25 de dezembro de 2018

What I learned reading “Leviathan.”

Filed under: Livros, Notícias e política — Tags:, — Yurinho @ 17:49

“Leviathan” was written by Thomas Hobbes.Here are some things I learned from reading this text.

  1. If the person who is more powerful than those you are critiquing has no criticism against you, then you are fine.
  2. It is not possible to write an impartial work and not be criticized by both extreme positions you tried to avoid.
  3. Machines are our creatures.
  4. The government is born (by contract ), it grows (by prosperity), it can become sick (by sedition) and die (by civil war), meaning that the state is like a person.
  5. Wisdom is acquired by “reading” people, not books (which give you knowledge, but not really wisdom).
  6. Human beings are fundamentally equal.
  7. The passions are the same in all of us, but the objects that awaken them vary.
  8. The ruler must take into consideration the human being as a species.
  9. Thoughts are not things, but representations of them.
  10. The nature of a thought depends on the organ that captures the object that originally gave birth to the concept and on how the object presents itself.
  11. Feeling precedes knowledge.
  12. Movement produces movement .
  13. Vision is the perception of an object by sight.
  14. If something is in motion, it will not stop until another force acts on it.
  15. To say that the stone tends down because it wants to keep itself in the best condition is to attribute knowledge and volition to inanimate things.
  16. Imagination and memory are two manifestations of the same ability.
  17. Experience is accumulation of memory.
  18. The imagination can be simple, when we conceive a normal idea, or composite, when we conceive an idea that results from the mixture of several.
  19. The raw material of the imagination is nature.
  20. The dream is clearer than normal thoughts because our whole attention span is forced towards the dream when we sleep.
  21. You can only know that it was a dream after you wake up.
  22. Sensations we have when asleep influence the dream.
  23. Short dreams seem to be more “real”.
  24. The content of the dream can be interpreted as an apparition.
  25. Stories of terror, dark environments and such things make us prone to have nightmares and, if we are having difficulty sleeping, hallucinations.
  26. If you saw a creepy cloak wandering the cemetery, it’s probably just a drug dealer.
  27. Many ghostly apparitions are farces made to feed superstition.
  28. Superstition is an obstacle to civil obedience.
  29. If you teach that the good thoughts we have are always placed there directly by God, then the whole world is an inspired prophet and all good intentions, even conflicting, are the fruit of the divine will, but such idea feeds the megalomaniacs.
  30. Also animals have understanding because they can learn things that the owners teach.
  31. Something is formed in the imagination based on present or previous sensation.
  32. When we think about something, there is no certainty about what will be thought later, for many thoughts are spontaneous or intrusive.
  33. If we think too much about something, our thoughts take that direction almost naturally.
  34. When facing a problem, think if something similar has happened before, how it was solved.
  35. This tendency to use experience of past conflicts in solving future problems is called “prudence.”
  36. Only the present exists.
  37. Some animals develop prudence faster than humans.
  38. More important than the invention of the press was the invention of the alphabet.
  39. Language is a condition of possibility for government and for peace.
  40. It is possible to use language to insult or punish.
  41. Names are universal, but the things they refer to are particular.
  42. We used the decimal system because our ancestors counted using the fingers.
  43. When making a speech, start by defining the keywords.
  44. Misuse of words reduces the quality of a philosophy.
  45. Learning something the wrong way is worse than not having learned it.
  46. It is not possible to reason without some kind of language.
  47. Negative names like “nobody” or “nothing” serve, not to indicate presence of something, but to indicate that one should not assume the presence of a certain element.
  48. There are phrases without meaning: “this sentence is false” is not a statement (because a statement needs to make sense), but only sound produced with the mouth.
  49. Languages ​​that inherit from Greek and Latin are full of such situations.
  50. As virtue and vice depend on personal judgment, they should not be taken as foundation of any discourse that aims for universal validity.
  51. The reasoning is equivalent to the calculation: whereas in the calculation we operate numbers in order to obtain a total, the reasoning operates words in order to obtain a conclusion.
