22 de agosto de 2019

What I learned by reading “The Social Contract”.

Filed under: Livros, Notícias e política, Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 15:28

The Social Contract” was written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Below, what I learned by reading his text.

  1. It is not politicians who write about politics: being in office, they validate their thinking with their actions, not words.
  2. If I were a politician, I would not write about politics; I would do politics.
  3. Everyone who participates in a society should reflect on politics.
  4. Dependence on family members is, at first, natural.
  5. The family may continue to exist when there is no longer dependence on each other, but in this case the family exists only by convention and not by necessity.
  6. No one gives up his freedom unless he gains something in return.
  7. If you have been a slave for a long time, you stop desiring freedom.
  8. The first slaves were enslaved by force, but the slaves who came later were enslaved by custom.
  9. Everyone has the right to rule, if they wanna compete and think they can do it.
  10. Any monarch who wants to avoid conspiracies, rebellions, or civil wars should get rid of his people.
  11. Obeying to force is not an act of morals, but of prudence.
  12. If disobedience is not an option, there is no morality.
  13. If the strongest is always right in his actions, then I have to be strong.
  14. I can only disobey the strong being stronger than him.
  15. You only sell yourself if you think you will profit from it.
  16. The king derives his subsistence from the people; we are the ones who keep the government alive.
  17. No one works for free.
  18. A war is always between governments, not between nations, as the people often don’t want war to happen.
  19. There is no such thing as full slavery.
  20. People came first, government came second.
  21. The social contract is the renunciation of natural freedom for the sake of a conventional freedom established by mutual agreement to obtain the benefits of life in society.
  22. There is a “general will,” manifest in the laws and enforced by the contract.
  23. It is unfair to have several rights and no duties.
  24. If you refuse to obey the general will of people, you will end up being dragged into doing só anyway.
  25. Society sets humans apart from other animals.
  26. There are two types of freedom: natural and civil.
  27. Civil liberties are characterized by private property.
  28. Obeying one’s own rules is freedom too.
  29. The first monarchs were not landlords, but lords of people.
  30. Nature has made everyone different, but the social contract implies making everyone equal, not by nature, but by law.
  31. The general will alone drives a society towards its common end, which is the welfare of all.
  32. If there is one thing everyone wants, the government must guarantee that thing to keep the people together.
  33. By pursuing satisfaction of these points of convergence of the will of the subjects, the general will, the government can pursue equality, for it will be literally attending to all.
  34. If you don’t fight something that is happening upon you, then you are consenting.
  35. The truth alone does not bring wealth.
  36. The general will can go the wrong way when people are led to desire what is bad for themselves.
  37. This can be done by lying to the people.
  38. General will is the sum of all wills, excluding those that contradict each other; this allows us to see what everyone wants.
  39. The government can’t order from a particular person an action that doesn’t serve everyone.
  40. Political decision implies the use of your own criteria of what makes a decision “good”.
  41. When deciding your vote, use only personal criteria.
  42. The general will always concerns the whole.
  43. To save our lives, we sometimes have to risk it.
  44. Lack of information can kill.
  45. If you violate the laws of your government, you are subject to punishment.
  46. On the other hand, if you don’t like the laws in your country, you can look for another country with laws that you like more.
  47. A government that kills many is a bad government.
  48. The more crimes committed, the more impunity; the more impunity, the more crimes committed.
  49. There is no country where there is no crime.
  50. Everyone has a sense of justice, but justice only happens if there is reciprocity.
  51. There are laws that favor the bad and harm the good.
  52. Natural laws are not civil laws.
  53. You cannot legislate for only one person.
  54. The act of governing implies making the human being act in an unnatural way.
  55. The wise will not be understood by the vulgar without adopting their language.
  56. There are too complex ideas to translate into colloquial language.
  57. Legislating is a very serious activity.
  58. Legislating is so serious that the first laws were inseparable from religion.
  59. One should not make laws that the people cannot accept.
  60. There are vicious nations with good laws that the subjects do not submit to.
  61. There are nations that thrive despite having horrible laws.
  62. The more people, the harder it is to keep everyone together.
  63. Big governments require levels of power: the president cannot rule the entire country alone if the country is huge.
  64. Countries that do not have enough resources are forced to conquer the territory of others.
  65. If the people are desperate, they will accept any law.
  66. The challenge of the law is not to establish a new good thing, but to destroy a known evil.
  67. Freedom cannot stand without equality: if everyone starts on equal terms, they are able to exercise their freedom in equal measure and no one can complain that they were at a disadvantage.
