Analecto

8 de setembro de 2019

The size of the task.

Filed under: Livros, Passatempos — Tags:, , , — Yurinho @ 15:29

As I said, I am abandoning the annotation format and converting annotations already published into proper texts. The size of the task is this: 122 entries to be modified and 122 to be deleted. While I complete this task, I do not intend to post anything new. At most, you will notice the number of published entries decreasing and the content of some being gradually (or even suddenly) modified. So if it looks like I’m too quiet, I’m actually just doing this maintenance. If you want to talk to me, there’s a contact form on the sidebar. Or you can comment on this entry and I will reply when I see it. I apologize to the six or seven frequent readers of this site! I will be as quick as possible.

O tamanho da tarefa.

Filed under: Computadores e Internet, Passatempos — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 15:25

Como eu disse, estou abandonando o formato de anotação e convertendo as anotações já publicados em textos propriamente ditos. O tamanho da tarefa é este: 122 entradas a ser modificadas e 122 a ser apagadas. Enquanto eu termino esta tarefa, eu não pretendo postar nada novo. No máximo, você perceberá o número de entradas publicadas diminuindo e o conteúdo de algumas sendo gradualmente modificado (ou até subitamente). Então, se parece que eu estou silencioso demais, o que acontece é que eu estou apenas fazendo essa manutenção. Se você quiser conversar comigo, tem um formulário de contato aí, do lado. Ou você pode comentar nesta entrada mesmo e eu respondo quando ver. Peço desculpas aos seis ou sete leitores assíduos deste sítio! Serei o mais rápido possível.

What I learned from reading “Recalled Sexual Experiences in Childhood with Older Partners: A Study of Brazilian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Male-to-Female Transgender Persons.”

Filed under: Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 15:02

“Recalled Sexual Experiences in Childhood with Older Partners: A Study of Brazilian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Male-to-Female Transgender Persons” was written by Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Ivan Balan, Curtis Dolezal, and Maeve B. Mello. Below, what I learned reading this text.

