Analecto

21 de janeiro de 2019

What I learned reading “Ideas for a Pure Phenomenology and for a Phenomenological Philosophy”.

Filed under: Livros — Tags:, — Yurinho @ 15:54

Ideas for a Pure Phenomenology and for a Phenomenological Philosophy” was written by Edmund Husserl. Below, what I learned reading his text.

  1. Natural knowledge is experimental.
  2. Thus, natural knowledge is limited by the world and is useful in the world, which is the field of experience.
  3. Natural knowledge, if it is experimental, is sensitive and present: it is not about anticipations or about memories, nor about what we do not feel in ourselves, but about here and now, or what could be here and now.
  4. It is possible to observe what is experienced by others, but only in a metaphorical sense: it is not that we observe what they feel, but we observe how they externalize their feelings, since we can observe their actions.
  5. Figuring out a person’s feelings by observing their actions isn’t an “originally given” knowledge, because you are speculating about their feelings by observing something that isn’t the feeling itself.
  6. The world as object of study is the stage of all the phenomena that can be theorized about.
  7. This world as an object of study is what the natural sciences are concerned with.
  8. This is not to say that the humanities shouldn’t be concerned with this world.
  9. Empirical science studies the fact.
  10. Fact = here and now.
  11. If something happened before, but doesn’t happen now, it was a fact and it can still be studied.
  12. It is through the study of facts and their relationships that we can create “laws” that anticipate phenomena.
  13. That’s because facts tend to repeat themselves, given a set of conditions that could originate them.
  14. Each fact has essential (primary) and secondary predicates.
  15. What is common in all sounds is the essence of sound, but other characteristics that may exist with the sound are ” accidental “.
  16. It is through these characteristics that we categorize the facts.
  17. The essence is that characteristic that makes something cease to belong in a certain concept if such characteristic is removed: sound if vibration of air, só, if there’s no air, there’s no sound, which makes air essential to the sound.
  18. Ideation (“visualization” of essence) is not an empirical activity.
  19. Pure essence is not concrete, but it is related to the concrete.
  20. Empirical study looks at one side of the thing at a time.
  21. There is always something in the object of study that escapes us.
  22. If something is logical, that is, if a concept contains possible characteristics in itself, it is something that can be studied and perhaps we will find it in the real world someday.
  23. The fact that something is visible does not guarantee that we can understand it.
  24. Personal intuition without ideation is not possible.
  25. It is possible to “extract” the essence of something without the concrete fact (here and now), by bringing the memory of the fact to mind and reasoning about it in a mental experiment.
  26. Then it is possible to reason about something that was not experienced by the person who is reasoning.
  27. The enunciation of the facts requires empirical data.
  28. Reasoning about essences requires apprehension of the essence.
  29. When you work with pure geometry, you do not think about that cone, about that circle or that cube, but about the general rules about the cone, circle, or cube, which cover cones, circles, and cubes in general.
  30. Eidetic generality is like pure geometry: it is generality unconditioned to particular things (kinda like an axiom, but not exactly an axiom).
  31. An eidetic generality can be applied to concrete cases (as laws of nature can be applied to particular phenomena).
  32. Eidetic generality is not exactly like natural laws, because natural laws always presuppose the existence of something, whereas eidetic generality does not necessarily suppose that the object to which the concept refers actually exists (it’s “theorized” about).
  33. Each essence has a number of possible factual singularizations (a concept may or may not correspond to reality, sometimes in more than one form), so that there is co-operation between science of facts (practical, empirical) and science of essences (theoretical, conceptual).
  34. Examples of science of essences are pure mathematics, pure logic, among other abstract sciences whose objects may or may not factually exist (remembering that fact is here and now).
  35. The science of the essence can work without concrete object, but the sciences of fact (the natural ones) can not work without concrete object.
  36. Thus, science of fact and experimental science are equivalent terms.
  37. The first science of essence was modern mathematics.
  38. Thus it can be said that empirical science does not contribute to the science of essence, because factual science is only concerned with facts, and the science of essence, as something conceptual, is indifferent to facts.
  39. On the other hand, empirical science depends on concepts (“pure sciences”).
  40. For example: formal logic is eidetic and does not need facts to be executed, but it is not possible to do physics without logic.
  41. A science that wants to explain all the particular facts needs to be accompanied by a eidetic science (as general as possible), from which the principles that would allow such a degree of explanation are extracted.
  42. The degree of abstraction in a “pure science” begins small and increases over the centuries, as it did in geometry.
  43. That means that the title of “eidetic science” is acquired, not given.
  44. Subordination of the material to the formal by the formal ontology is what gives the constitution common to all “material ontologies.”
  45. Genre and species are two extremes of the same scale, in which the species is the most particular being of an extremely general genre.

28 de setembro de 2018

What I learned by reading the “Phaedo”.

Filed under: Livros — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 21:16

“Phaedo” was written by Plato. Here are some things I learned from reading his book.

  1. The book tells of Socrates’ speech before his death.
  2. After Socrates’ trial, he was imprisoned for a few more days before finally taking the poison.
  3. Many people watched Socrates die …
  4. Socrates died happy.
  5. Some of those present were also happy, others were sad, but most did not know what to feel.
  6. Pleasure and pain follow each other, like a pendulum.
  7. If our life belongs to God, we have no right to take our own lives.
  8. It is good not to accept others’ opinions so easily.
  9. People who practice philosophy tend to care less about the body and more about the soul.
  10. Our senses are limited so we can not give them full credit.
  11. Truth is attainable by thought, not by body.
  12. The body provides pain, which harms our ability to reason.
  13. Beauty, justice, goodness are things that can not be seen or heard and can only be studied by thought, not through the senses.
  14. You are too attached to your body, if you are too scared of death.
  15. Some people who claim to be “virtuous” are just sacrificing some pleasures in favor of other pleasures that are indulged in private, vices that could be more vicious than those that are openly avoided.
  16. The senses get close to the truth, but can’t touch truth.
  17. To forget is to lose knowledge.
  18. We are body and thought.
  19. Philosophy teaches how to refuse satisfaction to bodily appetites, when such is needed.
  20. Socrates had full faith in his words: he was convinced that death would not harm him.
  21. Hatred for words and hatred for mankind, both come from the same place: disappointment.
  22. Most people are a middle ground between good and bad.
  23. Extremes are rare.
  24. When encountering arguments that are opposed to yours, may you feel tempted to become skeptical of all answers, as you may realize that no answer is 100% accurate.
  25. Seek the truth for yourself and share, but don’t expect everyone to agree with you.
  26. Convincing others is a consequence, but should never be the goal of rational thought.
  27. Anaxagoras said that the mind or intelligence commanded all things, but when it comes to explaining the things of our world, he never resorts on that concept of intelligence, preferring to explain phenomena using natural causes.
  28. I’m sitting because I want to.
  29. The famous “navigations”: the first itinerary consists in seeking to know things sensually and the second consists in using only the reason.
  30. What makes beautiful things beautiful is the presence of a quality called “beauty”: to say why something is beautiful, we must define what beauty is in itself.
  31. Socrates accepted the spherical model of the Earth, although he thought it was in the middle of the universe.

15 de junho de 2018

Notes on Voltaire’s “Philosophical Dictionary”.

Filed under: Livros, Passatempos — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 13:33

“Philosophical Dictionary” was written by Voltaire. Below are some notes made about his text.

  1. It is not possible to know ourselves fully.
  2. Soul is life.
  3. “Three-quarters” of humanity does not care if the soul exists or not, while “one quarter” of humanity goes as far as formulating the question.
  4. The soul only becomes a philosophical problem after revelation.
  5. Thought does not come from the body, but it comes from us.
  6. The fact that there is movement (life) in organs that are not subject to our will has led the ancients to think that more than one soul inhabits the body: a rational soul, an emotional sould, a vegetative soul.
  7. Proponents of the soul can only rely on religion.
  8. The Holy Bible does not mention immortality of the soul.
  9. The Law of Moses does not speak of future life or of immortality.
  10. The theological debate is irrelevant.
  11. Friendship is a contract.
  12. Love exists in many animals, but copulation does not occur in all animals.
  13. The sexual season of the human being never ends, that’s why we don’t often talk about women going in “heat”.
  14. The human being perfects his erotic practice.
  15. Sex feels better when done with someone you like.
  16. As the human being seeks more pleasures in relation to sex, he is subject to more frustrations .
  17. Self-love is natural.
  18. Homosexuality was never mandatory in any law, but not all codes forbade it.
  19. The term “angel” has a Babylonian origin.
  20. We have more regard for the dead than for the living.
  21. Hunting can lead to cannibalism: a dead enemy is not so different from a slaughtered chicken.
  22. Cannibalism occurred less frequently in history than the human sacrifice to pagan gods.
  23. The early churches rejected, in unison, the Book of Revelations.
  24. Revelations, attributed to “John”, was probably written after John was dead.
  25. Because the book is allegorical in nature, the events narrated there may represent several historical events: as the end is near (and is), the Revelations could refer to the third world war, as it was thought that it referred to the reign of Charles IX, for example.
  26. The rumor that Socrates was an atheist was spread by a poet who wrote comedy.
  27. It is very easy to misrepresent a text to prove an intention that the writer did not have.
  28. It’s easier to remember someone who was accused of a crime, rather than a confirmed hero.
  29. The Chinese, at the time of Voltaire, were not Christians, but not atheists; they had the conception of a supreme and fair being, who avenges injustices and rewards good deeds.
  30. It is easier for a fanatic to kill than an atheist to kill.
  31. If this is the best of all possible worlds, how can one explain human misery?
  32. Epicurus’ riddle was invented by a priest.
  33. The riddle is more pertinent among religious people than among atheists.
  34. Not all potential causes generate effect, and there are things we do that do not have any great effect on the universe.
  35. The chain of effects related to the particular cause eventually ends.
  36. We can’t change we are attracted to, but we can hide the attraction.
  37. When you do not know the answer, confess your ignorance.
  38. If God is in everything, including myself, that doesn’t mean that God is part of me, just as the light that passes through the glass does not become part of the glass.
  39. Do to the other what you would like to have done to you, is the definition of justice in the dialogue of the Chinese catechism.
  40. When we refer to life and mental qualities, we use the term “soul,” but that does not mean that the soul is immortal.
  41. Animals have memories, passions and ideas, that is, they have “soul”.
  42. Belief in the immortality of the soul compels us to righteousness.
  43. But whether the soul exists or not, let’s thrive to be good people.
  44. If life ended in death, without hope of a future life, crimes committed in life and that were not punished in life would remain unpunished.
  45. If we lose our memory, we become someone else.
  46. It’s kind of strange that small cults claim the truth for themselves, as if everyone else is wrong.
  47. Not practicing evil isn’t enough without good deeds.
  48. The good friend manages to point out your flaws without hurting you.
  49. Friendship does not have to be a rule of religion, because the best friendships are spontaneous.
  50. Various moral elements of the Christian religion, such as loving one’s own enemies, already existed in other nations that had never heard of Christ.
  51. There are virtues useful only to ourselves and virtues useful to the whole world.
  52. Hospitality is a forgotten virtue.
  53. There are risks in practicing any virtue.
  54. There will be no need for revenge if good deeds are rewarded.
  55. Taste is personal.
  56. Contend causes more damage than tolerance.
  57. When preaching, talk about morals, not controversies.
  58. Morality is more important than theology.
  59. Comedy can be constructive when used for pedagogical goals.
  60. A dance party can kill as much as a battle.
  61. Maybe people would use less drugs if they worked more.
  62. Scripture need not be questioned, but human opinion about Scripture must be questioned.
  63. You can be sure and be wrong.
  64. Being mathematically sure is being 100% sure.
  65. Being logically sure is being 100% sure.
  66. The Babylonians already knew that the Earth revolved around the Sun.
  67. Many philosophers have hidden the truth for fear of persecution.
  68. It is not necessary to know physics to be holy.
  69. Eastern philosophy was not popular in the West until recently, because, in the modern era, people thought that China, for example, was an atheistic government.
  70. In the East, there was the habit of rewarding virtues and punishing crimes, but Western governments have never succeeded in rewarding virtue, limiting themselves to only punishing crime.
  71. We can talk about the properties of the body, without exactly knowing what the body is.
  72. Voltaire criticizes Berkeley : if nothing is corporeal and everything are ideas of our spirit, why do I die if I get shot?
  73. Hot and cold are relative, but thirty degrees in Celsius scale is not relative.
  74. Near and far are relative, but one kilometer is not relative.
  75. Many Platonists of the first three centuries converted to Christianity, causing the assimilation of Plato by Christianity.
  76. There is more biblical evidence against the Trinity than there is in favor of Trinity.
  77. The earliest conversions to Christianity in China began because Christians proved to be useful and quiet instead of scandalous and extravagant.
  78. Even if I preach to a hundred people, it is only natural that not all of them convert.
  79. Most people fight with the fists, but the intellectuals fight with written criticisms, sometimes motivated by envy and ego.
  80. An irritable artist feels right.
  81. The social criticism in a piece of art often escapes the audience, who is there to have fun, not necessarily to think or criticize the artist’s work.
  82. In art, giving pleasure is the main goal.
  83. The best art critic is the good artist, who does not let his judgment be harmed by envy or pride.
  84. In Greek mythology, fate is greater than the gods themselves.
  85. The human being can not change the laws of nature.
  86. If God understands all languages, there is no need to pray in Latin.
  87. Theology doesn’t teach to be fair, good or civil.
  88. Everyone has a political opinion.
  89. It is no use advising a bad ruler: he will not listen.
  90. No human government lasts forever.
  91. There are many people who are dissatisfied with the government and would rather live in another country.
  92. Laws vary from place to place also because of climate and geography.
  93. But there is no place where one should obey only the laws.
  94. One should not judge past customs by using modern customs as reference.
  95. In ancient times, touching each other’s genitals was a sign of respect and promise, not unlike a handshake.
  96. Did you know that the Holy Bible uses “thigh” as a euphemism for “sack”?
  97. Virtue is doing good.
  98. Fanaticism is the faith that kills.
  99. The mark of fanaticism is to condemn everyone who thinks differently to death.
  100. Fanatics, when speaking of their faith, tremble, gain a different glow in their eyes, increase the tone of their voice, erupt in sudden movements.
  101. The Christian fanatic has in mind the examples of celebrated murders in the Old Testament, willingly forgetting that Jesus told them to love everyone.
  102. If the fanatic sees himself as inspired by God, he believes himself to be above the law.
  103. How to persuade someone who thinks that he is killing in the name of God?
  104. Eastern religions do not have fanatics because they are predominantly philosophical.
  105. Sects of sincere philosophers also have no fanatics.
  106. When the senses are mistaken in the perception of something, it is not because our eyes are deceived, but rather that the given information has been misinterpreted by reason.
  107. Lying to a child to make her more receptive to bitter medicine is not a good idea, because when she puts the medicine in her mouth she will see that you are a liar, undermining the trust between you and the child.
  108. Lying for religious purposes leads to atheism.
  109. The belief that God rewards the good and punishes the bad is enough to lead believers to do good, rendering theology useless.
  110. Stop trying to convert atheists.
  111. We call our mental faculties “spirit” for random reasons.
  112. Considering how many things we ignore, the title of master or doctor does not mean much.
  113. Without mercy, few would be alive.
  114. God does not benefit from human actions.
  115. Giving glory to God with vain acts may be an offense to the third commandment (Exodus 20: 7).
  116. God does not need to intervene in the universe all the time because his creation has a level of autonomy.
  117. Unlike starvation and illness, war depends on human desire.
  118. There are soldiers going to war without knowing who will they fight and why will they fight.
  119. Back in old times, armies were blessed by priests, who called for God’s help in overcoming the opposing army.
  120. The Christian who participates in war and preaches against all kinds of vices commits hypocrisy: he speaks against small sins, which are not always sins, but commits the greater sins.
  121. Love is the only hope of repairing human conduct.
  122. Sins that are not committed against love seem to be smaller than those committed against love.
  123. War does more harm than all the vices committed by one person in his or her life.
  124. Virtue is useless in war.
  125. It is especially sad when those who die in war are young warriors.
  126. Not to mention children who die in attacks.
  127. Voltaire identifies contradictions between the books of the Kings and the books of the Chronicles.
  128. Idolatry is to worship an image or representation.
  129. The church-goer who reverence a statue of Mary is not worshiping the statue, but Mary, who is represented by the statue.
  130. The procession has pagan origin.
  131. Other religions also fast.
  132. If it were the statue to be worshiped and not the deity behind the statue, then there would be several Apollo gods, one for each temple, as all of them have statues of Apollo.
  133. The term “idolatry” has a Christian origin.
  134. Sacred things can become idols.
  135. It was not the statue of Jupiter that struck the lightning, nor the statue of Neptune that stirred the seas.
  136. Protestants attack the Catholic Church by calling it idolatrous, but the images of the saints are not the saints.
  137. The human being seems to have been made to believe in God, since various civilizations have their religions.
  138. It is not possible to read universal history without feeling ashamed of being human.
  139. Murder is usurpation of divine right, because only God has the right to take one’s life.
  140. The sages of ancient times, even though they did not publicly profess this opinion, often came to the monotheistic conclusion: if there is any God somewhere, he is the only one.
  141. The Muslim has more reason to call Christians idolaters: most of Christianity is Catholic and Catholics, even when they do not worship the images, do a great job making it look like they do.
  142. It is our needs that lead us to serve each other.
  143. The enemy is not inequality, but dependence.
  144. Voltaire already saw human society as divided into two classes: oppressor and oppressed.
  145. Voltaire says that the active pace of labor prevents the worker from perceiving his own misery.
  146. The existence of dominators is possible because the human being tends to maximize pleasure.
  147. If everyone could survive their own work, there would be no bosses, no money, no exploitation, no wage labor, no slavery.
  148. Equality is the natural state of the human being.
  149. Some nations were so badly governed that they passed laws that forbade the citizens to move to another place.
  150. The right thing to do is to govern so well that the citizens would want to stay and that the others would want to come here.
  151. It is especially bad to subject yourself to those who have less ability than you.
  152. All peoples, to put a brake on the secret crimes, created some sort of equivalent to the Christian hell.
  153. For the Jew, soul is life.
  154. The problem is that many bad people become rich.
  155. Belief in Hell has political purpose.
  156. The total flood narrated in Genesis seems impossible: there is not enough water in the world.
  157. If the flood was universal, then it was a miracle.
  158. It is useless to explain the flood scientifically if it has been universal and therefore miraculous.
  159. It is naive to think that animals are machines just because they are “irrational.”
  160. Training an animal shows that animals do not always act the same way.
  161. The presence of language is not the only sign of reason, emotion or feelings.
  162. Animals feel pain.
  163. It does not matter whether animals have souls or not: the fact is that they feel, remember, live, communicate with one another, learn …
  164. Many statements about animal souls are gratuitous, as if they did not want to give a deep reflection on creatures considered to be irrational.
  165. Don’t try to study something without making sure it exists.
  166. Machines have no soul, as they are operated by humans.
  167. It is not possible to judge without lerning about.
  168. Laws vary from country to country, state to state, city to city, but the morals may vary from person to person.
  169. Many fair laws lead to unfair punishment.
  170. There are many dangerous laws.
  171. Good sense leads us to legislate, but inner justice leads us to legislate well.
  172. The conquered country is under arbitrary laws.
  173. The dog of a despot lives better than his servants.
  174. In Athens and Rome, a religious rule could only exist if the state allowed it exist.
  175. Priests and pastors are also servants of the state.
  176. The priest should not kill a guy because he is a sinner: the priest should pray for sinners and not judge them.
  177. Priests should not be exempt from taxes.
  178. Laws that need to be interpreted are easily corrupted.
  179. Taxes should be proportional.
  180. The law that forbids something good is invalid, as no one will respect it.
  181. Freedom is the power to choose between the options that I have, but there are things beyond my ability to choose, that is, freedom is not absolute.
  182. This means that freedom is the same in all animals.
  183. Freedom is the same in all, what varies is the number of options I can choose from.
  184. We make choices aiming for our happiness .
  185. “I want just because” is absurd.
  186. Our freedom is rational.
  187. We can not choose what we are attracted to, but we can choose not to act on it.
  188. Indifference is a choice, not lack of choice: not caring is already a position.
  189. It is easy to remain virtuous when there is no temptation to face.
  190. Some used to say that it is lawful to steal if we don’t use what we stole, but see if that makes any sense.
  191. Rich and poor will likely die anyway, so why not die rich?
  192. The excess of wealth is bad.
  193. Giving a long, intricate answer to a question is as suspicious as not answering.
  194. Geometry is safer than metaphysics.
  195. Nothing comes from nothing.
  196. No mythology conceives an universe that has come from nowhere.
  197. The only people who are offended by the eternity of matter are people who believe in Judeo-Christian revelation, because God created things from nothing.
  198. Most metaphysical and theological questions are irrelevant in moral terms.
  199. The child is not evil by nature.
  200. The first ambitious person, Satan, corrupted the earth.
  201. Not all those who are exposed to moral evils will contract them.
  202. Inherent evil is like animals that hunt without guilt.
  203. Practicing evil requires free time.
  204. There is less evil on earth than you think.
  205. The migration of souls to other bodies after death is a dogma of Eastern origin and is older than many think.
  206. If miracle is an admirable thing, then everything is a miracle: what miracle is greater than that of being alive?
  207. The miracle, however, strictly speaking, is the divine providence that acts without the causality chain.
  208. To say that God would not want to “break” the rules of creation, even if he wrote those rules, to favor a select people who have an agreement with him (such as the Jews, for example) is to deny divine compassion.
  209. For those who believe, but not in miracles, the execution of miracles is contradictory: divine creation would not be perfect, they say, if God had to break the rules sometimes.
  210. For the secular everything always has logical explanation, including miracles.
  211. Imagine if the academy received a report of a miracle that is happening somewhere, then they send a professor to the scene to interrupt the miracle and ask person performing it to perform the miracle in an university, assisted by doctors and physicists, so they could make sure that the miracle really has no scientific explanation.
  212. Obviously it was not Moses who wrote Deuteronomy, since the Pentateuch ends with the death of Moses and the statement that his tomb was never found (Deuteronomy 34: 5-6).
  213. According to Orthodox tradition, the Law was burned during the Babylonian exile.
  214. Leviticus forbids marrying sisters-in-law, but Deuteronomy does mind it.
  215. “Homeland” is the set of families in a given territory.
  216. The obsessed pursuit of high titles (as in politics) reveals more self-love than love for the motherland.
  217. Kings prefer the monarchy, the rich prefer the aristocracy and the people prefer democracy, so that the “best form of government” depends on personal interest …
  218. Hatred towards nations opposed to the ideas of your nation, unfortunately, seems to be part of patriotism.
  219. You are a patriot when you do not care when your nation enriches itself at the expense of others.
  220. The early churches were communities.
  221. The popes were not perfect.
  222. Prejudice is an opinion without judgment.
  223. The child is full of them, receiving values ​​from the parents before they are old enough to judge them.
  224. Crimes committed in name of the Christian religion outweigh crimes committed in the name of any other religion.
  225. If you talk about something to someone, do not give evidence unless the listener asks for it.
  226. When someone does not think like you and you get angry with that person, you are manifesting pride.
  227. In the past, it was believed that the soul resided in the chest, because strong emotions are felt in the heart first.
  228. To give forced meanings to clear texts is to work against the understanding of the text.
  229. Why did Solomon have so many horses in times of peace, if not take his women to pleasant trips?
  230. When you read a text and concludes that the text says the opposite of what the writer intended, you are mocking humanity.
  231. We only have five senses, and there is no way to imagine what it would be like to have another.
  232. There may be, somewhere, beings with more than five senses.
  233. Thought and feeling are equally interesting.
  234. Feeling is also a faculty given to us by the divinity.
  235. Some lies are believed because someone with a bad reputation said the truth.
  236. The Law does not prohibit the mystical interpretation of dreams: Daniel (2:36 onwards) practiced it, albeit with the help of God.
  237. Obtaining divine forgiveness is possible.
  238. It is better not to sin than to sin and then repent.
  239. The most horrible times were rich in superstitions.
  240. The oligarchy is worse than tyranny.
  241. A tyrant is easier to seduce, but an assembly of the corrupt people can not be seduced.
  242. Summary of Western society: you are either an anvil or a hammer.
  243. Tolerance is to forgive the defect of the other.
  244. Before the advent of Catholicism, the Church was not unique.
  245. The Jews do not force others to convert.
  246. Jewish tolerance should be imitated by Christians, but the stereotype that Christians have of the Jews is only that of a warrior nation and they love to use examples from the Old Testament to justify their hatred towards everyone.
  247. It is monstrous to bash a person who thinks differently.
  248. There are historical examples of Christians who have allied themselves with Muslims to wage war against other Christians.
  249. Francis I allied with the German Lutherans against the emperor, while burning Lutherans in France.
  250. If there are two religions in one territory, they will attack each other, but if there are thirty religions in a territory there will be no attacks.
  251. Virtue is beneficence towards the neighbor.
  252. Temperance is a personal virtue and is of lesser importance than the virtues that serve the collective.
  253. You are virtuous in doing good to others, not just yourself .
  254. As we live in society, we are only really good when serving others.
  255. If you live isolated, you are not doing any harm, but you can’t be considered virtuous, because you are not doing good to anyone either.
  256. It is possible to be holy without being virtuous.
  257. In the same way, if one is vile, they are not vicious if his vileness does not harm anyone.
  258. Virtuous today, vicious tomorrow.

9 de fevereiro de 2018

Plato’s “Crito”.

Filed under: Livros, Passatempos — Tags:, , , — Yurinho @ 17:23
  1. One can say that you really are a happy person when they see you calm even when a disaster happens.
  2. If death is unavoidable, you can only accept it.
  3. People hate people those who care more for their money than for their friends.
  4. Still, you don’t have to care about what people think of you anyway.
  5. Spreading lies about someone can cause their indirect death.
  6. If the people could really operate great evils, they were supposed to also be capable of great good deeds (but they are not).
  7. Most people lack critical thinking, seemingly operating with randomness.
  8. Sometimes it’s cheap to buy a judge.
  9. Don’t have children, unless you are capable of suffering with them.
  10. If someone has an opinion about you, don’t accept it unless you are sure that you should accept.
  11. Socrates accepted his sentence because he was being faithful to his principles, it was a matter of integrity.
  12. Don’t accept suggestions from those who don’t know better.
  13. If you accept those, you may ruin yourself or die.
  14. Being alive isn’t enough, if you don’t live well.
  15. If you don’t do anything without considering what others would think, one can wonder how your actions amount to.
  16. If acting unfairly is always wrong, then you should seek revenge from injustice by promoting injustice.
  17. You owe respect to the ruler of the nation you belong in.
  18. The law may submit you, but the law isn’t unchangeable and you should try to change them if you think they are unfair.
  19. If you dislike the laws in your place, move to another place.
  20. If you like your nation, you may want to improve it.

12 de janeiro de 2018

Notes on “Confessions”.

Filed under: Livros, Passatempos — Tags:, , , — Yurinho @ 10:33

“Confessions” was written by Augustine. Below are some notes I made about his text. They aren’t quotations and may not reflect my views on a given subject.

  1. It seems like some people can’t function without having a religion.
  2. To talk about a god without knowing that god risks you to talk about the wrong god.
  3. God punishes.
  4. But God also forgives.
  5. If God is the wisest being in existence, disagreeing with him is being wrong (that doesn’t exclude the possibility of misinterpretation).
  6. A baby can’t have his desires completely fulfilled, because he can’t communicate his needs through words.
  7. Is a fetus an being on it’s own or part of the mother’s body?
  8. Time is a never-ending “today”.
  9. Children aren’t innocent.
  10. Children are capable of envy, aggression and other things, which puts the concept of innocence in question.
  11. We often don’t remember our childhood, but we sure did a lot of embarrassing stuff as children.
  12. How can we care if children are innocent or not, if we often can’t remember a time when we were “innocent“?
  13. We are start learning to speak through observation, thanks to need for communication.
  14. We can’t punish a child for not being able to learn something if they aren’t mature enough to understand.
  15. Coerced work is inferior to really voluntary work.
  16. If you want to get someone to accept your ideas, you aren’t supposed to do that by force.
  17. An immoderate soul hurts itself.
  18. Grammar, obviously, is more important than fiction literature.
  19. Learning a second language is hard because you usually have to rely on artificial terms to learn it, while the first language is learned at home in an easy-going manner.
  20. It’s much better to learn by curiosity than by being intimated to.
  21. At school, you learn a lot of stuff that you won’t ever use.
  22. Attributing human vices to gods is an attempt at making humans look less hateful.
  23. Bad behavior in adults is the same as bad behavior in children, just in different scale.
  24. By saying the the Kingdom of God belongs to children, says Augustine, Jesus is using children as a metaphor for being humble, rather than talking about inherent innocence.
  25. Love and lust may present themselves as the same thing.
  26. A married person can’t fully commit to other things.
  27. A teacher not always cares about your development as person.
  28. There’s cultural pressure upon men for libidinous acts.
  29. A thief also doesn’t want to have their belongings stolen.
  30. A person can commit a crime because it’s thrilling.
  31. It’s possible to love “too much”, when your love makes you do bad things.
  32. If you commit a crime for a good cause, it’s still a crime, though it’s also more worth being forgiven.
  33. Some crimes are easier or more fun to commit if you are in group.
  34. Gratuitous (senseless) bad behavior is like tickling: it’s fun, but you don’t know why.
  35. Blind love can stimulate us to lie to the loved person, in order to appear to be something that you are not, going out of your way just so they can like you.
  36. Loving implies taking the risk of jealousy.
  37. It’s disturbing that we tend to like tragedies (when they happen to someone else).
  38. Maybe that’s because we feel empathy over those who suffer.
  39. Philosophy isn’t always anti-religion.
  40. Fiction, as long as it’s seen as fiction, is not something to worry about.
  41. “Image and resemblance of God” isn’t at all physical appearance.
  42. Evil is lack of good.
  43. Absence is an evil.
  44. There’s a type of virtue implied in every act.
  45. A person can do bad things if they believe it’s a commission from God.
  46. The problem of astrology is that people attribute the responsibility of their acts to the stars.
  47. People often learn astrology because it’s fun, not because it’s useful.
  48. If astrology does something right, it was luck.
  49. Don’t place all of your love into something perishable, such as a friend or lover, because you will be devastated if that person dies.
  50. Crying is comforting, like a pain-killer, but it can be addictive.
  51. A lover must be ready for an eventual death of the loved one.
  52. A person can defend an idea that they actually don’t believe in, to be better accepted.
  53. It’s unlikely that you would be able to explain God rationally.
  54. You can’t run away from God.
  55. Religion and science aren’t mutually exclusive.
  56. Divine knowledge is more important.
  57. A person can speak like a researcher in order to make his lie pass as acceptable.
  58. “The letter kills, but the spirit vitalizes” isn’t literal.
  59. We often have to believe in things that we don’t fully understand, such as medical prescription, unless we are trained in medicine.
  60. How can I know if my parents are really my parents, if I don’t remember anything about the day I was born?
  61. Getting drunk may be tempting, but that’s a shameful kind of joy.
  62. Nonetheless, it’s better being happy and drunk, than building your happiness onto criminal things, because a drunk person, for a short while, has nothing to worry about, while a criminal is often worried about the police.
  63. A lot of people turn to religion for fear of death.
  64. If we define God as someone who isn’t incorruptible, then we should verify if an incorruptible thing really exists.
  65. Fear is evil, so, if you fear, evil exists.
  66. If twins are born under the same astrological configuration, see if their fate or personality traits are the same.
  67. Species are put in a hierarchy.
  68. Corruption happens due to a disturbance in a person’s “amount of good” (in this case, it could be health).
  69. Existence is good, so, if someone is deprived from all good, they disappear (die).
  70. The Bible is a text that can be interpreted in several ways, so it’s natural that some seem more logical than others.
  71. Paul’s doctrine has similarities with Platonism.
  72. Having money and wealth as life goal can make your life tedious.
  73. Not everyone can withstand marriage.
  74. When you find something that was lost, the joy is always bigger than the joy of always having something, because, when you find something that was lost, you both feel happy for finding it and experience immediate relief from pain.
  75. When important people are converted to a faith, more people feel encouraged to join too, that’s why new religions aim to convert celebrities.
  76. Feeling unsure isn’t the same as having two souls or two minds.
  77. Life isn’t always a battle between good and evil, because we sometimes have to choose between two equally evil things.
  78. The religious chant is a way to push sadness and boredom away, to make meetings more tolerable.
  79. A person can be perverted by praise, even if it’s praise coming from friends.
  80. Body can resurrect.
  81. It doesn’t matter where you are buried after you die.
  82. If a person had a good life and died peacefully, there’s no need to feel sorrow; it’s more of a matter of slowly adapting to the person’s absence.
  83. We cry a lot over things of less importance, but also are often indifferent to tragedies.
  84. You should confess your sins to God, but particularly, not to someone else, in a selected place, like how confession is currently done.
  85. It’s impossible to fully know someone else, specially because we often don’t know ourselves completely either.
  86. God was here first.
  87. There’s a way to escape every temptation.
  88. Reason is supposed to interpret what we see, hear or feel.
  89. People bow to the things they created, such as money, submitting themselves to it and submitting the next generations as well.
  90. Isn’t possible to get close to God without the use of reason.
  91. Almost everything that we have in memory came from our five senses.
  92. Our memories are interpretations of what we once felt and may not reflect what we actually felt.
  93. A sensation leaves an impression, which we can recall even when that sensation is absent.
  94. Language depend on memory.
  95. The mind can copy concepts that are in another mind, without having experienced what that mind experienced, through means of teaching and learning.
  96. We can work with math even when concrete elements are absent.
  97. “Spirit” can stand for “memory”, depending on the context.
  98. Recalling emotions won’t necessarily make us relive those emotions.
  99. Memory is a big mystery.
  100. The ability to think is proof that we are alive, because we can’t think if we don’t exist.
  101. Memory isn’t exclusive to humans.
  102. How can we define something we don’t feel, such as happiness?
  103. If happiness as concept exists in memory, then we felt it once.
  104. Different people define happiness differently, but what those definitions have in common?
  105. It seems like happiness is related to joy, which is something that we feel.
  106. If you learn something good, you can say that you learned something divine.
  107. Not all pleasures are forbidden.
  108. Gluttony is harder to avoid than lust, because you, naturally, eat more often than you have sex, obviously.
  109. We aren’t fully aware of our weaknesses, as no one can fully known themselves.
  110. A person can do something because they are curious, despite knowing it’s frowned upon.
  111. Sensuality, curiosity and pride are three common sources of sin.
  112. A person can only enjoy a praise if they are praised for something they want to be praised for.
  113. If you claim that you hate boasting, you are already boasting.
  114. If nothing exists, then you create.
  115. God sees the time as an eternal present, rather than sectioning it into past, present and future.
  116. Time can be infinitely divided.
  117. If you claim to be able to measure past (which is gone) or future (which hasn’t come yet), then you are claiming that nothingness can be measured.
  118. Past and future only exist in the present, as memory and anticipation.
  119. Still, speaking about before and after, if it’s needed for communication, isn’t a bad thing to do.
  120. Time is the way humans measure movements (in the sense of change from a state to another).
  121. Is it possible to know how long the present lasts?
  122. While it’s not possible to know how long the present lasts, we can measure how long events that take place in present last.
  123. Explaining a discovery is easier than actually discovering something.
  124. God’s not in a literal “sky”.
  125. God creates the sky twice in Genesis, but Augustine says that the first sky is the Heaven, where God inhabits, with the second sky being the one above our heads.
  126. Genesis can not be understood in a single way, so it’s natural that people would arrive at different conclusions about it.
  127. “God’s spirit floated over the water”, but there’s no mention in the Genesis about where that water came from (Genesis 1:1-2).
  128. To understand creation isn’t the same as understanding what Moses wrote.
  129. We can’t verify which interpretation of Genesis is correct.
  130. It’s only natural for different people to arrive at different conclusions about the same text.
  131. What you conclude from a text can change as you grow older.
  132. Even if something can exist without having a shape, you can’t give a shape to something that does not exist.
  133. Weight not always pulls an object down (for example, if something is lighter than the air, it will float).
  134. God gifts people with abilities that are useful to the community.
  135. If you aren’t aggressive, you will likely be loved.
  136. You can’t take the Genesis literally.
  137. It’s hard for non-intellectual people to appreciate spiritual or intellectual things.
  138. A text that doesn’t expresses it’s ideas using time measures (past, present, future) won’t be understood.
  139. Worshiping is thanking.

27 de dezembro de 2017

Notes on “Thus Spoke Zarathustra”.

Filed under: Livros, Passatempos — Tags:, , , — Yurinho @ 21:58
  1. Love for humanity can isolate you from it, if you love it too much.
  2. You may end up helping others to make your life harder.
  3. The loner is seen with suspicion.
  4. A person can be isolated due to religious fanaticism.
  5. A person may turn to religion after being disappointed with humanity.
  6. The modern human isn’t the final step in evolution.
  7. Other people are not interested in improving themselves.
  8. If we evolve, maybe we look back and notice that we were acting foolish.
  9. In many ways, we are worse than monkeys.
  10. Do not forget about this world.
  11. The belief that the soul is empowered by weakening and submitting the body is wrong.
  12. Neglecting the body, rather than using it for good purposes, is a sign of a weak soul.
  13. Maybe you become bored of your reason, your happiness or your morals.
  14. Can happiness really justify our existence?
  15. We can’t have knowledge about everything.
  16. A man is a rope stretched over an abyss, between animal and his next evolutionary step.
  17. The human being must be surpassed; it’s not the last evolutionary step.
  18. If it’s not possible for you to make that change happen all at once, at least help out.
  19. It’s better to act without expecting gratitude.
  20. If you speak about the far future, it’s unlikely that you will be understood by people who live here and now.
  21. The shining star comes from the chaos inside.
  22. Work is also distraction.
  23. If you think differently from others in your community, you may be called a lunatic.
  24. The soul dies before the body.
  25. Maybe you feel that life is not worth living if it doesn’t continue after death, but focus on living your life in a fulfilling manner.
  26. Human life is devoid of meaning, except for the evolution to the next step.
  27. When you defend a controversial idea and people laugh at you, feel glad for being laughed at, rather than killed off.
  28. But if they laugh, you should continue despite it, if you feel that what you have to say has any value.
  29. It’s better to talk to friends, rather than to the general population.
  30. Make your friends think differently and maybe your friends make others think differently.
  31. The loner must find other loners.
  32. Animals can be less dangerous than people.
  33. A good night of sleep is one of the goals of a virtuous life.
  34. Those who are excessively worried with their hours of sleep are forgetting to stay awake.
  35. If you are suffering, you feel pleasure upon forgetting the suffering.
  36. Beliving in other worlds is madness; there’s only one world and it’s this one.
  37. The body and the earth, both deserve respect.
  38. Live in the real world.
  39. “Heal yourselves, dominate yourselves, build a more powerful body!”
  40. The atheist should have mercy on the religious person.
  41. Do not harm yourself; heal your body.
  42. To neglect one’s own body is a sign of suicidal tendency.
  43. It can also be a sign of envy towards those who have better bodies.
  44. Evolving yourself also means evolving your body.
  45. Virtues are born from passion.
  46. A chronic sufferer finds salvation in a quick death.
  47. Everyone wants to do something illegal or disgusting.
  48. Fantasize, act on the fantasy and being caught acting on a fantasy are three different things.
  49. The best texts were the ones written with the author’s blood.
  50. Only a fighter can love the wisdom.
  51. There’s a hint of madness in love and bit of reason in madness.
  52. We can be affected by forces that we don’t see, but that are felt, nonetheless.
  53. When you reach the top, you are likely alone in there.
  54. Plus, a lightning may strike you while you are at the top.
  55. That lightning often is a person who happens to be better than you.
  56. A person who preaches against the body and says that true life is afterlife, probably sees this life as a constant temptation, thus experimenting life in a limited manner.
  57. It’s weird that a person like that doesn’t conclude that it would be nice to suicide or to kill others as an act of “mercy” or “love”.
  58. Those people not only preach against their own lives, but also against the lives of those who aren’t even born yet.
  59. Work allows us to forget about ourselves.
  60. No sense in having peace after being crushed; peace must come from victory.
  61. Young women like beautiful, nice guys, but it’s not always a good idea to be beautiful or nice.
  62. Be the best possible, even if it costs you women’s approval.
  63. All good warriors are ready to die.
  64. The state can lie.
  65. The state isn’t the people.
  66. The state can offend laws and customs.
  67. An atheist can religiously obey the state.
  68. The state can pose as an idol and demand worshiping.
  69. The state is maintained by people that make no historical difference.
  70. The state can willingly kill it’s people.
  71. The state can steal your belongings.
  72. The less one has, the less one is possessed.
  73. Humans must evolve in a way to not need government.
  74. A person who can not debate will resort on violence and won’t accept impartiality.
  75. The greatest products of human spirit aren’t always noticed by ordinary people.
  76. Cowards are cunning.
  77. If something stimulates too much thinking, it is viewed with suspicion.
  78. A person may forgive your mistakes, but it doesn’t mean they will forgive your qualities.
  79. They treat you like a victim, so you can see your flaws as qualities and your qualities as flaws.
  80. When you are good at something, you end up surrounded by envious people.
  81. Go where the weak can not go.
  82. Chastity may become a vice.
  83. Being chaste is a matter of personal aptitude and shouldn’t be forced onto someone.
  84. The friend ensures that a loner won’t waste his life talking to himself.
  85. We build friendships with people like us, who have a relationship of equality with us.
  86. The variation in our concepts of good and bad are also a survival resource.
  87. What’s acceptable in other cultures may be repugnant here.
  88. A community is already dying when one of it’s members becomes selfish.
  89. Love and hate are the driving force behind every virtue.
  90. You may feel better about yourself after calling someone just to hear them say good things about you.
  91. Your self-esteem increases when other people think good things about you.
  92. Solitude is intolerable for people with low self-esteem.
  93. A large group may feel tempted to kill people from other groups.
  94. Allow the future to be your present cause.
  95. It doesn’t matter what you are free from, but what you are free to do.
  96. The more you succeed, the more they hate you.
  97. If men are children, then many children have women as favorite toys.
  98. Better than humiliating your foe, make them see that their hate is actually making you stronger.
  99. Disapproval is better than insisting in making the other see his mistake, when he doesn’t want to see it.
  100. Before having children, ask yourself if you can raise them.
  101. If you can’t be a good father, you have no right to have children.
  102. A father did a good job when the child becomes better than himself.
  103. Marriage was supposed to be an agreement to make a child who surpasses the parents, but marriage is seldom seen as such.
  104. Some marriages end so badly that one can wonder if marriage is really a blessing from God.
  105. A bad marriage hurts the child.
  106. You never know who you are marrying.
  107. A lot of feelings are mistaken for love.
  108. Some people don’t really love each other, but only find out after marrying.
  109. Sometimes, the heart ages faster than the brain, but other times it’s the opposite.
  110. Gold is as useless as it’s valuable, just like some virtues.
  111. The future of the species is priority.
  112. It’s hard for a loving person to not tend to a loved one, when such is needed.
  113. When you are told that the good deeds that you received from someone are socially unacceptable, you may feel ashamed of having received those good deeds.
  114. Nothing is immune to change.
  115. It’s unfair to have just a little fun.
  116. A person can feel hurt for receiving help.
  117. It’s hard to shut the yap, that’s why it’s hard to live in community.
  118. If you don’t tame your heart, you will lose your head.
  119. A person who causes suffering may very well be seeking compensation for their own suffering.
  120. Don’t try to be virtuous expecting payment for that.
  121. A “virtuous” person may be acting on self-interest, such as desire for approval, even if that means losing contact with reality.
  122. A mother doesn’t seek payment for loving her son.
  123. Virtue must be in yourself, not in your image.
  124. Acting virtuously can also be a dissimulate way to receive approval by bashing others.
  125. Virtuous behavior can be used as cover to hide true feelings, in order to achieve acceptance.
  126. For some, virtue is a license to judge others.
  127. There’s no consensus on what “virtue” is.
  128. There’s no such thing as “uninterested good deed”.
  129. It’s possible to twist a word’s meaning by repeated misuse.
  130. We aren’t equal, but should be treated with justice.
  131. There are intellectuals who are there just to say “amen” to the status quo, even when they know that the status quo is problematic.
  132. The most praised intellectuals are those who work to validate the prejudices of their historical context.
  133. A person who thinks differently enrages the mob.
  134. The mob hates the men that are, in the end, the only responsible for human evolution, like Galileo was hated for showing that everyone, but him, was wrong.
  135. People’s voice isn’t God’s voice (you just need to remember that the people wanted Jesus to die).
  136. Politicians may manipulate science to validate their own morals.
  137. If science wants to progress, it needs to be ammoral, rather than being scared of public outrage.
  138. If you need to submit to someone, submit to the person who finds you useful.
  139. Philosophy isn’t poetry, let alone poorly-written poetry.
  140. Some crimes are worse than murder.
  141. Every day is sacred, don’t wait for the “proper time” to do anything.
  142. You can not “want to exist”.
  143. You can love something more than you love your own life.
  144. Our concepts of “good” and “evil” aren’t absolute.
  145. Life is a war between preferences.
  146. Beauty is power in it’s visible form.
  147. You can be capable of all sorts of evil things, but you are demanded to act correctly.
  148. One can laugh out of fear.
  149. Do not repeat with your children the mistakes that your parents did to you.
  150. A person may be convinced that he should ignore earthly pleasures, but his guts will never be convinced of it.
  151. An ascetic person with short willpower will very often feel ashamed.
  152. Desiring something, but saying that the virtuous thing to do is to not do it, can be understood as hipocrisy: you say it’s “virtuous”, but only because you know that satisfaction is impossible, so you glorify your incapacity, saying it’s “the right thing to do” (sour grapes, implying that they wouldn’t think about virtue if they could have what they wanted).
  153. You need to tell the truth to hipocrites.
  154. If adults don’t think you are wise, try your luck with children.
  155. A person who speaks in complex words isn’t necessary a deep thinker.
  156. The huge revolutions start silently.
  157. Church is a kind of state.
  158. State is hipocrite.
  159. State regards itself as the most important thing in the world.
  160. When you say something and the person reacts violently, that might be because they know you are right.
  161. A person may be so tired and unenthusiatic to the point of not having enough motivation to leave the bed, grab a knife and kill themselves.
  162. A vice may not develop on a person if that person didn’t learn to run.
  163. Punishment is revenge, often named “justice”.
  164. A person may speak to themselves in one way, but speak to others in a different way.
  165. It’s not the height that scares you, but the possibility of falling from there.
  166. To remain pure in a crowd is like coming out clean from dirty water.
  167. You can’t give a definite judgement on someone if you can’t give a definite judgement about yourself.
  168. Trying to reach a goal alone may be easier than ordering others towards that same goal.
  169. The best leaders have no shame over their decisions, just like children.
  170. A person can have mature ideas, but that doesn’t mean they have maturity to apply those ideas.
  171. Guessing (instinct) isn’t the same as concluding (logic).
  172. Sometimes you hear the Devil’s doctrine from the mouth of a pastor.
  173. The benefit of solitude can only be felt once you are done mourning over the friends you abandoned.
  174. Don’t run after women and happiness will run after you.
  175. Our concepts of good and evil are fading clouds in the skies of mankind.
  176. People do not forgive those who are not envious of those who live the standard way of life.
  177. People may talk about you without thinking about you.
  178. If a person doesn’t have time for you, don’t waste your time with them.
  179. Every praise is a demand for more.
  180. Those who walk slowly can become a problem to those who want to go fast.
  181. Humility, for as long as motivated by fear of being harmed by others, is cowardice.
  182. Men train each other like humans train dogs.
  183. Mediocrity is sometimes mistakenly called “moderation”.
  184. Can a person who doesn’t love himself truly love someone else?
  185. It’s better to suffer than to idolize.
  186. Some people lie for sake of love.
  187. Someone’s contempt can be despicable.
  188. Move to a place where your love is acceptable.
  189. There are people who pray to flee from the responsibility to act.
  190. There are secret communities everywhere, even if those communities aren’t made of humans.
  191. You can’t pretend that it’s “wise” to do something that you know is useless.
  192. There’s a difference between solitude and abandonment.
  193. Voluptuousness and the desire for dominance are not necessarily bad.
  194. Voluptuousness is only bad for ascetics, celibates and people who like to flee from pleasure.
  195. For all others, voluptuousness is like a wine: tastes good, is healthy and can be taken in decent amount.
  196. Desire for dominance is linked to dissatisfaction with reality, to rejection of half-baked answers.
  197. Do not bow, like a slave, to the opinions of others.
  198. Don’t be ashamed of yourself.
  199. Society doesn’t want children to love themselves for what they are.
  200. Life is hard because humans evolved that way; we are paying the price of poor choices made by our ancestors (which aren’t an excuse to accept things the way they are, rather than changing it).
  201. Do not accept everything, do not reject everything.
  202. Those who want to be loved without giving love back are human-shaped parasites.
  203. It’s not wise to accept as gift something you can get by yourself.
  204. Those who can not give orders to themselves must accept orders from others.
  205. And there are those who can order, but don’t know how to obey.
  206. If you don’t tell the truth, you aren’t really being “nice” at all.
  207. Truth hurts.
  208. Good and evil aren’t solid concepts for humans.
  209. Humanity doesn’t work well with concepts between two extremes; historically, it goes back and forth from an extreme to another.
  210. If something needs to be bought, it doesn’t have a lot of value.
  211. It doesn’t matter where you come from, but where you are looking at.
  212. The best people aren’t invincible.
  213. If you are unsatisfied with the world, you aren’t excused of changing it.
  214. You live in this world.
  215. New moral values can be just as wrong as the old moral values.
  216. How can someone say “I’m tired of this world” and still feel scared of the death?
  217. Being “tired of this world” is a cool lifestyle.
  218. You don’t need to declare war to someone who is meaningless.
  219. Nowadays, spying on someone’s life is part of living in a “good neighborhood”.
  220. Marriage shouldn’t be a rushed decision.
  221. If you no longer love your wife, get a divorce, as it’s better than cheating on her secretely.
  222. Marriage can be hell.
  223. Nothing wrong in admitting it when your marriage is going downhill.
  224. Marriage is a decision that should be planned and thought out before being taken.
  225. If you can’t have children that can surpass you, it’s better to not have children at all.
  226. The human being is the most cruel animal in existence.
  227. A person can be cruel to other humans, but also to their very selves, as if finding pleasure through self-imposed suffering, seeing the suffering as a source of pride.
  228. The soul isn’t immortal.
  229. If I were to live in a desert island and share the place with another person, just us two, I would need to learn to love that person.
  230. If a person loves you because of your wisdom, they will stop loving you if you turn dumb.
  231. Doing something crazy may be better than doing nothing at all.
  232. Random things happen.
  233. If you don’t live in society, of course you won’t know social norms, and many people would rather live without having to care about social norms.
  234. High society is just a polished, golden variation of the same old archetypes found in working class.
  235. The working class is healthier than the “golden”, sedentary class in many senses.
  236. The working class, if it’s really better, should rule the nation.
  237. Working class isn’t the same as medium class.
  238. A bad king can still be taken in high regard because of the family he descends from.
  239. It’s a tragedy when the wisest men aren’t the nation’s rulers.

  240. There are people who need to lie in order to keep their life style.
  241. Depriving a religous person from their deity doesn’t free that person.
  242. The weak is not supposed to be the only one to give moral judgement.
  243. Wealth was never a reliable sign of evil; a rich person and a poor person can be equally perverse.
  244. Sometimes it’s safer in jail.
  245. A person can be taken for wise without being intelligent.
  246. It’s dangerous for the loner to go to a public place without being prepared.
  247. It’s useless to speak to everyone when no one wants to listen.
  248. The normal, everyday man doesn’t believe that people can evolve.
  249. “We are all equal” has become an excuse for conformism.
  250. We shouldn’t restrict ourselves to thinking how to survive as men, but also how to become something better than what we currently are.
  251. The essential isn’t enough for some people.
  252. Being human isn’t the top of evolution scale; we should become super-human.
  253. There are causes that are more valuable than survival.
  254. It’s better to live your life the way you please than living your life the way people tell you to.
  255. If you have a heart, tame your fear.
  256. If you suffer for yourself, you are weak, but that’s not the case when you suffer for the whole mankind.
  257. Submit the lightning that could kill you.
  258. Discernment is not a popular virtue.
  259. Unfounded belief can not be destroyed by reason, so resort on emotion.
  260. Ordinary people are suspicious of reason.
  261. Not lying isn’t the same as loving the truth.
  262. What you love most, that’s where your virtue comes from.
  263. Don’t try to be virtuous beyond your capacity.
  264. Don’t try something knowing it will go wrong.
  265. If you aren’t finding a reason to laugh, you are not looking in the right spots.
  266. It’s better to become mad from happiness than mad from sadness.
  267. Some people praise chastity because chastity can be sexy.
  268. We are scared of animals, even that one animal that lives within.
  269. It’s also innocence when you don’t know what innocence even is.
  270. Wisdom can lead someone to behave abnormally.
  271. Accepting the good things that life has to offer implies accepting the pain that life can also inflict.

18 de novembro de 2017

Notes on “The Tranquility of the Soul”.

Filed under: Livros, Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , , — Yurinho @ 22:17

“The Tranquility of the Soul” was written by Sêneca. Below are some statements made in that book. They are not citations. Questions can be asked in the comments.

  1. If you feel temptation, that’s because you are giving effort into resisting.
  2. Good intentions can stand between you and virtue.
  3. Tranquility is the feeling of having nothing to worry about.
  4. To seek tranquility is to seek a state of having no pain, nor strong emotions.
  5. You shouldn’t have many aspirations and desires.
  6. If you have many desires, you are likely to be frustrated many times.
  7. You won’t be able to reach happiness wihtout feeling satisfied with yourself first.
  8. Learn to endure, when such is needed.
  9. Be useful to yourself and others.
  10. The universe is your nation.
  11. You need to balance activity and good rest.
  12. We can still be role models, even when mute.
  13. Get a job at something you like to do.
  14. Never try to do something without wondering if you actually can do it.
  15. The evils of the wealth are the worst kind of evil.
  16. It’s better to have never been rich than losing your fortune.
  17. If money was that good, God would have some.
  18. You should only be in debt with yourself.
  19. Don’t be crazy for money, but that doesn’t imply having no money.
  20. You should spend on useful things, not “cool” things.
  21. You should eat when hungry, not for mere pleasure.
  22. Don’t buy books if you aren’t going to read them.
  23. It’s immoral to use a full bookshelf as decoration.
  24. The excess is what turns a behavior into a vice.
  25. Bad things happen, they are part of life.
  26. You can’t fall in despair without wanting it.
  27. Avoid being too ambitious, or you may end up too disappointed.
  28. Try to stay calm despite having bad luck.
  29. If you accept that you are going to die, then you can accept anything.
  30. It’s useless to worry about things that do not depend on us.
  31. If you try something, but don’t nurture high hopes about it working, you won’t be disappointed if you fail, but, if it works, the success is sweetened with surprise.
  32. Never forget that what happens to others may happen to you.
  33. Don’t try to do something that isn’t worth it or that likely won’t work.
  34. It’s sad when someone wants to do something, but doesn’t know exactly what they want to do.
  35. Gossip is a vice.
  36. Don’t make promises.
  37. There’s a good side in everything.
  38. You can poke fun at the problems you face.
  39. When a tragedy happens, you don’t need to react like everyone else.
  40. You needn’t to feel bad for someone who isn’t suffering.
  41. Omitting isn’t the same as lying.
  42. Being alone restores our energy.
  43. You should work, but you should also have fun.
  44. Working too much harms productivity.
  45. Finish what you started.

16 de novembro de 2017

Notes on “The Republic”.

“A República” was written by Platão. Below are some statements made in that text. They may or may not reflect what I think about this subject. Questions about my personal opinion can be asked in the comments.

  1. The aging process kills youthful desires, which enslave the young men.
  2. Wisdom makes it tolerable to age.
  3. If you get you worked for your own money, you will feel how much it’s valuable.
  4. The fool, if very attached to material goods, feels despair when death is near, because he doesn’t know the future of his goods and his soul.
  5. Justice is not simply speaking the truth and giving someone what’s due…
  6. Is justice the virtue of caring for friends while harming enemies?
  7. If so, justice is useless in times of peace.
  8. We don’t always know who are our true friends.
  9. Justice implies caring for your enemies too.
  10. Justice is not the convenience of the strongest.
  11. Being strong doesn’t guarantee that your laws are going to be fair.
  12. A ruler doesn’t always know what is in the nation’s best interest.
  13. Ruling a nation means acting in the best interest of those who are under your hierarchy.
  14. Being unjust is profitable, but still wrong.
  15. Being unjust implies a degree of ignorance.
  16. You can’t practice justice if you are ignorant.
  17. Justice enables harmony, while being unjust causes chaos.
  18. An unjust person beings harm to themselves, as no one would trust them.
  19. If God is just, you better also be…
  20. If you are unjust, you can’t rule your own life with perfection, let alone rule the lives of others.
  21. Justice is more useful in a community level, rather than personal level.
  22. A person can not live completely alone.
  23. The differences between types of people make them more fit for certain roles.
  24. No city would be built if we didn’t need each other.
  25. The better a community is, the more allies it has.
  26. A community can only become interested in art, science or economy after the basic needs (water, food, shelter, health) are sorted out.
  27. Excess of resources makes the population ill, as it becomes easier to adopt unhealthy habits.
  28. In a community where the desire for futile stuff has become high, resources start to diminish too quickly, creating the need to take what already belongs to other communities.
  29. It would be ideal if each person had just one job, that could be executed expertly.
  30. Desire to learn already makes you philosopher.
  31. There’s good and bad literature, the bad literature being the one that has no contact with reality, that is, a literature that lies to the reader.
  32. Fiction counts as bad literature.
  33. A religion that teaches that gods can have wars between themselves ends up sanctioning violence between humans (“even gods fight”).
  34. Even if those stories had a hidden meaning, nothing can guarantee that a person wouldn’t get the meaning wrong.
  35. If a child learns something false, they won’t easily forget.
  36. If somehting bad happens, don’t blame the gods.
  37. A “real lie” is the one that exploits the listener’s ignorance.
  38. Overcoming the fear of death requires fiction writers to not write scary stuff about afterlife, that is, exercise a kind of censorship.
  39. Fiction appeals to emotion, harming the full exercise of reason.
  40. You can’t go to war if you aren’t ready to die.
  41. If you can live without someone, you don’t need to cry when that person dies.
  42. Laughter should also be avoided.
  43. The government can lie, but only if the lie is told on the population’s best interest.
  44. Fiction writers shouldn’t write bad things about gods or heroes, to not encourage bad behavior among normal humans who see gods and heroes as role models.
  45. There should have no sad music.
  46. There should have no calm music.
  47. There should have a list of allowed musical instruments and a list of banned musical techniques.
  48. Other artist should abide to those restrictions, not only writers and composers.
  49. Music has educational value too.
  50. Real love isn’t lust.
  51. It’s wise to improve your body as well as your mind.
  52. A warrior needs it’s own diet.
  53. A good diet is supposed to be simple.
  54. If there is a great demand for doctors it is because there are a lot of ill people.
  55. It’s shameful to need doctors to treat self-inflicted illnesses and injuries.
  56. A judge must be able to recognize an unjust act without acting against justice himself.
  57. Physical education has the role of keeping the body in shape, so that people wouldn’t need doctors so often.
  58. Physical education (gymnastics) must be practiced alongside music, as physical education alone could make a person turn “brute” and music alone could make the person too soft.
  59. A warrior needs to stay firm in what he believes.
  60. A warrior needs to live off state, rather than having own properties, so he can fully commit to his job.
  61. Community happiness comes first, personal happiness comes second.
  62. A person shouldn’t be wealthy to the point of not needing to have a role in society.
  63. Excess of wealth causes temptation to work less.
  64. You shouldn’t be filthy rich, but shouldn’t be dirt poor either.
  65. There should be no marriage.
  66. Four cardinal virtues: wisdom, courage, moderation, justice.
  67. Every ruler must be wise and moderated, while the ruled people must be courageous and moderated.
  68. Jobs come in four kinds: manufacturer, warrior, ruler and merchant.
  69. It’s just to exercise the work that you are most useful at, rather than exercising many jobs or hopping from one to another.
  70. Sciences are separated from each other due to intimate differences, which appear when humans start to focus on a different object.
  71. The soul is divided in three parts: reason, emotion and appetite.
  72. A person is just when reason dominates emotion, which dominates appetite.
  73. Women should receive the same education as men.
  74. No such thing as “man’s job” or “woman’s job”, but each person must pick the job they are most useful at.
  75. There are laws that go against nature.
  76. Nuclear family must be abolished.
  77. State must interfere in sexual relationships in order to guarantee that the next generation will be better than the previous.
  78. A person must deserve the right to reproduce based on how useful they are to the community.
  79. Children are raised by state.
  80. A woman should feed random children, rather than electing one (her own child).
  81. Age of consent: 20 for women, 30 for men.
  82. Procreation must be authorized by state first.
  83. Children see older people as “dad” and “mom”, even if they aren’t biologically so.
  84. Children should watch the war.
  85. Children, before going to watch the war, must be taught to flee.
  86. Soldiers who are taken captive shouldn’t be rescued.
  87. Science is a discourse about how things truly are, while opinion is a discourse about how things seem to be.
  88. The philosopher looks for stable knowledge, one that doesn’t change with time.
  89. If you love wisdom, you are likely virtuous.
  90. A philosopher isn’t afraid of dying.
  91. Because most people are dumb, philosophers are seldom heard, making them almost completely useless for state and public life.
  92. A philosopher who ends up preaching a stupid idea probably had a philosophical nature that was perverted by poor education.
  93. Philosophy is dangerous for status quo.
  94. The philosopher should rule the nation.
  95. If a group of philosophers takes control over the nation, it would still take some time for the new laws to appear.
  96. Laws shouldn’t be made in a rush.
  97. A ruler who is dumb or doesn’t love his people must be impeached.
  98. A ruler should be able to enjoy studying, or isn’t fit for the task.
  99. A philosopher must be both wise and healthy.
  100. If something isn’t good, we wouldn’t want it, unless we mistook it for good.
  101. “Good” and “pleasant” aren’t the same, although they can overlap in a same object.
  102. You can find pleasure in doing something bad.
  103. If you can speak about what other people think, you are supposed to be able to speak about what you think as well.
  104. Science and truth are siblings.
  105. You can put your thoughts in a scale of clarity, from most obscure to clearest: I suppose (most obscrure), I believe, I understand, I know (clearest).
  106. Appearance is misleading, so you can’t judge an object from it’s appearance.
  107. Practicing science can be confusing, to the point of causing a person to regret practicing it.
  108. The wise feels pity on the ignorant.
  109. The wise man may behave pathetically in public life.
  110. Nevertheless, the wise man should not isolate himself from others.
  111. Education is to turn the student’s soul towards truth, rather than opinion.
  112. A philospher must worry about the others as well, not only about himself.
  113. The philosopher must use opinions as pedagogical resource.
  114. Everyone should know math, even soldiers.
  115. If you want to reach the truth, you can’t do so without calculation.
  116. Math should be taught in school as mandatory class.
  117. Geometry can completely change the way you analyze things.
  118. Astronomy can also be useful for everyone.
  119. Imperfect study shouldn’t be encouraged.Calculus, geometry, astronomy and dialetics are responsible for turning a person away from opinion and towards the truth.
  120. You can not learn dialetics without learning mathematics first.
  121. Exact sciences are universally valid.
  122. Philosophy’s bad reputation comes from those who practice it without being prepared or without having talent, that is, people who are bad at it.
  123. Children should learn math by playing games, as it’s easier for them to remember what they learned with pleasure.
  124. Learning dialetics at an young age can make a person turn rebellious, because the youth will notice that many things he used to believe are incorrect, causing hatred towards society.
  125. Dialetics can only be taught to people with a stable mind.
  126. Women can rule the state, if they are fit for the job.
  127. No human government lasts forever.
  128. An oligarchy is a form of government exercised only by rich people, who use the poor as resource poll.
  129. Wealth and virtue generally go into different directions.
  130. The problem with oligarchy is that rich people are often terrible rulers.
  131. Plus, poor people and wealthy people sometimes conspirate against each other.
  132. Oligarchs sell public goods, empoverish their territories and attract bad reputation.
  133. A state with too many poor people is a state with too many crimes, both perpretated by poor and wealthy people.
  134. An ignorant person prefers money over dignity.
  135. People’s rebellion can turn an oligarchy into a democracy.
  136. The election of better qualified people can turn a democracy into an aristocracy.
  137. Democracies highly regard freedom.
  138. A tyrant needs to ensure that people will need him.
  139. A tyrant needs war.
  140. A tyrant’s need for war makes him hated by his people.
  141. A tyrant needs to kill those who oppose to him.
  142. To control his own territory, a tyrant may need help from other nations.
  143. A tyrant uses public wealth to reinforce his army, thus defending himself.
  144. Everyone has wild, irrational desires.
  145. We often dream about them.
  146. A tyrant is defenseless without servants.
  147. Some people think that something is only worth being done if it brings them money.
  148. Under a philosopher’s guidance, people can better conduct their ambition and desire for money.
  149. Impulse and desire must be moderated, but never eliminated.
  150. Money and power can’t compensate a soul’s decadence.
  151. Beautiful lies can destroy a person’s intelligence.
  152. An artisan makes physical objects using a mental model as base.
  153. If someone seems to know everything, they are lying.
  154. Fiction is a lie and should be treated as such, that is, shouldn’t be taken seriously.
  155. Falsifications are a toy or a game; believing something false as if it was true is silly.
  156. Reason should moderate suffering.
  157. Emotion is what makes us feel despair.
  158. Emotion harms the free use of reason.
  159. Suffering excessively isn’t masculine.
  160. The more you laugh, the harder it will be to contain your laughter next time you see something funny.
  161. The body can only die from age, illness or physical damage.

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