  68. No one should be so rich as to be able to buy another person or so poor to the point of selling themselves.
  69. Laws must ensure equality.
  70. If the country cannot produce its own wealth through agriculture, it should invest in other means of making money.
  71. Impunity allows criminals to legislate.
  72. The people can, by their desire, destroy good laws: if the people desire their destruction, who can stop them?
  73. All action depends on two elements: will and power.
  74. The will of the government is the legislative and the power of the government is the executive.
  75. When one power tries to act as the other (when the legislature tries to act as executive or vice versa) or when the people refuse to obey the laws, either despotism or anarchy occurs.
  76. The larger the people, the less political power each person has.
  77. The stronger the government, the less freedom people will have.
  78. Mathematics is not meant to measure political action.
  79. It is not the number of people that makes the revolution, but the action of that number, meaning that an intelligent minority can work great political changes.
  80. The ruler must watch over the interest of the people.
  81. If either the people or the government have to sacrifice themselves, let it be the government, not the people.
  82. The general will is sovereign.
  83. A desire is stronger the more it is personal.
  84. Because of this the general will imposes itself less than the private interest.
  85. If the government is handled by only one person, the temptation will be too great, the potential for corruption will be very high.
  86. A monarchy would be highly active.
  87. Each member of the government has political power in itself, but the people, while sovereign in a democratic government, have no political power unless they unite.
  88. If you divide the power into different people, not completely separate but dependent on each other, as in the democratic regime, there’s less risk of despotism.
  89. Even in a democratic government, not everyone participates in democracy.
  90. It is not good for the enforcer to be the legislator.
  91. People who can govern themselves don’t need a president, a monarch or a congress.
  92. Perfect democracy has never existed because of a variety of obstacles that make representative (not perfect) democracy more fitting.
  93. Luxury corrupts rich and poor.
  94. Democratic governments are always changing.
  95. Democracy is a perfect model and that is why it cannot be perfectly managed by imperfect beings, such as us, humans.
  96. In an aristocracy there are two general wills: that of the people and that of the rulers.
  97. Aristocracies can exist in three flavors: natural, elective and hereditary.
  98. The best man is not necessarily the richest, since wealth does not buy virtue.
  99. In politics, you have to make things change, but also give the impression that things aren’t changing.
  100. Monarchs rely on weak people: if the people came to not depend on a monarch anymore, they would overthrow him.
  101. Machiavelli’s work should be read by lay people to let them know how the rulers operate in order to defend themselves, as people, from political abuse perpetrated by the government.
  102. Those who strive to come to power by dubious means attest that they cannot rule by legitimate means.
  103. It is easier to conquer a territory than to manage it.
  104. The example of parents can be abandoned by the child depending on which way he wants to go.
  105. The best kings were not educated to be kings.
  106. If the government is bad and nothing can be done, the best you can do is to suffer until the end of the government’s term.
  107. The three forms of government do not always work in all territories: the monarchy will never work in certain countries, just as there are some who reject democracy.
  108. A country needs to accept the form of government that suits it best.
  109. The worker must make a profit from his work, or the country will be poor.
  110. When the government begins to fail, a revolution can put it back on track.
  111. The production surplus of a difficult task is smaller.
  112. Vegetarian diet is superior.
  113. It is possible to live better by eating less.
  114. The food from the hot places is more delicious.
  115. You can’t tell which type of government is the best, but you can tell when people are being well or badly governed.
  116. It is not possible to know which type of government is the best because one’s concept of “good governance” varies.
  117. Power tends to corrupt.
  118. Because of this phenomenon, there is no human government that lasts forever.
  119. This “natural death” of government can occur in two ways: when government is restricted (that is, when a democracy becomes an aristocracy or an aristocracy becomes a monarchy) or when government dissolves.
  120. When the government makes decisions outside the law or without consulting the people or when a member of the government usurps power for himself, a window for state overthrowing is open.
  121. In situations like this, the people are forced to obey, but they are not obliged, because no one can take from them the right to revolt.
  122. If the government dissolves, we go into anarchy.
  123. “Tyrant” is an illegitimate governor.
  124. The typical behavior of the despot (a tyrant who governs a democracy) is to act as if he were above the law.
  125. To do something well you must not try the impossible.
  126. Each political body has the causes of its own destruction embedded in itself.
  127. To make something stable, you have to give up your intentions of making it last forever.
  128. The human body is the work of nature, but the political body is the work of humans.

