working class and misfits, meaning that the data collected does not apply to all children.
  78. There was a time when the victim status was not attributed by the nature of the act (whether sexual or not), but by the effect of the act (whether the person suffered or not).
  79. It is easier to absolve the girl than the boy, because one thinks that the girl only becomes sexual because of external factors, like an unfit family, but people often argue that “boys will be boys”.
  80. Thus, the sexual girl is seen as a victim of her family or society.
  81. Arguments that say that these experiences are bad because sex is bad (it is not), because the child is being precociously sexualized (children are sexual from birth ) or because these experiences are always traumatic ( demonstrably false ) are easy to debunk.
  82. The only valid argument against these experiences is informed consent: because this type of relationship is dangerous , anyone who engages in it should be aware of the implicit risks (the chil usually is not) and should be able to make a free decision about taking the risk or not (the child may have his or her freedom of decision limited by physical strength, intelligence or social position of the adult as a person of authority on whom the child’s well-being may depend).
  83. Because of this, victimology’s task is to prove that kids can’t consent.
  84. In the eighties, the book Sexually Victimized Children is released.
  85. The book assumes that in the field of victimology, the question of how to deal with children who consent and derive pleasure from experience is a “destructive concern.”
  86. This concern has been addressed by emphasizing cases of sexual abuse in the strict sense (where there is no consent, where the child suffers from the experience) and minimizing the importance of the child’s consent to the point of irrelevance .
  87. In the victim paradigm, the girl is necessarily a recipient, and no responsibility is to be attributed to her.
  88. As all subjects that can challenge the victim’s paradigm ( children and adolescents ) are absorbed by such a paradigm (through classification as “victims”), such a paradigm becomes indisputable .
  89. “Protecting” the girl from sexuality may harm her.
  90. Experiences between two minors should not be seen as abusive, provided they are consensual .
  91. Consent is what matters.
  92. The problem is that, while it is said that consent is what matters, it is also said that the minor’s consent is invalid in experiences with adults.
  93. But what if the minor starts the contact?
  94. For Finkelhor , early sexual experience can turn the child into a homosexual .
  95. The desire to repeat the experience becomes a “risk factor.”
  96. Finkelhor and the feminists admit that there are children who want these experiences and there are still people who point that out (Arreola et al, 2008; Arreola et al, 2009; Bauserman & Rind, 1997; Carballo-Diéguez et al, 2011; Condy et al, 1987; Dolezal et al, 2014; Kilpatrick, 1987; Lahtinen et al, 2018; Leahy, 1996; Mulya, 2018; Rind, 2001; Rind, 2016; Rind & Tromovitch, 1997; Rind & Welter, 2013; Rind & Welter, 2016; Rind et al, 1998; Sandfort, 1984; Sandfort, 1987; Tindall, 1978; Ulrich et al, 2005-2006; Wet et al, 2018).
  97. This is problematic, because admitting the minor’s desire is an attack on one of the foundations of victimology: that the victim never takes any responsibility for the “abuse” suffered.
  98. If child sexuality is part of the child, attacking child sexuality is an attack on the child’s dignity .
  99. Reconciling child sexuality with the victim paradigm is done through the association between sexualization and trauma: if the child has a sexual encounter with another child, then it’s tolerable; if the contact is between child and adult, then it must be traumatic.
  100. Traumatic in the sense of directing child sexuality in a “problematic” direction.
  101. In this way, the act would be traumatic, perhaps more profoundly traumatic, if the child is a voluntary participant and if the experience is pleasurable: the child acquires access to forms sexual expression that are not age-appropriate (like a “moral trauma”).
  102. Aiming to repeat the experience, the child then looks for other children, introducing them to such practices as well.
  103. So it is not that child sexuality is a problem for victimology, but such sexuality must stay within the boundaries of age-appropriate; deviating from that is a symptom os “moral trauma”.
  104. Such deviation can also lead the boy to question if he is gay or not.
  105. With the construction of pleasant experiences as morally traumatic, sexual initiation by an older person is no longer a moral issue, but a public health issue.
  106. For Finkelhor, a child would never become interested in an adult unless the child is influenced by the environment.
  107. In this way, the victim paradigm supports the view that a sexually precocious child is such because of adult influence.
  108. The victim paradigm works with the inherent damage hypothesis (all experiences between adult and minor must be traumatic), but, at the same time, it admits that such hypothesis lacks empirical proof!
  109. Despite this, they construct their reasoning upon the intrinsic harm hypothesis, going onto identifying traumatogenic factors.
  110. The fear felt by victimologists is that children and adolescents could have their worldview altered or be impaired in their self-concept .
  111. What if the child, because of this experience, starts to see the world in a different way?
  112. If there are no traumatic elements in the experience, can it still be considered traumatic?