  1. The aim of the study is to verify the frequency of occurrence of sexual relationships between boy or transgender with older partner in the Campinas region and to verify if such experiences are related to risky sexual behavior in adulthood.
  2. The method used involves the use of a questionnaire and an HIV test.
  3. Among the participants (575), 85% were boys or cisgender men and 15% were males (biologically) who did not identify as men.
  4. Among the participants, 32% said they had an older sexual partner back when they were children or adolescents.
  5. The average age for the younger party was nine years and the average age for the partner was nineteen.
  6. Most of the older partners were men.
  7. Of all participants who had sexual experiences in childhood or adolescence with an older partner, only 29% considered the experience abusive.
  8. 57% said the experience was pleasant.
  9. 29% say they feel indifferent about the sexual contact that took place in their younger years…
  10. Only 14% say they did not like the experience at the time it occurred.
  11. Transgenders had such experiences more often and had a higher positive response rate than cisgenders.
  12. Precocious subjects did not necessarily develop life-threatening sexual behavior.
  13. It is important to hear the child or adolescent about his or her judgment of the experience rather than assuming that what happened was abuse.
  14. People whose gender (mental and social) doesn’t match what is expected for their sex (biological) may have different perceptions of such experiences.
  15. Not all adult-child sexual relationships are violent.
  16. A good definition of child sexual abuse needs to define what can be considered sexual, at what age one can be considered a child, and what the age difference between participants must be to qualify age disproportion.
  17. It is also important to consider the effect of the participants’ gender in the appraisal of the experience.
  18. A distinction must be made between children’s sexual experience and adolescents’ sexual experience.
  19. A distinction needs to be made between the sexual experience of the child or adolescent from different nations in order to assess whether or not local laws and customs influence how the experience is judged by the child or adolescent.
  20. Finally, it is necessary to know from the child’s or adolescent’s point of view whether he or she considers the occurrence to be a negative experience or not.
  21. Finding out the prevalence of precocious sexual relationships is a very difficult task.
  22. If there is no closed definition of child sexual abuse, comparing results from different studies on the subject will be difficult or even impossible.
  23. Contrary to popular belief, boys can also suffer child sexual abuse.
  24. Most studies on early sexual experiences are conducted in Europe and the United States… which may hinder the generalization of these data…
  25. To alleviate this problem, the study authors decided to analyze data obtained in Brazil.
  26. For the sake of safe data, the study defines “early sexual experience with an older partner” as that which occurs between a person aged thirteen or younger and another at least four years older (for example, between a child of eleven and a teenager of fifteen).
  27. A homosexual boy may look for an older partner because the risk of being discriminated or laughed at is lower.
  28. The study defines “child sexual abuse” as an early sexual experience with an older partner, provided that such experience has caused emotional or physical discomfort.
  29. Study participants were recruited between 2005 and 2006.
  30. To qualify for the study, the subject had to be at least fourteen years old (Brazilian age of consent) at the time of the interview.
  31. Most early sexual experiences with older partners occurred with people outside the family.
  32. Among the experiences that take place within the family, most experiences occur among cousins.
  33. Very few participants have had such experiences with older girls or women.
  34. Such experiences involve games of “show”, intimate caress, masturbation, oral sex or anal sex.
  35. Anal occurred more often among transgenders than among cisgenders, in a ratio of 86% (transgender) to 51% (cisgender).
  36. Only a quarter of participants report being forced during the sexual experience.
  37. Less than a fifth say they have been threatened.
  38. Only one in ten participants reported experiencing physical pain during the experience.
  39. In total, 66% of reported experiences did not involve use of force or presence of pain.
  40. Less than one third of participants considered their early experience an abuse.
  41. 55% said they enjoyed the experience, 29% said they were indifferent and 14% said they did not like the experience at the time it occurred.
  42. Of the 114 subjects who said they did not feel bad at the time the experience occurred, only 22 considered the experience to be abuse even though they were not harmed by it.
  43. Interestingly, of the 76 who claim that experience harmed them at the time it occurred, only 41 considered the experience to be abuse.
  44. It follows that it is easier for a child or adolescent to consider his experience abusive if he has suffered from the experience.
  45. In addition, being abused (negative experience) is correlated with life-threatening sexual behavior in adulthood.
  46. 73% of men and 88% of transgender people deny that their experiences were forced.
  47. 80% of men and 86% of transgenders deny being threatened during the experience.
  48. 91% of men and 77% of transgenders deny having felt pain as a result of the experience.
  49. A minority of respondents say the experience was sexual abuse.
  50. It is necessary to distinguish between “abuse” of the child (when the child suffers) and “abuse” of the customs (when the child does not suffer, what was violated was the social norm that forbids these experiences).
  51. Something is not abuse just because the law says so.
  52. If I do not believe the child or adolescent who denies that the experience was violent, why should I believe the child or adolescent who claims that the experience was violent?
  53. People condemn the Brazilian Carnival because it is a time when many indulge in sexual licentiousness, but such licentiousness is not unique to the Carnival.
  54. A boy who attracts attention from an adult can take pride on that.
  55. Sexual discrimination can affect school performance.
  56. It should be remembered that such data were obtained in Campinas and surrounding areas, but data obtained in other parts of Brazil may differ.
  57. Local culture affects the way we view and judge our sexual experiences at a vulnerable age.

7 de setembro de 2019

Cansaço (e Skyler7).

Filed under: Computadores e Internet, Livros, Passatempos — Tags:, — Yurinho @ 11:10

Sabe, ontem, eu estava pensando na cama sobre este sítio na Internet e sobre o uso que venho fazendo dele. Eu não gosto mais de falar da minha vida pessoal por aqui, e não tem nada que eu possa dizer sobre o cenário político que outros já não tenham dito. Só o que eu posso fazer com alguma satisfação é a publicação de anotações sobre o que leio. Isso até ontem: estou perdendo a vontade de publicar anotações. A razão pra isso é muito simples: elas são bem feias e não dá gosto de lê-las.

Foi uma péssima ideia de design eu escolher o formato de anotações pra comentar livros, páginas online e artigos científicos. Eu deveria ter escolhido o formato de resenha. Profundamente me arrependo de não ter feito isso. Cinco anos após ter começado, fazendo anotações sobre a Metafísica de Aristóteles, eu começo a ver que foi uma decisão pobre. Quando eu terminar minha leitura e anotações de Male Intergenerational Intimacy, eu vou ver o que eu posso fazer a respeito disso. Eu pensei em transformar as anotações publicadas em resenhas, bastando que eu as reescrevesse. Eu poderia inclusive dedicar meu tempo a isso, a reformar todas as anotações que eu tenho para o formato de resenha. Criar textos de verdade, sabe? Não informações soltas. Até porque resenhas atraem acessos: resenhas são ótimos meios de conhecer uma obra e avaliar se você quer ou não lê-la.

Então, quando eu acabar de ler Male Intergenerational Intimacy, eu começarei a transformar anotações em resenhas. Mas aí eu esbarro noutro problema, que é a linguagem. Depois de fazer cada resenha, eu teria que traduzi-las pro inglês? Logo eu estarei trabalhando e não terei tempo de fazer isso. Então, embora eu não goste muito de fazer isso, eu preciso escolher um idioma para cada resenha, em vez de publicar a resenha em dois idiomas. Eu pensei no seguinte: a resenha será escrita no idioma da obra que eu li. Assim, se eu li um livro em português, também a resenha será em português. Se o livro foi escrito em inglês, também a resenha será em inglês.

Isso casa bem com o fato de que este sítio completou dez anos três meses atrás. Eu preciso repensar o que eu tô fazendo por aqui. Eu tenho preguiça de escrever coisas longas e traduzi-las. Também medo, dependendo do que eu estou escrevendo. Mas preguiça é predominante, porque o medo tem deixado gradualmente de existir. Eu tenho ficado mais confiante. Eu só queria anunciar isto. Por outro lado, textos pessoais, como este, ainda serão disponibilizados em dois idiomas (até eu resolver repensar isso também).

Por último, Skyler, se você estiver lendo, dá uma olhada nisto.

What I learned from reading “Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous.”

Filed under: Livros — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 10:07

“Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous” was written by Berkeley. Below, what I learned from reading this book.

  1. Contact with nature invigorates the mind.
  2. Total skepticism (according to which the only truth is that there is no truth in anything else) is harmful because it puts everything into a relativistic framework.
  3. One cause of skepticism is the fact that authoritative people, such as philosophers and scientists, sometimes claim that there is no secure knowledge, profess extravagant things as truth or contradict each other .
  4. Sometimes, the layman‘s knowledge is safer.
  5. Approaching an object naively can be more effective than approaching it with science sometimes.
  6. When you are convinced that you are wrong, change your ways.
  7. Skeptic is a person who doubts everything.
  8. Those who deny are not skeptical; the skeptic doubts, that is, neither affirms nor denies.
  9. If during an argument, the opponent speaks something stupid but it’s also something small, it is not worth arguing about it.
  10. Denying the existence of matter does not negate mathematics.
  11. The “true skeptic” does not even affirm the existence of a sensible reality.
  12. What is a “sensible thing”: what can I learn only by the senses or what can I learn with the help of sensory aids?
  13. For example: reading a book, I see letters and I see the word “cat”.
  14. But it’s the mind who says that word is “cat”, because the mind has learned to interpret the signs that way.
  15. The eyes can only say that the letters C, A and T are written there.
  16. So what’s sensible: the word “cat” or the letters that make up the name?
  17. It’s aggravated when the word refers to something that is intelligible but not sensible, such as love.
  18. Causes and causality are rational, non-sensible inferences.
  19. The language is arbitrary : we have no reason to call the cat a cat, we just needed a word to designate it and we came up wiht that.
  20. Does heat have a real existence or is it a sensation born in us?
  21. The big problem here is where the sensations come from: if they are reactive, they are subjective; otherwise, they are objective.
  22. There is no intense sensation that does not cause pain or pleasure.
  23. How to define pleasure or pain without explaining what is sensation?
  24. Pleasure and pain exist in the mind, whom arranges sensations in intensity scale.
  25. Using subjective criteria to grade heat and cold leads to nonsense.
  26. Pleasure and pain exist only in the mind and the proof is that something that is pleasurable for some is painful for others (the so-called “personal taste”).
  27. Language in the full sense of the word is popular language: if I am speaking and you are understanding me, then it’s perfect and nothing needs to change in the language we use.
  28. The same thing looks different depending on the method of observation.
  29. If the microscope is more reliable, our normal vision is not enough.
  30. “Movement” can be understood as the change of position of one body in relation to another body, used as a reference.
  31. The reason why color is a subjective feature is that different people and animals perceive different spectra.
  32. Small animals perceive the world on a different scale.
  33. “Fast” and “slow” are subjective.
  34. Speed ​​is inversely proportional to the time a given object reaches a goal.
  35. Secondary qualities, such as color and taste, are identified by pleasure and pain, while primary qualities cause neither.
  36. Even when we assume that things have objective existence, our idea of ​​them is subjective.
  37. If the extension is subjective, it would not be part of the matter.
  38. Philosophically, substance and substrate are the same thing.
  39. Be careful not to use philosophical terms out of habit, not really knowing what they mean.
  40. What is matter anyway?
  41. If philosophy works with concepts, then unless we have a closed concept of what is matter, it will not be possible to make a philosophy of matter.
  42. If you conceive something in your mind, there is no guarantee that it exists outside of the mind.
  43. You can’t tell the exact distance of something just by looking at it.
  44. If you conceive distance as a “line” between the eye and the focused object, you do not see this line; the line is hypothetical.
  45. If I see a statue of Julius Caesar, I am seeing the statue; it’s reason who tells me what the statue represents.
  46. Often, the connection from one idea to another is pure custom, as is the case with prejudice.
  47. Do I listen to the vehicle or the sound it produces?
  48. You can only hear the sound, you can see the image , you can see the phenomenon , which does not necessarily give us a sure idea of ​​the object that produces it.

5 de setembro de 2019

What I learned from reading “The importance of sharing clinical information.”

Filed under: Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 15:26

“The importance of sharing clinical information: the case report of an adverse reaction” was written by Alexandra Cadete, Lara Sutil, Carine Silva and Joana Simões. Below, what I learned reading this text.

  1. A doctor may employ a treatment even when there is no consensus on the safety and effectiveness of its use (not that it’s always a good thing)…
  2. When applying antiemetic therapy, it is necessary to choose well which medicine to use, since the incidence of adverse reactions can reach 25% if the subject undergoing therapy is a child.
  3. The extrapyramidal effect, which may be caused by metoclopramide, may be reversed with biperiden.
  4. Metoclopramide can cause a dystonic crisis even without overdose.
  5. If a child is vomiting and an antiemetic must be used, ondansetron or domperidone are better choices, but not metoclopramide.
  6. Antiemetic therapy is used when a vomiting crisis begins to cause dehydration.
  7. A dystonic crisis can occur up to two days after metoclopramide use.
  8. Such reactions are characterized by abnormal postures, spasms and twisting movements.
  9. This effect is more common in children and the elderly, but rare in young adults.
  10. If these effects appear without the subject taking antidopaminergic medication, the patient may have tetanus or a disorder that causes seizure.
  11. An extrapyramidal reaction may be reversed with anticholinergics or benzodiazepines.

What I learned from reading “Childhood sexual experiences with an older partner among men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina”.

Filed under: Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 15:19

“Childhood sexual experiences with an older partner among men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina” was written by Curtis Dolezal, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Iván C. Balán, María A. Pando, Marina Mabragaña, Rubén Marone, Victoria Barreda and Maria M. Avila. Below, what I learned by reading their text.

  1. The aim of the study is to evaluate early sexual experiences with older partners in an Argentine population.
  2. Experiences of interest to the researchers were manual, oral, genital, or anal contacts, provided the participating subject was 13 or younger at the time when the experience occurred and provided the partner was at least four years older than the subject.
  3. In a sample of 500 participants, 18% had such experiences.
  4. Most subjects who had early sexual experiences with older partners do not consider the experience to be negative or abusive.
  5. Two-thirds of the participants had such experiences with women.
  6. Among those who had their sexual experience with women, only 4% consider the experience to be child sexual abuse.
  7. Among those who had their sexual experience with men, 44% consider the experience to be child sexual abuse.
  8. It is easier for the child or adolescent to consider the experience abusive if it has been objectively violent or painful, either physically or emotionally.
  9. It follows that the peaceful and voluntary experience is unlikely to be remembered as abusive.
  10. Specifically in this sample, there is no correlation between early sexual experiences and risk of lifetime contamination with HIV.
  11. Those who had early sexual experiences with a man reported use of force or threats more often than those who had such experiences with women.
  12. The study defines “child sexual abuse” as the early sexual experience in which the child or adolescent felt physically or emotionally harmed by his or her older partner.
  13. Homosexual participants more often reported unwanted sexual contact in childhood or adolescence and more often reported rape (unwanted carnal conjunction ) than heterosexual participants.
  14. Child sexual abuse (unwanted sexual experience during childhood or adolescence) is associated with adult functioning problems.
  15. One such problem is the contraction of risky sexual behaviors.
  16. But association is not the same as causality: a lot of children who have actually been abused do not develop any negative symptoms throughout their lives (which does not make such abuses acceptable).
  17. In addition, if the sexual experience has been peaceful and voluntary, the subject is unlikely to develop any negative symptoms in adulthood.
  18. The correlation between psychological problems and early sexual experiences is strong only among the subjects who were forced into such experiences.
  19. Violence may or may not occur in such experiences.
  20. Culture can also influence the evaluation of such child sexual experiences: some of these experiences are seen as games in Brazil.
  21. There are few studies on the effect of Latin American culture on the evaluation of an early sexual experience.
  22. In this sample, most of these relationships occurred outside the family.
  23. The average age for the youngest was 10 years and the average age for the oldest partner was 20 years.
  24. One participant told the researcher that he had a thousand times of sexual contacts with his partner in childhood and adolescence, and told the researcher other things that suggested he was highly sexually active at a vulnerable age.
  25. Half of the subjects who had early sexual experience had oral contact; most had manual contact.
  26. All participants who, in childhood or adolescence, had a relationship with an older woman claim to have penetrated her.
  27. 84% of those who have had experiences with older men claim to have been penetrated.
  28. 18% consider their early sexual experiences to be abusive and most deny being forced, threatened or injured.
  29. Those who had sexual contacts with women were, on average, older than those who had sexual contacts with men.
  30. Apart from the Chad who had one thousand sexual contacts with his partner, four other participants reported having between one hundred and two hundred sexual contacts with an older partner, but most participants reported ten or less.
  31. The woman is less likely to force the boy into a sexual contact.
  32. Each country has its definition of “abuse”: what people in the US call “abuse” may not receive that same treatment in Brazil.
  33. It is more difficult to regard the experience as abuse if the older partner is a woman: when a boy has a sexual contact with a woman, he has had heterosexual contact, free from the stigma of homosexuality.
  34. Such stigma increases the chances of the child or adolescent regarding the experience as negative: a precocious homosexual contact may still be regarded as negative even in the absence of pain or coercion.
  35. Majority of the subjects was not traumatized by their experience.
  36. The fact that something is infrequent does not mean that it is a minor problem: we must not stop combating sexual violence against children and adolescents just because violent experiences are not as frequent as peaceful ones.
  37. The fact that people who had sexual contact in childhood or adolescence in countries where such a thing is taboo suffer more than people who have had the same experiences in places where it is not taboo (or where disapproval is smaller) shows that disapproval of such behavior can have a role in forming negative symptoms.
  38. This study uses a relatively new method (respondent-driven sampling), so care must be taken when generalizing these data.
  39. In South America, it seems that people who have sex with men may still consider themselves heterosexual.
  40. Not every libidinous act before the age of fourteen should be considered rape: early sexual experiences are not uniformly negative and can be arranged in a positive to negative spectrum.

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