  129. It is possible to make the government last longer and longer, but it will eventually fall.

  130. Legislative power is the heart of government, while executive power is its brain.

  131. Not believing in freedom is the ideological slave certificate.

  132. One should not consider the future before considering the present.

  133. Freedom and tranquility do not always go together.

  134. If people are too busy in private business, it is because the government cannot provide enough for the people.

  135. Plenty of public services work against private businesses.

  136. If the government is bad, we may feel discouraged to vote.

  137. Good laws lead to better laws.

  138. Bad laws lead to worse laws.

  139. When people no longer care about the government, politics has died.

  140. If the people could speak for themselves, there would be no need to elect representatives to create laws.

  141. It is only a law if people follow it: it is no use making a law that everyone will break.

  142. Submitting to an unfair government is cowardice.

  143. Do not demand from others what you cannot do.

  144. No particular act should constitute law.

  145. Democratic government is the easiest to establish if none is in place.

  146. It would be interesting if any member of the executive power could be removed from there by the will of the people.

  147. To attack popular assemblies is to declare war against the people.

  148. It is possible to mask private interests under a mask of fighting for the public good.

  149. Freedom is inalienable to the human being.

  150. If there is doubt about what the general will wants, a poll should be enough.

  151. A bad government will last long, unless it encounters opposition.

  152. The ostentation of wealth can become a cause of poverty.

  153. When a government becomes corrupt, it can only subsist in two ways: either corruption is removed (purification) or corrupt laws are enacted (total decay).

  154. Too many crimes reveal useless laws.

  155. The problems of Rome did not come from Rome itself, but from its army.

  156. The first governments were theocratic.

  157. This is because, in the government of nature, it seemed inconceivable that a man could become lord over fellow men; only a superhuman being should rule the men.

  158. Although there are similar gods among different peoples, they are not the same god manifesting to different peoples.

  159. The reason Christians are persecuted is that Jesus separated religion and government.

  160. But over time Christianity has become corrupted.

  161. In Europe, after Christianity, religion and politics are different things.

  162. The fusion of church and government creates a situation in which it is effectively the church that rules, because it is worse to go to Hell than to jail.

  163. Religion is dangerous to government: neighborly love, humility, detachment from material goods, reluctance to kill, chastity, government has an interest in the opposite of all these things.

  164. Jesus’ precepts, for example, work against the economy, population growth, and the army.

  165. By merging religion and government, the believer comes to see other nations, which have different laws, as enemies of God.

  166. Christianity is not the religion preached by Jesus.

  167. A society of true Christians would not last long, because neighboring nations would take advantage of their military weakness (a Christian cannot kill).

  168. “Republic” and “Christian” are mutually exclusive terms: it is not possible to imagine that a government based on the teachings of Jesus can survive, especially in a war situation.

  169. Forming an army to kill in a war is to violate the Christian precept “thou shall not kill”.

  170. A citizen’s soul isn’t the government’s business.

  171. The government needs to make laws that encourage sociability among citizens.

  172. Government cannot compel anyone to believe in a religion because faith is a personal thing.

  173. If there is religious intolerance in the country, the priests of the religions with most followers become rulers, because in a situation where religions are fighting, the priests have increased credit.

  174. The priest who says that only those in his church will be saved is putting himself above the local political ruler (such as the president or the congress).

6 de fevereiro de 2019

I’m a communist (not really).

Filed under: Notícias e política — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 23:50

So I was watching some videos on Youtube and found an interesting one by a philosopher with a complicated name.

