6 de maio de 2019

What I learned by reading “What if the Child Appears to Enjoy It?”

Filed under: Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , , , — Yure @ 09:22

What if the Child Appears to Enjoy It? Moral Attitudes Toward Adult-Child Sex Among Men With and Without Pedohebephilia” was written by Sara Jahnke, Sabine Schmitt and Agustín Malón. Below, what I learned by reading this text.

  1. The aim of the study is to verify how minor-attracted people and people who are not attracted to minors judge, from a moral point of view, sexual contacts between adult and child in which the child does not suffer direct physical or mental damage as a result of the experience .
  2. To attain such goal, 120 minor-attracted people and 89 others were interviewed.
  3. According to the study, in the sample analyzed, 7.5% of minor-attracted people are as permissive or even less permissive than subjects who do not have such attraction, in regards to sexual situations between adult and minor, even when not there is damage attributable to the experience.
  4. On the other hand, 4.5% of subjects who do not have such attraction can be as permissive as a pro-consent minor-attracted person.
  5. Both groups agree that even if the experience does not cause direct harm, there is a real risk that the child will suffer secondary stigmatization .
  6. About 4% of the German population has pedophilia (attraction to prepubescents) or hebephilia (attraction to pubescents).
  7. The views that minor-attracted people hold about relationships between adults and minors are usually addressed with a clinical bias (as a “justification” for their feelings or actions) or forensic bias (as a “risk factor”).
  8. But neither bias takes those views seriously, which leads to a distorted interpretation of what goes on in the subject’s head.
  9. For most minorattracted people, the ideal relationship is summed as “caring adult finds a consenting child.”
  10. So to appraise their opinions impartially, the authors wrote a questionnaire to be applied to minor-attracted populations in order to know their moral opinion of such ideal relationships.
  11. The questionnaire was applied over the Internet.
  12. There are researchers who say that pedophilia and hebephilia are sexual orientations .
  13. The proposal to include hebephilia in the DSM-V (as a disorder) failed .
  14. The term “child” is used throughout the text to designate anyone under the age of fourteen.
  15. When a minor-attracted person is interviewed by a person from the clinical field, his or her opinion is studied according to the cognitive distortion framework: unless the pedophile thinks like everyone eles, he is lying to himself or attempting to justify his desires.
  16. So part of the treatment for pedophilia would be to change the subject’s opinion and make him think like the rest of society.
  17. Questionnaires to measure the degree of “distortion” of a particular subject are flawed because they are based on the moral assumption that all contacts between adult and minor are violent regardless of the nature of the act, even in absence of actual violence.
  18. Since most minor-attracted people do not really support violence against children, those questionnaries end up being useless: a pedophile can say “forcing a child to have sex is bad” because that is what the questionnaire asks, but the questionnaire does not ask “what if the child is not being forced?” or “do you agree that it’s bad even if the child enjoys it?”.
  19. Thus it is not possible to measure a person’s opinion on adult-to-minor relationships from the assumption that all such contacts are violent, because such questionnaires only ask for one side of the opinion, not the whole opinion.
  20. Pedophiles often don’t have our same concept of “rape”: for them, something is rape only if the contact was forced.
  21. That means that pedophiles generally don’t believe, as society believes, in ” consensual rape.”
  22. So if you happen to find a pedophile and ask him “don’t you think that raping kids is wrong?”, he’ll probably say “of course it is wrong!”, because the word “rape” is invokes the idea that the contact was unwilling.
  23. If this consensual adult/child sex was legal, pedophiles would still be against child sexual abuse.
  24. This study aims to fix this: one must access the whole view, not just one side of it; it is necessary to know what pedophiles think of non-violent relationships between adult and minor.
  25. A good questionnaire would be one that gives arguments both for and against this type of relationship, with a scale that measures how much the subject agrees with each argument.
  26. This is useful because it probes the person’s opinion on a moral level and because morals is what guides most of our voluntary actions.
  27. Nevertheless, it is necessary to remember that attitude and behavior are different things: you can say that you will not do it, but can you stand against temptation?
  28. Most people reject adult-child relationships, with or without violence.
  29. Among clinicians and researchers, the reasons for rejection are:
    1. Inherent damage.
    2. Secondary victimization.
    3. Children’s inability to issue informed consent.
    4. Inherent exploitation.
    5. Children’s inability to understand the sexual nature of the act.
  30. None of those arguments is safe from criticism.
  31. In addition, although this is the consensus of the majority when the subject is pre-pubertal , this consensus becomes more and more disputed when it comes to puberty.
  32. On inherent damage: from a statistical point of view, if we separate the negative effect attributed to the relationship from the negative effect from other sources, the damage attributed to the relationship seems smaller or negligible, which suggests that it is not the relationship that causes the damage, but associated variables (presence of force, threats, nature of the libidinous act, whether or not the act was discovered, family reaction, legal or medical intervention, among others).
  33. In addition, there is evidence of relationships that are not only remembered as harmless, but even as beneficial by the minor, even after the minor grows up.

  34. If we want to condemn something because there is a risk of harm, any form of risk should be eliminated, including the risk of trauma that can result from legal reaction to the act.
  35. Secondary victimization: the child can be harmed by the social reaction to the act, even when the act is in itself harmless.
  36. In some cases, the negative reaction is determinant in the appearance of negative symptoms in people who had precocious sexual experiences.
  37. If the child feels guilty or embarrassed, for example, he or she may internalize those feelings in their self-concept, thus developing low self-esteem.
  38. This is called nocebo effect, the opposite of the placebo effect, in which a symptom is attributed to a cause which, alone, would be incapable of generating such a symptom.
  39. Even if the contact is never discovered, the child who grows up in an environment that demonizes that kind of experience will eventually repudiate what happened.
  40. Informed consent: unless the child has enough information to understand what they are getting into, the relationship is immoral.
  41. The child needs to understand the nature of the act and its consequences, before deciding whether or not to participate in such a thing.
  42. For some researchers, this is the only valid argument against adult-child relationships in general: if a child understood the nature of the act and its consequences, its experience is not immoral, as long as it is also consensual.
  43. Sexual exploitation: if the child sees adults as people with authority, kids supposedly would never deny their advances.
  44. This image comes from studies that focus on cases where exploitation occurred.
  45. But there is research that challenges the belief that exploitation is a necessary element in adultminor relationships .
  46. About sexual incompatibility: when an adult and a child do something sexual together, they are looking for different things (the child is supposedly in the pursuit of affection or satisfaction of curiosity, while the adult is looking for pleasure), but such an argument only makes sense if sex is more than mere recreation.
  47. The girl likely isn’t looking for anything explicitly sexual when she gets in contact with an adult, it may even be that she does not even realize that an ongoing sexual relationship is sexual.
  48. Are there any children who desire adults in the same way that adults can desire minors?
  49. This argument rests on the idea that child sexuality and adult sexuality are qualitatively different: if they are not, the argument is destroyed .
  50. In addition, this argument implies the existence of a gray area around puberty, when sexuality is becoming adult.
  51. There is a scientific interest in studying minor-attracted people who aren’t incarcerated.
  52. The authors of the study decided to collect subjects (attracted to minors or not) and to show them these five arguments against adul/child sex, to see how they evaluate those arguments when applied to a hypothetical experience in which there is affection and love, but pain and violence are absent
  53. Between January and March 2016, the study authors recruited subjects through the Internet.
  54. Minor-attracted people were recruited through legal sites where such subjects meet, such as Krumme 13 and Jungsforum .
  55. Among the minor-attracted people, 21% are primarily or exclusively attracted to girls, 64% are primarily or exclusively attracted to boys and 15% do not have such preference.
  56. Among those attracted to adults, 88% are heterosexual.
  57. All subjects who participated in the study, both those attracted to minors and those attracted to typical subjects, had more education than the average population, although most minor-attracted people had not enrolled college.
  58. Among minor-attracted people, 14% had already been prosecuted for sex crimes involving children, while 20% were under treatment because of the attraction.
  59. The study probed the feelings of minor-attracted people in order to know how often they were interested in “persons with no secondary sexual characteristics” (prepubescent), “persons with maturing secondary sexual characteristics” (pubescent) and “People with mature secondary sexual characteristics” (post-pubescent).
  60. Most minor-attracted people are also attracted to adults.
  61. Participants had to morally judge a hypothetical situation in which a girl between the ages of 10 and 12 engaged in libidinous mutual acts (without carnal conjunction) with an adult who did not force her and who asked her for permission, obtaining such permission without any bribe.
  62. The girl then, at the end of the experience, states that the experience was pleasurable.
  63. Participants had to judge the moral value of such experience according to the criteria of direct harm, indirect harm, validity of consent, presence or absence of exploitation and sexual compatibility.
  64. Most subjects with typical attraction claim that experience, even under such conditions, is harmful.
  65. The opposite has been said by most minor-attracted people.
  66. However, with regard to secondary victimization, both groups voiced similar opinion.
  67. About half of the minor-attracted people stated that the girl was sufficiently informed to participate in the experience, but almost no person with typical attraction shares this view.
  68. Most minor-attracted people did not judge the experience as exploitation, but the opposite is seen in typical subjects.
  69. Finally, more than half of minor-attracted people saw the sexuality of the man and the girl’s sexuality as compatible, whereas the subjects with typical attraction saw their sexuality as too different for true reciprocity.
  70. If a minor-attracted person seeks therapy, starting the discussion by stressing that secondary victimization is a risk would be a good way to find a common ground with which both client and therapist can agree with, allowing a good relationship between the two, at least in the first moment.
  71. Girl lovers had higher adherence rates to the informed consent argument.
  72. No relation was found between permissive attitude and criminal history: the pro-consent will not necessarily break the law.
  73. There are people with typical attraction who are also attracted to minors.
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