Analecto

8 de setembro de 2019

What I learned from reading “Recalled Sexual Experiences in Childhood with Older Partners: A Study of Brazilian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Male-to-Female Transgender Persons.”

Filed under: Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 15:02

“Recalled Sexual Experiences in Childhood with Older Partners: A Study of Brazilian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Male-to-Female Transgender Persons” was written by Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Ivan Balan, Curtis Dolezal, and Maeve B. Mello. Below, what I learned reading this text.

  1. The aim of the study is to verify the frequency of occurrence of sexual relationships between boy or transgender with older partner in the Campinas region and to verify if such experiences are related to risky sexual behavior in adulthood.
  2. The method used involves the use of a questionnaire and an HIV test.
  3. Among the participants (575), 85% were boys or cisgender men and 15% were males (biologically) who did not identify as men.
  4. Among the participants, 32% said they had an older sexual partner back when they were children or adolescents.
  5. The average age for the younger party was nine years and the average age for the partner was nineteen.
  6. Most of the older partners were men.
  7. Of all participants who had sexual experiences in childhood or adolescence with an older partner, only 29% considered the experience abusive.
  8. 57% said the experience was pleasant.
  9. 29% say they feel indifferent about the sexual contact that took place in their younger years…
  10. Only 14% say they did not like the experience at the time it occurred.
  11. Transgenders had such experiences more often and had a higher positive response rate than cisgenders.
  12. Precocious subjects did not necessarily develop life-threatening sexual behavior.
  13. It is important to hear the child or adolescent about his or her judgment of the experience rather than assuming that what happened was abuse.
  14. People whose gender (mental and social) doesn’t match what is expected for their sex (biological) may have different perceptions of such experiences.
  15. Not all adult-child sexual relationships are violent.
  16. A good definition of child sexual abuse needs to define what can be considered sexual, at what age one can be considered a child, and what the age difference between participants must be to qualify age disproportion.
  17. It is also important to consider the effect of the participants’ gender in the appraisal of the experience.
  18. A distinction must be made between children’s sexual experience and adolescents’ sexual experience.
  19. A distinction needs to be made between the sexual experience of the child or adolescent from different nations in order to assess whether or not local laws and customs influence how the experience is judged by the child or adolescent.
  20. Finally, it is necessary to know from the child’s or adolescent’s point of view whether he or she considers the occurrence to be a negative experience or not.
  21. Finding out the prevalence of precocious sexual relationships is a very difficult task.
  22. If there is no closed definition of child sexual abuse, comparing results from different studies on the subject will be difficult or even impossible.
  23. Contrary to popular belief, boys can also suffer child sexual abuse.
  24. Most studies on early sexual experiences are conducted in Europe and the United States… which may hinder the generalization of these data…
  25. To alleviate this problem, the study authors decided to analyze data obtained in Brazil.
  26. For the sake of safe data, the study defines “early sexual experience with an older partner” as that which occurs between a person aged thirteen or younger and another at least four years older (for example, between a child of eleven and a teenager of fifteen).
  27. A homosexual boy may look for an older partner because the risk of being discriminated or laughed at is lower.
  28. The study defines “child sexual abuse” as an early sexual experience with an older partner, provided that such experience has caused emotional or physical discomfort.
  29. Study participants were recruited between 2005 and 2006.
  30. To qualify for the study, the subject had to be at least fourteen years old (Brazilian age of consent) at the time of the interview.
  31. Most early sexual experiences with older partners occurred with people outside the family.
  32. Among the experiences that take place within the family, most experiences occur among cousins.
  33. Very few participants have had such experiences with older girls or women.
  34. Such experiences involve games of “show”, intimate caress, masturbation, oral sex or anal sex.
  35. Anal occurred more often among transgenders than among cisgenders, in a ratio of 86% (transgender) to 51% (cisgender).
  36. Only a quarter of participants report being forced during the sexual experience.
  37. Less than a fifth say they have been threatened.
  38. Only one in ten participants reported experiencing physical pain during the experience.
  39. In total, 66% of reported experiences did not involve use of force or presence of pain.
  40. Less than one third of participants considered their early experience an abuse.
  41. 55% said they enjoyed the experience, 29% said they were indifferent and 14% said they did not like the experience at the time it occurred.
  42. Of the 114 subjects who said they did not feel bad at the time the experience occurred, only 22 considered the experience to be abuse even though they were not harmed by it.
  43. Interestingly, of the 76 who claim that experience harmed them at the time it occurred, only 41 considered the experience to be abuse.
  44. It follows that it is easier for a child or adolescent to consider his experience abusive if he has suffered from the experience.
  45. In addition, being abused (negative experience) is correlated with life-threatening sexual behavior in adulthood.
  46. 73% of men and 88% of transgender people deny that their experiences were forced.
  47. 80% of men and 86% of transgenders deny being threatened during the experience.
  48. 91% of men and 77% of transgenders deny having felt pain as a result of the experience.
  49. A minority of respondents say the experience was sexual abuse.
  50. It is necessary to distinguish between “abuse” of the child (when the child suffers) and “abuse” of the customs (when the child does not suffer, what was violated was the social norm that forbids these experiences).
  51. Something is not abuse just because the law says so.
  52. If I do not believe the child or adolescent who denies that the experience was violent, why should I believe the child or adolescent who claims that the experience was violent?
  53. People condemn the Brazilian Carnival because it is a time when many indulge in sexual licentiousness, but such licentiousness is not unique to the Carnival.
  54. A boy who attracts attention from an adult can take pride on that.
  55. Sexual discrimination can affect school performance.
  56. It should be remembered that such data were obtained in Campinas and surrounding areas, but data obtained in other parts of Brazil may differ.
  57. Local culture affects the way we view and judge our sexual experiences at a vulnerable age.