Summarizing what he says, Steve Bannon, the guy who wants to set up an international conservative right movement, does it by giving people something to fear, even if it is an imaginary danger. The protection could be provided by the right, making conservative solutions more palatable. In European xenophobic countries, for example, this danger would be the foreigner, the immigrant. The far right won here in Brazil, and our personal enemy is communism. First, there is no communism in Brazil. I think even the people on the left do not believe in the possibility of implementing a communist regime in Brazil. Not because it would be impossible (because it is possible), but because it would be impossible with the current world setup to be a communist country while also being capable of maintaining the level of comfort. The big motifs of the elections were “do not let Brazil become a Venezuela” or “Brazil will not be a new Cuba” or “the flag will never be red”. Now that we have a right-wing president and, one month later, people are already wanting to kick him out, a good idea to thwart Bannon’s plans for Brazil would be the revitalization of aesthetic communism.

You see, Bannon’s idea, at least according to the video, is to associate all that is left-wing with communism, that invisible enemy (because it is not there), which, being “invisible”, can be anywhere and everywhere. This was supposed to keep the liberals weak and low, because, identified with communism, they have become the enemy. But the Brazilian left is not Communist. Now, if something can be called “communism” without actually being so, why do not we label as “communism” the good things too? An idea doesn’t need to be really communist, in the correct sense of the word. It just needs the label. Example: Pension reform is undesirable for most Brazilians. Now, to be against pension reform is to be communist, not that it is bad. Another: legalization of firearms possession is undesired by most Brazilians. But to be against firearms is to be communist at the same time as it is a peaceful position. If all that Bolsonaro hates is communist just because he hates it, any position contrary to Bolsonaro’s positions is a communist position, even when the so-called “communists” have a point. The idea is to revitalize the word, not its content, to show the “communist” opinions (everything that is against Bolsonaro) as being palatable. This disarms Bannon’s idea that communism is the enemy and he will have to find something else to stigmatize the left and the process can be repeated with this “new enemy.”

It is not a question of converting to communism, but a question of labeling as “communism” any sensible and clearly beneficial position that stands against the designs of the right-wing, even if such position is not actually a communist position. If the enemy proves to be better than the ally, then the ally becomes an enemy.

25 de dezembro de 2018


Filed under: Notícias e política — Tags:, — Yurinho @ 18:34

After some time dedicating myself to real life, I decided to go back to studying and writing. But I have a lot of material on obscure topics that I still need to read and also a lot of philosophy stuff that I have to read. For example, I started reading German Ideology . Despite the name, it is not a commentary on Hitler’s work, but a book by Engels and Marx (great political climate for reading communist works). So I decided to balance things: for each book of philosophy I read, I will publish notes about other texts that I read. I do this to avoid the monopoly of certain contents.

Well, it’s December twenty-fifth. Bolsonaro will be our president soon. That worries me. For example, these days, Toffoli denied the release of second-instance prisoners, although this is the constitutional thing to do (no one can be arrested without running out of court appeals first). Those who can appeal to higher courts should not be arrested, according to our Constitution. Why did he deny a constitutional right to someone (specially Lula, who was arrested on those terms)? It is speculated that this has to do with a meeting of the Armed Forces that took place all that day and with pressures via Twitter . Suppose that such events are connected. If Toffoli has caved to the pressure from the Armed Forces (assuming such pressure has taken place), then the democratic republic is already over and a military coup has already taken place. It would not be a question of thinking if the democratic republic is going bad or is in crisis, but thinking about how to reestablish it. If this is proven, Brazil died for me. We have to resurrect it.

Another thing that worries me is the possible removal of the philosophy discipline from high school. That is a far more remote possibility, it seems to me, since the next government has more pertinent concerns and it seems that Bolsonaro always goes back on his word when he says something unpopular. In addition, with the new high school, state education networks will have autonomy to manage the diverse parts of the curriculum. My state has someone of the Worker’s Party heading the government, so maybe he hears the clamor of state teachers and includes philosophy in the diversified curriculum.

Maybe I’m worrying too much. The fact is that I already see that I will not like this government, that it has serious chances of harming me in particular. That, of course, if Bolsonaro indeed rules anything, not someone else who could come to take his place. I would not know what to expect from a second (or third, maybe fourth) coup in such a short time.

2 de junho de 2018

Notes on the Brazilian Federal Constitution.

Filed under: Livros, Notícias e política, Organizações — Tags:, , , — Yurinho @ 23:04

The Federal Constitution was written in the Federative Republic of Brazil. Here are some notes on this text.

  1. The purpose of the constitution is to create a harmonious country.
  2. Its supreme values ​​are freedom, security, well-being, development, equality, the exercise of rights and justice.
  3. The constitution aims for a pluralistic, fraternal country without prejudice .
  4. Controversies must be resolved peacefully.
  5. Political pluralism is guaranteed by the Constitution.
  6. The three powers are independent of each other.
  7. The fundamental objectives of the republic are to build a free, just and solidary society; ensure the country’s development; to eradicate poverty, marginality and social inequality; promote the good of all without prejudice, including age-based prejudices (Article 3, subsection IV).
  8. Self-determination of people should guide our international relations (article 4, subsection III).
  9. Men and women should be equal (Article 5, item I), so if you, man, think you have a legal disadvantage in relation to women, know that their equality should be a constitutional guarantee (albeit limited by the Constitution itself).
  10. As long as it is not illegal, you can do whatever you want (Article 5, paragraph II).
  11. Dehumanization is a crime (Article 5, subsection III).
  12. Freedom of thought (Article 5, subsection IV).
  13. A person can not use religion as an excuse to deny rights, although you also can not use your religion to excuse yourself from penalties for crimes.
  14. Intellectual, artistic or scientific activity must be free from censorship (Article 5, subsection IX).
  15. If someone violates your privacy or private life, you can sue that guy.
  16. Your home can only be invaded in case of illegal activity, disaster or judicial determination.
  17. Access to information is constitutionally guaranteed.
  18. Inheritance is constitutional right.
  19. If there is no law against a particular thing, it is not a crime (this seems to imply that a law can not have retroactive features).
  20. In fact, a brazilian law can not retroact, except to benefit a defendant.
  21. A violation of a fundamental right can not go unpunished.
  22. If you are able to prevent a heinous crime, but have choosen not to, you are also a criminal.
  23. Death penalty (except in case of war) and life imprisonment are unconstitutional.
  24. There are prisons for men, women, adults, minors.
  25. Inmates have the right to physical and moral integrity.
  26. A person can not lose his freedom or his property if the process wasn’t correct (due process).
  27. Evidence obtained by illicit means is not valid.
  28. If you prove that you can not get legal assistance, the state must offer you said assistance for free.
  29. You can receive compensation if the judge made mistakes during your trial or if you got an unfairly long penalty.
  30. Something necessary to the exercise of citizenship should be offered free of charge.
  31. You have the right to education, health, food, work, housing, transportation, leisure, security, social security, maternity and child protection, and assistance when you are helpless.
  32. You earn more by working at night.
  33. Normally, you can only work eight hours a day, forty-four hours a week at most.
  34. The labor market of women is protected by the constitution.
  35. It is forbidden to work before the age of sixteen (unless you are an apprentice, then it’s fourteen).
  36. Voting is mandatory for all those who are literate and are between the ages of eighteen and seventy.
  37. Unless you are conscripted into military service or foreign … or you are not yet sixteen, then you can not vote.
  38. There is a minimum age for each political position, with the youngest being eighteen years for a councilor.
  39. You can not be have a political position if you are illiterate.
  40. A Brazilian political party can not be subordinate to other countries and can not receive funds from other countries.
  41. The indigenous territories also belong to the union.
  42. It is the union who declares war.
  43. Nuclear activity needs government authorization and its use for war purposes is unconstitutional.
  44. Nuclear damage always entails accountability, even if no one is to blame.
  45. Legislating on the protection of children and youth is the competence of the union (article 24, subsection XV).
  46. The number of councilors in a municipality is proportional to the number of inhabitants.
  47. The municipality can not spend more than five percent of its revenue with councilmen.
  48. Violation of human rights is a reason for federal intervention (article 34, section VII).
  49. Not investing enough in education or health is also a reason for federal intervention in a municipality.
  50. You can only enter a public position per contest (a test to see if you are fit to the position), which is proportional to the complexity of the intended position.
  51. A public contest expires two years after completion, unless expiration date is extended to four years.
  52. You can retire for permanent disability, compulsion (you can not work in public service if you are older than seventy-five years) or voluntarily (minimum of ten years of effective exercise in the public service and five years in the effective position).
  53. A man can not voluntarily retire before age sixty and the woman can not voluntarily retire before the age of fifty-five (why the difference?).
  54. Except in case you are disabled, if you work on something very risky or if you work in something that damages your health; in these cases, the retirement requirements may be different.
  55. An effective state official may only lose his job if justice so decides (for example, if he receives exoneration as a punishment for a crime), if he loses in an administrative cause or if he is not doing his job.
  56. But you can get your job back if justice decides that your firing is illegal.
  57. If an civil servant position ceases to exist, the employee will wait until he is useful in another area.
  58. The national congress is our chamber of deputies (lower house) and our federal senate, which exercise legislative power.
  59. The senator’s term lasts eight years.
  60. The president can not declare war without congressional authorization.
  61. They are also responsible for authorizing or denying the president’s absence if he wishes to leave the country for more than fifteen days.
  62. The congress can authorize referendum and plebiscite.
  63. Only the Chamber of Deputies can start prosecution against the President.
  64. But, after the prosecution starts, it is the senate who judges.
  65. If a law is declared unconstitutional, the Senate must suspend completely or partly (Article 52, subsection X).
  66. A deputy or senator can not be prosecuted for his thinking, for his words or for his votes (in fact, it was you who put him there, so it’s your fault).
  67. A deputy or senator who breaks the parliamentary decorum loses the position.
  68. He also loses the position if he isn’t present in one-third of the meetings where he is required, if he fails to justify those absences properly.
  69. He also loses his term if he loses political rights (permanently or not).
  70. The constitution can not be changed while there is federal intervention in progress (ie, while the army is there, in Rio, it is not possible to change the social security rule).
  71. Turning Brazil into a monarchy is unconstitutional.
  72. Citizens may suggest a bill if they have signatures of at least one percent of the national electorate, distributed by at least five states, with not less than three tenths percent of the voters in each of them (or you can give legislative idea on the Federal Senate’s website).
  73. An provisional measure (decree issued by president alone) has the force of law, but can only be issued if it is urgent (the Novo Ensino Médio is not urgent).
  74. Blank votes are not counted in presidential elections.
  75. If a tie occurs in the second round, the oldest candidate wins.
  76. The president commits a crime of responsibility (making him subject to impeachment procedure) if he does something against:
    1. the existence of the union;
    2. the freedom of other powers, of the public ministry or constitutional powers;
    3. the exercise of rights;
    4. the internal security of the country;
    5. administrative probity;
    6. the budget law;
    7. compliance with the law or the decisions of justice.
  77. If the president is charged with a crime of responsibility, he is tried by the senate and not by the supreme federal court.
  78. The judge can not devote himself to political activity!
  79. Declaring the unconstitutionality of a law requires an absolute majority of the members of the court.
  80. Whoever decides whether a law is unconstitutional is the supreme federal court.
  81. It is not anyone who can initiate a process of unconstitutionality.
  82. When there is a strike in essential service, like some transportation sectors, labor justice is the one in charge of solving the issue.
  83. Military can not go on strike.
  84. Women are exempt from compulsory military service in times of peace (why only women?).
  85. You can not use your economic power to monopolize a market.
  86. But if you are the union, you can monopolize oil and natural gas reserves, and without having to exercise economic power for this.
  87. The union may expropriate land for agrarian reform purposes, except small and medium-sized rural estates (provided the landowner has no other land) and productive properties.
  88. Health is everyone’s right and one of state’s duty.
  89. Decentralization, and integral care aimed at prevention and community participation are guidelines of the public health system.
  90. The state can not fund privately owned, for-profit private health institutions.
  91. It is a crime to market human organs or human blood.
  92. Why can a woman retire at sixty with thirty years of contribution, and a man can only retire at sixty-five with thirty-five years of contribution?
  93. Education is the right of all, but a duty of the state and the family, that is, the family also has a duty to educate.
  94. The objective of education is the development of the person, his preparation for the exercise of citizenship and his qualification for work.
  95. Research, teaching and extension can not be separated in university.
  96. Religious teaching at school is optional: the student may guiltlessly skip that class.
  97. The municipalities will invest in primary education.
  98. The states will invest in primary and secondary education.
  99. Twenty-five percent of state or county tax collection should be applied in education.
  100. Government should encourage research and science.
  101. Our freedom of thought and expression is guaranteed in Article 220.
  102. In marriage, a man and a woman have the same rights and duties.
  103. It is the State’s duty to ensure that children and adolescents have the right to health, education, leisure, dignity, respect, freedom, among others (Article 227).
  104. It is also the responsibility of the state to protect them from neglect, discrimination , violence, oppression , among others (article 227).
  105. Measures limiting freedom must take into account the child and juvenile condition of a person in development (Article 227, paragraph 3, point V).
  106. Older parents have the right to be protected by their adult children.
  107. The supreme court has a duty to comply with the constitution.
  108. In 1993, the population participated in a plebiscite to know if they wanted Brazil to be a republic or a constitutional monarchy, and whether the system of government would be parliamentary or presidential.
  109. Ideally, every citizen should have a printed copy of the constitution.

7 de abril de 2018


Filed under: Notícias e política — Tags:, , — Yurinho @ 22:06

This week, I got in a little argument on Holocaust21 with a guy named Eron. His rage was justified: I made definition mistakes (for example, I treated men’s rights movement and male sexualism as the same thing) and overall acted like an idiot, I admit. But one thing that made me a little disturbed about Eron’s position was his distrust on democracy. He believes that the correct course of action would be the imposition of our dictatorship and he said that sending my text on statutory rape to congress was a waste of time. At first, I didn’t think his views on the subject were sane, but the course that things took in Brazil made me think otherwise.

Lula had the approval of almost half of my country. He lead several pools, even we weren’t certain about his fate, as he was being prosecuted in five different charges, which could render him unable to participate in elections, which effectively happened. The proofs, or rather, what was show as proof of his crimes didn’t convince me, but a lot of other politicians who commited crimes that were recorded with image and perfect audio didn’t suffer fair consequences, as if they were untouchable. Our current president is the biggest criminal in our territory. So, we can’t really talk about democracy in Brazil, at least not at the moment. What we have is a dictatorship, formed by media, executive power and judiciary power. By the way, those are three forces that often conflict with each other. If a minority can walk on the face of half of the fifth largest country on Earth, then democracy doesn’t exist. Indeed, why did I waste my time sending that text again? A popular dictatorship indeed sounds appealing. But how will we install a dictatorship without weapons? Someone wrote that state must give up on it’s weapons before ordering it’s people to drop theirs. That’s the reason why. If we had material means to rebel, Brasil wouldn’t be the anarchy that it currently is.

That also shows that there are no real laws in Brazil. There’s the law of the strongest, who is often the richest. What is the point of saying that “you must remain law-abiding” when I discuss attraction to minors? What’s the point of saying that you shouldn’t kill, steal or sell illicit drugs? Our politicians are extremely successful criminals! And, if you are law-abiding, that doesn’t keep you from going to jail for a insufficiently proved accusation. I’m not saying that I’m going to break the laws, nor that you should break the laws, but lets face it: in the current scenario, does it even matter anymore if you are law-abiding or not? It’s so obvious, that I’m embarrassed for only giving the issue a sincere reflection after the catastrophe. Eron’s position isn’t lunacy: the current dictatorship that we live, in here, is very effective for those who are in power. But it could be us in there. Imagine that. It doesn’t need to be the army, it doesn’t need to be a military dictatorship, but imagine if it was our dictatorship.

However, I don’t think it’s viable. Like I said, a revolution would be needed and a revolution for tomorrow can not be done without weapons and Brazilian citizens aren’t allowed to have those. The best we can do is to continue talking about it, bringing people to our side, even if it means using the same dirty tricks used against us: doctrination, propaganda, rethorics, publicity. It’s a cynical suggestion. That’s because we are still a capitalistic nation. Unpopular opinions aren’t profitable. Our point of view must be profitable, so that it can be sponsored. That would be a good start. I hope that those who supported the impeachment of Dilma are happy now. Do they regret? I hope they see where their quest for unlimited justice has taken them. I do think that their quest was subject to sabotage.

13 de dezembro de 2017

Notes on the “Letter About Tolerance”.

Filed under: Livros, Organizações, Saúde e bem-estar — Tags:, , , — Yurinho @ 10:09

The “Letter About Tolerance” was written by John Locke. Below are some statements made in that text. They aren’t quotations, but paraphrases, and may or may not reflect my views on this subject.

  1. A church in which people are intolerant isn’t really a church at all.
  2. If you claim to be christian, you are supposed to behave in a loving manner.
  3. What makes a christian is his action, not empty words.
  4. If don’t love the neighbor as yourself, you are not very interested in your salvation or the salvation of anyone for that matter.
  5. That’s the behavior of some priests and pastors, who promote whatever unloving behavior among those who trust him for spiritual guidance.
  6. Do not persecute anyone (that includes pedophiles, by the way).
  7. No one should be converted by force (in fact, if a person says “I believe now, please stop hitting me!” is likely saying that just so you can leave them alone).
  8. If the Bible says that everyone will be judged by their own personal merit, then the controversy about which denomination to follow is not important.
  9. You are supposed to be preaching against murder, theft and other unloving behaviors, rather than against other denominations (“I’m a christian hating another christian, am I cool now?”).
  10. No religion should be endorsed by state.
  11. Religion should not meddle in politics; church and state are different things and must not be mixed.
  12. State can not “take care” of your soul.
  13. That’s because state’s power is coercive and material, thus having no power over spirit.
  14. Apart of Judaism and Islam, God didn’t give humans the right to impose a religion through the means of politics.
  15. State has nothing to do with “the other world”.
  16. Laws change according to place and time, so state really isn’t divinely inspired, as religion isn’t supposed to change.
  17. A church is an association.
  18. Each church has different inside rules.
  19. How can we check if a bishop really descends from an apostle (and why is such thing needed anyway)?
  20. Your choice of church won’t save you, so pick whichever you think is okay (or none at all).
  21. You have more chances of being saved by reading the Bible at home than attending to church.
  22. You can not exclude from a church (if you are a priest, for example), someone who wouldn’t be excluded from heaven by Jesus.
  23. Christians shouldn’t persecute anyone, but on the contrary: Jesus said that Christians would be persecuted themselves.
  24. Just like state should care about the person’s material well-being, the church should care about their spiritual well-being, meaning that a church shouldn’t impose any rules that do not have anything to do with that goal.
  25. Don’t punish others, leave punishment for God.
  26. State should treat all people equally, no matter their faith or lack of faith.
  27. If I must love even my enemies, why would I hate someone who did nothing to me (that includes homosexuals and basically all other minorities that aren’t necessarily your enemies)?
  28. People who are related to religious institutions shouldn’t participate in the three political powers (suggest, approve or apply laws).
  29. I shouldn’t punish anyone’s sin.
  30. Christians fight Christians over things of lesser importance.
  31. If no one knows which church is the “correct” one, then my choice isn’t worse than yours.
  32. I’m not obligated to trust anyone in matters of salvation, specially if everyone offers conflicting paths.
  33. State (the president, for example) can’t demand people to follow a specific faith.
  34. If church and state were the same thing, the path for salvation would change according to the current ruler.
  35. It’s silly to think that you are “saving” someone by forcing them to worship.
  36. It’s pointless to follow a religion that you think is false.
  37. A priest shouldn’t impose any behavior on the followers, if such behavior isn’t endorsed by God.
  38. A church can’t demand a behavior that is illegal in that territory.
  39. You can’t have your belongings legitimately taken for religious reasons.
  40. If church and state become one, atheists and followers of other religions would have their freedom, belongings and life put at risk, which isn’t compatible with state’s task of promoting justice.
  41. The fusion between state and church wouldn’t make politicians any more holy.
  42. You can’t force an atheist to believe.
  43. Truth can be discovered alone, but a lie needs to be kept by more than one person at once to continue existing.
  44. If a christian needs to convert others to Christ, they still can not use force to do it.
  45. Life is longer when you live in society.
  46. A majorly christian democratic society won’t contradict church anyway.
  47. If the state passes a law that a christian finds sinful, let the christian rebel and suffer the consequences.
  48. A church can not have legal privileges over other churches or over those who have no faith.
  49. A church that preaches intolerance is more interested in getting followers than working towards salvation of the followers’ souls.
  50. It’s important to have laws to ensure religious tolerance.
  51. No church should receive state funds.
  52. The Gospel doesn’t sanction social exclusion based on religion!
  53. Christians shouldn’t see the existence of other religions as a threat.
  54. Christians give a bad reputation to Christianity.
  55. It’s better to read the Bible at home than attending to church.

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