  113. Finkelhor never answers that question.
  114. On the other hand, external factors reduce the importance of traumatogenic factors: if you have a family that supports you, for example, you will recover more easily from abuse, than if you had parents who don’t care about your suffering.
  115. This point, though mentioned by the victim paradigm, is not discussed in all its depth: victimology makes no mention of what factors could mitigate traumatic sexualization ( the adoption of adult sexual behavior ).
  116. For victimology, child sexuality has no influence on the continuation of the relationship (implying that a child who had a sexual contact would be always unwilling to repeat it).
  117. The child who takes the lead in libidinous acts only has his agency recognized if the other participant is a same age peer.
  118. The “children who molest” phenomenon is only recognized as such if the victim is another minor.
  119. Taken to it’s last consenquences, such argument implies that, when a minor rapes a woman, the woman is to blame (or, at least, someone else who “corrupted” the tyke, but never the minor himself).
  120. This is because, according to victimology, a normal boy would never want anything to do with sex, when it comes to adults.
  121. If he enters into a relationship with an adult, he never enters or stay by his will, says victimology.
  122. The legitimate desire of the boy is then construed as the result of something that has gone wrong, a type of “brainwashing”, which means that the boy is never responsible for any sexual involvement with an adult: it’s never his fault, according to victimology.
  123. Thus, since teleiophilia is excluded from child sexuality in an axiomatic way, it does not make sense to ask why the child or adolescent would want such contact, why he initiated, why he would he want to maintain such relationship, none of that matters.
  124. Thus, for victimology, to say that the minor “consented” or “advanced” is the same as blaming the ” victim .”
  125. It is important, for victimology, that the child or adolescent has been threatened or intimidated, in order to validate itself as a paradigm.
  126. It follows that vitimology can only admit two hypotheses:
    1. The child or adolescent was forced.
    2. The child or teenager had his or her consent purchased by bribery or threat.
  127. Victimology takes this as reality, and its mission is to make the population “identify” this reality.
  128. Thus, because it is assumed that the child or adolescent will resist, the question ceases to be “what leads the child to initiate or accept a libidinous act?” to become “how the child’s resistance was violated?”.
  129. This is a reflection of the reluctance to attribute responsibility to the minor: to say that the minor can consent, although not directly attribution of responsibility, can be seen as such, which is contrary to the spirit of the times .
  130. Thus, the friendship between child and adult, when it takes a sexual aspect, becomes grooming: sexual friendship is never legitimate, but always a trap.
  131. The fact that a child would want to repeat the experience is not explained, unless one takes the assertion “if it was repeated, the repetition had to be forced” as an explanation.
  132. Okay, and why do some repeat the experience with other people, even after the first partner was arrested and jailed?
  133. Strangely, vithmology admits child sexual agency only in cases where the child is a boy: victimology even admits that boys may be less affected by such experiences .
  134. That is why studies on child sexual abuse generally have an overrepresentation of girls in a given sample: if we make a distinction between boys and girls in data analysis, the universal aspect of the trauma will be more easily questioned, and it will be easier to point out that positive experiences happen.
  135. That impairs the study of positive experiences that, because they were positive, were repeated instead of reported.
  136. In the West, the child was seen as a potential enemy of the state: all education was explicitly intended to instill the social values ​​in a child’s mind so that the social order would not be challenged (see note 111).
  137. Now the child is seen as the savior of the state: all education has the veiled aim of instilling prevailing social values ​​in the child’s mind, so that the social order is maintained (see note 111).
  138. Our society says that the girl should exercise critical thinking, but also that she should not exercise critical thinking in every matter!
  139. There’s a need that the child’s concept of abuse mirrors society’s concept of abuse.
  140. For victimology, a society that thinks that relationships between adult and minor are not always abusive is a society that is insensitive to the suffering of the child.
  141. That means that a victimological society immunizes itself against change: seeing things differently equals “being insensitive”, which automatically casts a bad light upon the dissident and encourages self-censorship (in media, research, art, news, everything).
  142. Observe how society is always accused of being a facilitator of child sexual abuse, even when it does everything right, within it’s capacities.
  143. The two employers of such rhetoric are child protection organizations and feminism .
  144. Both sources influenced Finkelhor.
  145. For victimology, a child who does not report what occurred must be motivated by fear and bribery.
  146. That is: silence becomes a sign of violence, not reporting is a sign of violence.
  147. It is assumed that nonviolent relationships are statistically unlikely .
  148. A child who says “I did not suffer from what happened” or “I liked what happened” is not believed.
  149. The desire for affection, attention and approval becomes a “risk factor”; the affection-starved child is a child at risk.
  150. Thus, the desire to participate in the relationship is converted into an inability to resist the relationship, due to the affection implied or promised.
  151. The emphasis on the libidinous act as object of study distracts the researcher from other factors that could explain any negative symptoms presented by the child: an unstable family can be just as harmful or even more.
  152. Researchers would rather study the libidinous act isolated from it’s circumstances , since such circumstances , if studied, could jeopardize the dominant narrative (sexual contact between adult and child is always bad, always profoundly traumatic and is equally bad for boys and girls).
  153. Most of the explanations given by victimology are hypothetical .
  154. If the victim is the passive part, then, for victimology, all guilt must necessarily fall upon the active part.
  155. Finkelhor says that all research points to the fact that the child or adolescent never initiates sexual contact with an adult, but that’s not true.
  156. The problem is that victimology does not know what to do with minor’s willingness to participate.
  157. This creates another problem: secondary victimization.
  158. Secondary victimization is the harm that arises not from experience itself, but from the reaction of others to experience: imagine if your relationship is desired and you want to maintain it, but you have the bond suddenly destroyed by the legal system, the mental health system, and the social rejection.
  159. Researching this implies recognizing that intervention must not always take place.
  160. If the process begins, the boy who says that the libidinous act was not violent will have his testimony ignored.
  161. If the boy insists that the contact was not violent, he will be stigmatized .
  162. Victimology does not want to save the child only in physical or psychological sense, but also in a moral.
  163. This causes collateral damage.
  164. Victimology has an ideal of childhood that may not apply to concrete children.
  165. If the child has sexuality, a purely ideological denial of his or her interpretation of a particular experience may be psychologically traumatic, especially when such denial employs the legal and therapeutic apparatus.
  166. Showing only negative cases is essential for maintaining this paradigm.
  167. This is because non-violent contacts, seen as exceptional, may be numerous enough to invalidate the paradigm (they could be the norm, rather than the exception).
  168. Classical studies that show the existence of children and adolescents who feel, desire and seek for libidinosity have been forgotten and are seen as outrageous today.
  169. The criticisms delivered on such studies, however, are often based on a forced interpretation of what is being said in the text.
  170. This forced interpretation is enforced by the child abuse paradigm, according to which no child or adolescent would ever desire an adult.
  171. Victimology keeps the business of mental health.
  172. Sexual victimology is the elevation of victimhood to the degree of convincing pseudoscience, so that studies sharing victimology’s view receive funding for scientific development.
  173. Because it is popular, victimology can not be contradicted with impunity and studies that contradict it have to be independently funded.
  174. Victimology funds campaigns against researchers who contradict it.
  175. In a world where babies masturbate or even have orgasms still inside the mother’s womb, there are still people who say that it is impossible to orgasm before puberty.
  176. Victimology may be more interested in condemning the adult than acting according to the minor’s best interest.
  177. Challenging this paradigm can cost you your career.
  178. Relationships between adults and minors have become a public problem, not a private occurrence that can be resolved by listening to both parties.
  179. Consent and innocuousness are the only parameters by which we can judge any sexual relationship, so to keep relationships between adults and minors forbidden, it is necessary to invalidate the consent of the minor or to show that such contacts are harmful as a rule.
  180. Society has recognized child sexuality as something that exists, while denying such sexuality any mutual expression.
  181. In the case of relationships between adult and minor, this is possible through the application of feminist power rhetoric on the problem of child sexual abuse.
  182. As this is done in the field of social sciences, which claim to be the moral compass of the whole society, this view is easily imposed as scientifically correct (from the point of view of social sciences).
  183. This is a sign that social sciences no longer see the world as it really is, but are rather invested in shaping the world in the way they see fit.
  184. This makes their “absolute” findings questionable.
  185. When the American Congress condemned the study A Meta-Analytic Examination of Assumed Properties of Child Sexual Abuse Using College Samples, congressists demanded that science stopped studying positive relationships between adults and children.
  186. But this undermines the scientific understanding of the phenomena of these relationships in general.
  187. The author is not in favor of legalizing these relationships because there are several things to take into consideration before changing the age of consent.
  188. By acting according to victimology, society does not know exactly what it is doing.

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What I learned from reading “Adult-Child Sex and the Limits of Liberal Sexual Morality.”

Filed under: Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , , , — Yure @ 09:22

Adult-Child Sex and the Limits of Liberal Sexual Morality” was written by Agustin Malón. Below, what I learned by reading his text.

The ban on adult/child sex.

The general ban on sexual relationships between adults and minors is fundamentally derived from prudence: it is not prudent to allow such relationships because of the risk implied. But what if there is no risk in a given situation? To what extent can such experiences be called abuse and to what extent is attraction to minors an illness? For purposes of reflection, adult is anyone who is past adolescence and child is anyone under the line of puberty. Thus, we are talking about prepubescents.

One can argue that the relationship between adult and minor is “disgusting”, but aesthetic judgments are not enough to base moral judgments. And here is the thing: the problem of the relationship between adult and minor is a moral problem, rooted in ethics. Most of the classic scientific research on the intergenerational relationship phenomenon assumes that these experiences are always bad, so the effort is made to prove the damage, not to verify that it actually exists. But other studies, instead of proving the causality between adult/child sexual contact and harm, investigate if such causality actually exists. There’s a tendency to do this kind of study today and the causality can not be always proven by more recent studies.

Yet, scientific evidence alone does not operate legal or political changes. Plus, such evidence doesn’t invalidate de existence of harm. “Ethics” is not a collection of prohibitions, let alone sexual bans. But a prudential ban on adult/child sexual contact, based on the risk of harm, even when such harm is not very prevalent, not always traumatic and differently experienced between the sexes, seems ethically plausible.

The neutral nature of sex in modern day morals.

Sex is not inherently dangerous, but that does not mean that all sex is acceptable. If you engage in a rejected sexual practice, you expose yourself and your partner to the risk of punishment. The current moral paradigm says that sex does not need a moral of its own. Sex is not a special area of ​​human behavior, says our morals. Sex isn’t good or bad in itself, but it becomes bad depending on associated circunstances. One of them is the lack of informed consent (which is free for adults and denied to children). Consent is the first thing that comes up in legal discussions about sexuality. So, consent is more important than the possibility of a behavior being “normal” or “perverse”. The discussion of “good” and “evil” is exhausted in times of moral pluralism. What matters is: the experience must be mutually consented and harmless to all parties involved. Notice that issues such as mutual respect and safety may be present in moral discussions about sexuality, but these issues are not unique to sexuality, being also valid in sports and other human relationships. That being said, there are no moral problems that are unique to sexuality.

Who can be a better judge of a relationship than its participants? The judgment of the relationship belongs to them. We are not supposed to judge the sexual behavior of someone eles, provided that the parties involved claim that it was consensual and there’s no evidence of harm. There are sexual contacts motivated by love (passionate) and others by simple (casual) appetite. If that’s the case, are such participants in love with each other? Do any of the subjects feel like a mere object? Is this kind of relationship hygienic or does it pose any risk to the health of the participants? That’s the kind of question that runs moral discussions on sexuality. And they are down to consent and safety.

If sex is morally neutral, an experience is not good or bad because it is sexual, but because of other elements that are associated with the experience. Remove the negative elements and any sexual relationship will be harmless. Such elements are exploitation (when only one side benefits from the relationship, with the other receiving nothing or even being harmed), coercion (both parties have to accept the relationship while being aware of what it entails) and objectification (when the partner is not seen as a complete human being, but as a sex toy, for example). Thus, rape is not a sex offense, as if sex were morally charged, but a crime of violence, which is always bad, whether it is or not sexual violence. So the problem is not whether something is normal or not, but whether it is permissible (on the grounds of consent and safety) or not. As long as our morals are based only on verifiable damage and consent, two things that can exist in an individual level, the concept of “normal sexuality” is totally irrelevant.

The moral status of adult/child sexual contacts.

Some people find it a waste of time to appraise the moral status of this type of relationship and assume that they are immoral without thinking about it (this was what happened to homosexuality). It’s like saying that adult/child sexual contact is wrong “just because”. If you think that something is immoral, it is important to understand the reasons why you think it’s immoral, or your position will not make sense.

So let’s dare to ask: what makes these relationships “wrong”? While it is prudent to ban these relationships as a rule, there are exceptions to this rule. Here, talking about willing, harmless relationships, not the harmful kind. Of course, harmful or forced relationships will always be reprehensible, but there are relationships between adult and minor that do not harm the minor, who is also not forced to participate. So, if the boy was not forced, coerced, blackmailed or bribed and if he considers the experience to be positive, is this particular case still immoral?

Consent.

The child has sexuality and innocence is a questionable concept. If the child has sexuality, it is difficult to argue in favor of banning child sexual activity in general. Sexual self-determination is inherent to the person. If it is inherent to the person and if children are people, sexual self-determination is a right of the child. Such right is based on the ability to give or refuse their consent to libidinous acts. The girl is only incapable of informed consent because she does not understand what she is getting into when doing something sexual with an adult.

The “children can’t consent” argument applies only to relationships with adults, but not to minors in relationship with other minors, nor to solitary activity (masturbation). That’s because a complete denial of their consent to sexuality disregards the fact that the child has sexuality, undermining self-determination. To say that the boy has the “right to say no” implies that he has the right to say “yes”, otherwise saying “no” would be a duty and not a right. While the minor needs protection, he can not develop into a fully working adult if he does not have freedom and has no chance of exercising autonomy. That being said, “children can’t consent” isn’t an argument that can be blindly applied to the child’s entire sexual potential. They can consent (or at least should be able to consent) to sexual contacts with same-age peers.

But a problem arises: we only discuss kiddy consent in sexual matters and only to say that they can not consent. Most of the times, minors are forced by the adults in charge of them to do several things. If we coerce the minor to accept something that he does not want only after we make sure that nothing bad will happen because of that, why not do the same with voluntary relationships? Why not prepare the youngling to exercise their sexuality? What is the problem of minimizing the risks that might result, making sure that the experience is safe for a consenting minor (if parents are supervising the relationship in order to intervene when something is going wrong, the risk is minimized)? Because all of those things require information that the minor has no access to.

If the problem of informed consent is lack of information, why not give such information to the minor? What does the child need to know to enter into relationships like those and give “informed” consent to them? In our society, the minor is informed of everything, except sexual matters. If the minor is kept ignorant, he will effectively be kept vulnerable. Do not teach your child to be submissive, do not teach your child to do whatever any adult wants.

Safety and power disparity.

There was a time when attraction for minors was tolerated in Europe, an unacceptable tolerance today. Because this tolerance caused concern, the only way to reverse it was to point out the potential harm that this type of relationship might cause. Generally, the son or daughter can’t give a firm negative to a sexual advance made by the father or mother. That’s because of power imbalance. That means that the boy, if he tries to deny it, can be forced, because he is weaker, ignorant or dependent on parents in particular and adults in general. Because the power disparity is a risk factor, simple consent (willingness to participate) is not enough: it’s important to understand the risks implied in order to consent to a risky activity. In the absence of risk, informed consent is not required.

Someone might ask: “why are relationships between adults allowed, then, as power imbalance can be present in adult/adult sexual contacts?” Inequality of force is exceptional in relationships between adults, but it is the norm in relationships between adult and minor, so the argument of inequality is less important in the analysis of relationships between adults. That’s why. But for feminism, inequality of force is normal in “consensual” relationships between men and women too, because men, according to feminism, are more physically and socially privileged, so that women can never consent to men (because, they say, consent needs equality to exist). Even the seduction between men and women can be viewed violence against women, according to these madames. Note that there are feminists who do not think like that.

Arguing about the danger of something is a great way to condemn something without worrying about moral issues. But it is science that says what is dangerous and what is safe. Even if adult/child sexual contact is potentially harmful, scientific evidence shows that this type of relationship is often harmless and mutual between the parties despite the power disparity (Arreola et al, 2008; Arreola et al, 2009; Bauserman & Rind, 1997; Carballo-Diéguez et al, 2011; Condy et al, 1987; Dolezal et al, 2014; Kilpatrick, 1987; Lahtinen et al, 2018; Leahy, 1996; Mulya, 2018; Rind, 2001; Rind, 2016; Rind & Tromovitch, 1997; Rind & Welter, 2013; Rind & Welter, 2016; Rind et al, 1998; Sandfort, 1984; Sandfort, 1987; Tindall, 1978; Ulrich et al, 2005-2006; Wet et al, 2018). The thesis of inherent harm has been rejected even by those who oppose such relationships: to say that adult/child sexual contacts are always negative, always harmful, is no longer an accepted argument, because such argument has already been exhaustively proven to be wrong in literature. Much of the damage can be caused by the social reaction to the act. There are reports of minors who not only deny that any harm has resulted from their relationship with an adult, but also say that that relationship has benefited them. That enables us to question to what extent it’s unsafe to allow such relationships to happen. There are relationships between adult and minor that are not destructive, with some experts saying that such cases should be judged individually, on a case-by-case basis, rather than being all equally outlawed. This turns the tables: we no longer need to prove that harm not always happens, but it is the opponent who has to prove his point about inherent harm. Nonetheless, if a study says that 90% of subjects in a given sample did not experience their childhood sexual contact as negative, readers of the data will prefer to pay attention to the 10% who have suffered.

One might ask how can any percentage of children in a given sample say that their sexual contact with an adult was harmless? When an adult penetrates a child, it’s bound to be painful and perhaps degrading. So, how come? That’s because adults in relationships with children are probably not doing anything “adult” with said children, but limiting themselves to things the child would do to another child. Of course, if you were sexually interested in children as much as you are in adults, that still wouldn’t mean you would do something harmful a child just as you wouldn’t do to an adult. If you, as a man, loves women, that doesn’t mean you would do to any woman something that would hurt her. Why would you?

An objection that can rise from here is that a relationship can only be harmless if it isn’t not forced. Now, if the minor set limits that the adult can not violate, would the adult respect them? Won’t the adult use his power to disregard the child’s boundaries? If I was a child, could I trust a pedophile?

To solve this, we must remember that presence of power, use of power and abuse of power are different things: an adult will not necessarily use his superiority to exploit (use) the minor. An adult can respect the limits imposed by the minor: the fact that he is an adult does not mean that he will impose himself, just like men, who are physically stronger, not always impose their desires upon weaker women, mainly because of love. Thus, power inbalance only becomes a problem if the adult uses it to exploit the minor (same goes for relationships between men and women). So, not all of these relationships can be unanimously considered “exploitation” or “abuse.” Nonetheless, the minor must have the right to deny his consent to adults and to report them in order to defend himself when necessary, just like women do nowadays.

Restrictive morality versus liberal morality.

A restrictive sexual morality only makes sense if sex is “important,” while a liberal sexual morality only makes sense if sex is “just another human behavior.” A liberal sexual morality is not to be confunded with a “leftist” sexual morality: feminism hates pornography. For feminists, pornography is harmful. That is a sexually conservative position taken by a movement associated with the left.

Does sex need a specific morality or can we judge sex according to the moral precepts we already use for all other human behaviors? If it needs a specific morality, consent and safety may not be enough to make a relationship morally okay.

But a problem arises: people who condemn relationships between adults and minors do so inside of a permissive and sensualistic moral framework, but those who approve such relationships also do so with the same framework. That means that the concepts of consent and safety, typical of liberal sexual morality, can be used for and against the emancipation of adult/child sexual contact. The state should take a totally amoral attitude towards sex, assuming that it works with a sexually liberal mindset, looking for actual harm, not for right and wrong. If the inherent damage can not be scientifically proved, there is no reason to forbid all such relationships. If current morality says that sex is morally neutral, but violence is morally negative, so that sex is only reproachable if it is harmful (physically, mentally or socially) or if it’s forced, then such morality can not condemn relationships between adult and child without first evaluating them; it needs to verify the presence of damage or coercion before condemning them. If sex is morally neutral, there is no need to judge sex, but the well-being of the individuals involved and their happiness: if either party is not liking (presumably the child), that’s what we should look at. Thus our sexual morality is incapable of condemning all relationships between adult and minor. “Sex with children is abuse”, then, becomes a disputed statement.

Even if such relationships were acceptable, parents should have the right to prohibit their children from engaging in them, as they do with other activities, if this conflicts with the child’s best interests (no father would let his son get involved in a relationship that said father considers dangerous). That being said, even if we agree that such relationships should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, the parents must have their say, because they are the closest authority figure to the child and their immediate guardians.

The debate about the morality of these relationships remains open. Our morals have “loopholes” that make relationships between adults and children morally permissible. To prohibit them once and for all, we need to replace our entire moral paradigm regarding sex, that is, to adopt a more restrictive, instead of absolutely liberal, sexual morality.

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