5 de setembro de 2019

What I learned from reading “Childhood sexual experiences with an older partner among men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina”.

Filed under: Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 15:19

“Childhood sexual experiences with an older partner among men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina” was written by Curtis Dolezal, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Iván C. Balán, María A. Pando, Marina Mabragaña, Rubén Marone, Victoria Barreda and Maria M. Avila. Below, what I learned by reading their text.

  1. The aim of the study is to evaluate early sexual experiences with older partners in an Argentine population.
  2. Experiences of interest to the researchers were manual, oral, genital, or anal contacts, provided the participating subject was 13 or younger at the time when the experience occurred and provided the partner was at least four years older than the subject.
  3. In a sample of 500 participants, 18% had such experiences.
  4. Most subjects who had early sexual experiences with older partners do not consider the experience to be negative or abusive.
  5. Two-thirds of the participants had such experiences with women.
  6. Among those who had their sexual experience with women, only 4% consider the experience to be child sexual abuse.
  7. Among those who had their sexual experience with men, 44% consider the experience to be child sexual abuse.
  8. It is easier for the child or adolescent to consider the experience abusive if it has been objectively violent or painful, either physically or emotionally.
  9. It follows that the peaceful and voluntary experience is unlikely to be remembered as abusive.
  10. Specifically in this sample, there is no correlation between early sexual experiences and risk of lifetime contamination with HIV.
  11. Those who had early sexual experiences with a man reported use of force or threats more often than those who had such experiences with women.
  12. The study defines “child sexual abuse” as the early sexual experience in which the child or adolescent felt physically or emotionally harmed by his or her older partner.
  13. Homosexual participants more often reported unwanted sexual contact in childhood or adolescence and more often reported rape (unwanted carnal conjunction ) than heterosexual participants.
  14. Child sexual abuse (unwanted sexual experience during childhood or adolescence) is associated with adult functioning problems.
  15. One such problem is the contraction of risky sexual behaviors.
  16. But association is not the same as causality: a lot of children who have actually been abused do not develop any negative symptoms throughout their lives (which does not make such abuses acceptable).
  17. In addition, if the sexual experience has been peaceful and voluntary, the subject is unlikely to develop any negative symptoms in adulthood.
  18. The correlation between psychological problems and early sexual experiences is strong only among the subjects who were forced into such experiences.
  19. Violence may or may not occur in such experiences.
  20. Culture can also influence the evaluation of such child sexual experiences: some of these experiences are seen as games in Brazil.
  21. There are few studies on the effect of Latin American culture on the evaluation of an early sexual experience.
  22. In this sample, most of these relationships occurred outside the family.
  23. The average age for the youngest was 10 years and the average age for the oldest partner was 20 years.
  24. One participant told the researcher that he had a thousand times of sexual contacts with his partner in childhood and adolescence, and told the researcher other things that suggested he was highly sexually active at a vulnerable age.
  25. Half of the subjects who had early sexual experience had oral contact; most had manual contact.
  26. All participants who, in childhood or adolescence, had a relationship with an older woman claim to have penetrated her.
  27. 84% of those who have had experiences with older men claim to have been penetrated.
  28. 18% consider their early sexual experiences to be abusive and most deny being forced, threatened or injured.
  29. Those who had sexual contacts with women were, on average, older than those who had sexual contacts with men.
  30. Apart from the Chad who had one thousand sexual contacts with his partner, four other participants reported having between one hundred and two hundred sexual contacts with an older partner, but most participants reported ten or less.
  31. The woman is less likely to force the boy into a sexual contact.
  32. Each country has its definition of “abuse”: what people in the US call “abuse” may not receive that same treatment in Brazil.
  33. It is more difficult to regard the experience as abuse if the older partner is a woman: when a boy has a sexual contact with a woman, he has had heterosexual contact, free from the stigma of homosexuality.
  34. Such stigma increases the chances of the child or adolescent regarding the experience as negative: a precocious homosexual contact may still be regarded as negative even in the absence of pain or coercion.
  35. Majority of the subjects was not traumatized by their experience.
  36. The fact that something is infrequent does not mean that it is a minor problem: we must not stop combating sexual violence against children and adolescents just because violent experiences are not as frequent as peaceful ones.
  37. The fact that people who had sexual contact in childhood or adolescence in countries where such a thing is taboo suffer more than people who have had the same experiences in places where it is not taboo (or where disapproval is smaller) shows that disapproval of such behavior can have a role in forming negative symptoms.
  38. This study uses a relatively new method (respondent-driven sampling), so care must be taken when generalizing these data.
  39. In South America, it seems that people who have sex with men may still consider themselves heterosexual.
  40. Not every libidinous act before the age of fourteen should be considered rape: early sexual experiences are not uniformly negative and can be arranged in a positive to negative spectrum.

%d blogueiros gostam disto: