was written by Leibniz. Below,
what I learned by reading this text.
- The “monad” has no
- It is simple, and enters into the
composition of other substances.
- If there is not something that can
not be divided, it is not possible to explain the multiplicity of
- There must be something that can
not be divided.
- Being simple, the spiritual units
were not formed: or they always existed or “appeared.”
- In this case, they have
miraculously appeared and also miraculously disappear.
- The famous statement that
spiritual units “have no windows” must be understood in
the sense that nothing enters or leaves the monad, being simple.
- If it is simple, it is totally
compact in itself: it does not receive an addition and it can not be
- The problem with the atom of
Democritus is that it does not explain the qualitative differences
between beings and substances, since Democritus conceptualized atoms
as different only in format.
- Although the monad can not be
destroyed but miraculously, it is subject to becoming.
- Monads change because of an inner
quality: if they can not receive addition or subtraction, the monad
changes alone, without an external agent.
- Mechanism, the idea that natural
phenomena can be explained by analogy to products of human artifice
does not explain perception.
- There are unconscious perceptions:
if we only perceive, for example, sounds while conscious, how can
the noise wake us from sleep?
- The monad does not correspond to
- To arouse prudence (“attainment”
in Leibniz), several impressions are not necessary: a
traumatic experience, even one, can produce the same effect as
several small bad experiences.
- What differs from other animals is
the ability to do science, not simply reason.
- Classically, “soul” is
the principle of movement, whereas “spirit” is only the
rational part of the soul.
- There are two kinds of truth:
reason (a priori, “every bachelor is an unmarried one”)
and those in fact (a posteriori, “something happened in such
and such a way”).
- The truths of reason are necessary
and can not be otherwise, the truths of fact are contingent and can
- There are truths that do
not need proof.
- God exists.
- We see that the material world is
that is, subject to generation and corruption.
- The world can only have its origin
in a necessary
being, something that must exist and that always existed.
- God has perfect understanding, so
He can only make good choices.
- Spiritual things follow formal and
- Physical things follow material
and efficient causes.
- Enduring the bad
of sin are, in themselves, a form of repentance: suffering
is the best way to learn
- There is no action without consequences.