  52. Deduction is the linguistic equivalent of subtraction, while induction is the linguistic equivalent of addition.
  53. It is only possible to reason about things involving addition and subtraction of information.
  54. Making reasoning a simple process does not eliminate the possibility of mistakes: everyone makes mistakes.
  55. One must always judge what is being read.
  56. There is truth, there is false, and there is absurdity: absurdities are statements that do not make sense, such as “this sentence is false,” “round square” and things like that.
  57. Philosophy is full of absurdities: unlike geometry, which begins its reasoning by defining important terms, philosophers generally do not explain the meanings of the terms they use, which become no longer clear even to themselves.
  58. Extension is not synonymous with body.
  59. In a scientific discourse, colloquial language is not used.
  60. Everyone can reason well when they have good principles, but a bad memory allows error even in simple operations on solid principles.
  61. Reason is not born with us; it is acquired.
  62. The first sign of reason in a human being is language.
  63. Reasoning takes time, so quick decisions are made by habit.
  64. Ignorance, when noticed, gives birth to curiosity.
  65. Prudence fails more than science.
  66. The capital sign that someone knows anything is the ability to teach it.
  67. Vital movements are involuntary.
  68. “Effort” is the movement between intent and scope of action.
  69. “Desire” is the impulse to seek what you like.
  70. Fear makes it possible to hate what is not known.
  71. Despair is the feeling that certain desire can not be satisfied.
  72. Hope is the feeling that certain desire can be satisfied.
  73. Self-confidence is the tendency to have much hope.
  74. Being pusillanimous is the opposite of being magnanimous: the magnanimous does not care about small or despicable things, whereas the pusillanimous worries with things that do not matter.
  75. Jealousy implies that the person doesn’t trust the loved one when they say “I love you.”
  76. Panic is collective fear without rational cause.
  77. Discouragement is a sadness that comes from impotence for something.
  78. Laughing at someone else’s misery is a manifestation of pusillanimity: your condition is so bad that you end up enjoying seeing someone worse than you.
  79. Getting used to laughing or crying decreases their frequency: if we laugh at many jokes, we become picky and only very good jokes will make us laugh.
  80. Shame is a kind of sadness, coming from the recognition of a dishonorable fault, that is, that can lead to bad reputation or disrespect.
  81. It is only possible to deliberate about the future.
  82. The animals also deliberate.
  83. The act of wanting is called will.
  84. The ability to want is called volition.
  85. When you say a bad word out of habit, when you are angry, often the meaning of the word is subtracted, so the word comes out without it’s common meaning.
  86. Knowledge of past and future is conditional, syllogistic.
  87. If we believe that the Bible is God’s word, without God telling us this, we believe in God, but in the first place we are believing in the Church, because the church is the one who says that the Bible is inspired.
  88. The same holds true for History, for Science, and for all the other arts you do not have the means to demonstrate.
  89. Not believing in the Bible does not necessarily mean not believing in God, but it certainly means doubting the sacred authors.
  90. If all were equal, no human characteristic would be appreciable.
  91. Natural talent is characterized by persistence in a particular goal, theme or focus, as well as ease in understanding it.
  92. You are stupid when you are a slow thinker.
  93. While talent is being good at one thing, judgment is being good at comparing things.
  94. A lot of imagination disrupts the genre of the dissertation, but it helps the poetic genre.
  95. Each skill has its place in the sciences and the arts: imagination goes in literature, judgment goes in history and philosophy, and things like that.
  96. Too much imagination and little discretion in a fiction work is almost always a sign of lack of talent.
  97. If the goal is to please, avoid talking about dirty or obscene things.
  98. If the goal is to be useful, use whatever words you need, even if they are dirty or obscene.
  99. Although people of the same age can be equally experienced, the use of experience varies according to the goals of each.
  100. Cunning is the use of dishonest means in the exercise of prudence.
  101. What brings perfection is ambition.
  102. Insanity is too much passion for a particular object.
  103. There is a kind of madness for every passion (emotion).
  104. Madness can be caused by bodily harm, but also insanity can cause bodily harm.
  105. Emotions can combine to create stronger emotions .
  106. Madness, when not manifested in acts or words, goes unnoticed.
  107. Wine blinds us to the damage that can be caused by our own passions, thus revealing who we really are and what we really think, for we fail to take into account the consequences of our acts.
  108. Intellectuals also have reproachful desires , so they are rarely seen drinking.
  109. An outbreak of female suicides hit Greece once, until someone had the idea to declare that every woman who committed suicide would be exposed naked in a public square.
  110. Suicides ceased, because depressed women felt ashamed to be exposed that way, even if after death, that is, the shame of nudity was greater than the desire to die.
  111. The salvation of the soul does not depend on theological knowledge.
  112. A person who seems possessed by a spirit may actually be possessed … or just delirious.
  113. A thing that conquers the love or fear of many people can be safely called “power”.
  114. Science is less popular than art because science is harder to understand.
  115. Your value is assigned by others.
  116. Honor is public respect: you are honored when others respect you.
  117. To obey is to honor: you obey when you recognize superiority.
  118. So disobeying is dishonoring.
  119. Whenever they imitate you, they are honoring you.
  120. Taking too long to decide implies that the individual is also evaluating things of least importance, which is a sign of pusillanimity.
  121. There was a time when robbery outside the borders of Greek cities was legal and seen as legitimate work by the Greeks themselves.
  122. Honor and dishonor vary according to the historical and geographical context , for deeds worthy of honor here and now may not be in the future or elsewhere.
  123. The desire for power necessarily leads us to violence, because the essence of power is the ability to subjugate someone.
  124. If exact sciences (mathematics, for example) could work against the personal interests of influential people, they would be regarded as relative, like the humanities.
  125. If people do not like the effects, they blame the causes they see.
  126. Religion has ties to politics.
  127. The Greeks had a dick god.
  128. The fortune teller only succeeds where there are enough people who believe in him.
  129. To say that God is against crime, that is, against what is forbidden by human law, is a victory for the state.
  130. If God is God of the whole earth, the Jews are “the people of God” by virtue of a personal covenant made with him, which does not mean that God is God only of the Jews or that only the Jews can recognize him as God.
  131. Religion is natural to the human being.
  132. When a “prophet” receives by “divine revelation” a belief, ritual, or teaching that contradicts what is already established by another prophet, either prophet is false.
  133. If a religion becomes unjust, the faith of its followers diminish.
  134. Doctrinal impurity also helps confuse believers and diminish their faith.
  135. The thing that leads Catholics, Protestants and Orthodox to change from one denomination to another is not so much the form of the doctrine, but rather the conduct of priests or pastors.
  136. The three main reasons for discord: competition, mistrust and glory.
  137. Unless there is a higher power able to keep people in concord, they will be at war against each other.
  138. The war begins before the first attack.
  139. Peace is absence of war and absence of belligerent desire: if we are planning to declare war, there is already no peace, even if the war has not begun.
  140. The law is made after the crime that originates it (though it’s not called “crime” before the law has been sanctioned).
  141. There is no crime in the war because all acts are justified by the fear of death.
  142. Justice and injustice only make sense in society, being concepts that have no value for someone who lives isolated from all others.
  143. Fear can also unite people, because it is safer to be with others.
  144. The total freedom of all allows the natural state of war between human beings.
  145. Language is what makes politics possible.
  146. I can not promise something that contradicts a promise made earlier.
  147. It’s impossible to give up the right to self-defense.
  148. Testimony given under torture is not valid.
  149. Although God is a greater power than people, he is often less feared than people.
  150. Unnecessary oaths to God are disrespect to His Name, therefore violation of the third commandment (do not use the Name in vain).
  151. If it is not unjust , it is just ; there is no middle ground between these two.
  152. If the punishment for violating a deal is no greater than the benefit that could be derived from such violation, the contractor will want to violate it.
  153. What each one has the right to have is defined by law.
  154. Making deals is natural.
  155. Fair people are those who do righteous deeds .
  156. Iniquity and injustice are the same.
  157. There is a kind of justice that is established between the contractors themselves and another type of justice that is established through the mediation of a judge .
  158. If you gain someone’s goodwill, do not lose it.
  159. Being sociable is working to keep the peace within a group.
  160. If you do not forgive those who repent, you are averse to peace.
  161. To take revenge for sake of revenge alone is childish.
  162. To cause harm without reason is cruelty.
  163. Pride is perceiving yourself as being better than others.
  164. There is no sense in electing a judge if he is not impartial during the exercise.
  165. These natural laws of Hobbes are summed up in the same way as the Law : do unto others what ye would have them do unto you.
  166. Since this law has internal origin, sometimes its simple internal promulgation is not enough to fulfill it.
  167. Hobbes points out an interesting fact: anything that breaks this precept (doing to others what you would like to have done to you) is automatically unjust and provokes the wrath of people.
  168. Living according to this precept preserves peace.
  169. Virtuous action depends on the goal you want to achieve .
  170. The owner of something is not necessarily its inventor.
  171. It is possible to represent the interests of inanimate things, such as a school or hospital.
  172. The interests of children are always represented by adults .
  173. However, this practice can only occur in a situation where there is state to say that the child should be represented by the adult.
  174. Not condemning is absolving.
  175. If the majority vote can be annulled by the vote of a single person, it does not make sense to vote.
  176. Sometimes you have to force someone to be good.
  177. Pact without punishment for breach is void.
  178. If two opposing forces come together to fight against a common enemy, they oppose again when the common enemy is eliminated.
  179. Because bees do not feel pride nor seek honor, they do not declare war.
  180. Bees see no distinction between individual good and common good.
  181. Bees live in harmony because they do not see how their behavior could be better.
  182. People, unlike bees, are capable of lying.
  183. The other species do not need a state because their “agreements” are natural, whereas human agreements are artificial.
  184. Hobbes is quite democratic when he says that a single person or an assembly should reduce the will of all to one will by plurality of votes and that the votes of the majority should be regarded as the votes of all.
  185. The task of the State is to ensure peace among those who are subject to said state.
  186. If the ruler elected by the people promulgates a law that punishes certain behavior and then a person who supported that government incurrs in such behavior and then is punished, the person has punished himself.
  187. The people are guilty of the actions of the elected ruler.
  188. If you need guns to defend an opinion, there is no peace established yet.
  189. Whoever is entitled to a goal is entitled to the means to attain such goal.
  190. Excess of rights also produces war.
  191. Although the state must ensure the peace of its subjects, there is no political impediment to the war against other states, if this is to the benefit of the public.
  192. In a monarchy, democracy, dictactorship or whatever, the nature of power is the same: subjects recognize a state and a state governs subjects.
  193. Everyone sees current problems as greater than future problems, solving problems in a rush.
  194. There are only three forms of government: monarchy, democracy and aristocracy.
  195. Tyranny and oligarchy are degenerate forms of monarchy and aristocracy, not distinct types of government.
  196. The wealth and fame of a monarch depends on the wealth and fame of his people: if his people suffer, other governments see him as a bad monarch.
  197. If the people are weak, the monarch is weak.
  198. One of the democratic problems is the absences in the assembly: can the voting of a bill be fair if half of the opposition didn’t attend to the meeting?
  199. Democratic decisions are not always motivated by reason, but often by anger and envy .
  200. While democratic decisions can be confused by rhetoric , monarchical decisions can be confused by adulation .
  201. Accusing requires less eloquence: condemnation is more easily viewed as justice than acquittal.
  202. A major problem of the monarchy: descendants who are still children .
  203. The predecessor should appoint the tutor of the successor.
  204. The tutor must be someone who could not benefit from the student’s death!
  205. There are ” elective monarchies ” in which the monarch exercises for a time limit and then the successor is voted.
  206. The right of succession is important for the State; otherwise the state would have to die and ressurrect regularly.
  207. The ruler’s testament must be revealed by himself before death, to prevent a false testament from being written by someone eles.
  208. In the absence of a directly appointed successor, the successor must be chosen according to local custom.
  209. If there is no custom, it must be the son.
  210. If there is no son, be the daughter.
  211. If there is no daughter, be the brother.
  212. If there is no brother, be the sister.
  213. And so it goes.
  214. Do not sell public positions to incompetent people or people who are subjects to another state.
  215. The right of the father over the son has to be recognized by the child, otherwise the child will subvert the will of the father when he has the opportunity.
  216. The father does not always have priority in the education of the son because the father is not always the right one for that.
  217. A good criterion would be that the father has priority in the education of the son and the mother has priority in the education of the daughter.
  218. The obedience of the child is due to those who raise the child, who may or may not be the biological parents.
  219. This means that the child does not have to obey his parents if he has been abandoned by such parents, but he must obey those who welcome him.
  220. On the other hand, if the mother is submissive to the father, then the authority passes to the father if the priority agreement is not made.
  221. The grandfather has priority over the father, as the father is subject to the grandfather.
  222. The despot is only recognized if the people fear being exterminated by such a despot.
  223. The winner of a war does not have to spare the lives of the war prisoners if they do not submit.
  224. You own the servant’s things.
  225. The family is a small monarchy.
  226. The books of Samuel, the letters of Paul and the Law sanction earthly authority and subjection to it.
  227. The act of Adam and Eve covering their own nakedness was in itself a challenge to God, which had created them naked.
  228. Tradition is not always correct.
  229. If you want to do something and there is nothing to stop you, you have the freedom to do it.
  230. However, freedom is conditioned to the power to act: if I can not create a pair of wings to fly it is because it is not within the limits of human action, therefore I can not choose (there is no freedom without choice).
  231. It is impossible to create a perfect penal code that covers all human actions, especially if we need to classify them as good or bad and even more so if we have to rank according to intensity.
  232. If the law does not see it as a crime then it is permitted.
  233. Individual freedom only exists in democracy.
  234. The government has the rights granted to it at the time it is created.
  235. I am not obliged to kill myself.
  236. If you are a soldier paid with public money, you will be punished for fleeing from the enemy.
  237. If a citizen is banished, he is no longer a citizen.
  238. If you do not agree with the laws of your country, you can look for another country to live.
  239. If one country subjugates another, the people residing in it are also conquered.
  240. Public is what is done between citizen and government, private is what is done between citizens.
  241. If someone does something that is not approved by the government, they are doing it on their own.
  242. Merchants who join corporations and work together are smart: they can buy the items from their land at low prices and sell them at high prices where the items are rare, which requires larger amounts of investment, quantities that are better attained in group.
  243. In addition, one can buy an item that is common in certain place in order to sell it in its own native land, where it is rare.
  244. And item can be more expensive if there’s demand.
  245. The less people are interested in buying a particular item, the more the price decreases.
  246. There can not be two sovereigns for the same people.
  247. Beggars can come together to chart a more efficient begging plan and, together, make more profit.
  248. If the government can not know what a particular group or association wants, then that group or association is automatically outlawed.
  249. Often, promoting justice requires money.
  250. In meetings, anyone who does not share an interest in the subject of matter is not welcome.
  251. The state is like a human body: legitimate organizations are like organs, while illegitimate organizations are like tumors.
  252. A minister is a person entrusted by the State with carrying out a particular mission and who enjoys state resources to carry out such a mission.
  253. As school is an ideological device of the state, teachers can be considered ministers.
  254. No one can be a judge in their own cause.
  255. If you are going to be judged by someone who has a personal problem with you in private life, it would be fair if you could choose another judge.
  256. Food is easy to find, but getting it may require work.
  257. No state produces everything it needs.
  258. The labor force can be sold.
  259. Without laws there is no private property.
  260. Justice: to each one what is deserved.
  261. If the ruler does something that the people do not like, that’s a people’s problem: the people, when electing the ruler, sanctioned all their actions.
  262. This does not mean that the people must accept quietly.
  263. Agrarian distribution is the task of the sovereign.
  264. Driven by the urge to profit, some people sell harmful things, just like drugs.
  265. There is no useless knowledge.
  266. The subjects should trade among themselves and offer services to each other.
  267. But the state must also regulate these practices.
  268. For the sake of export and import of all goods, the value of gold and silver should not be altered by any State, so that its value may be used as a reference for exchange, for example.
  269. Precious metal reserves can be used as a last resort in wars, to sign peace pacts.
  270. As the value of gold does not change, while the value of a currency may decline, peace contracts signed in cash rather than gold are volatile and unsafe.
  271. An imperative phrase can become opinionated depending on who speaks, who hears and when and where he speaks or hears.
  272. Do not mistake advice for order.
  273. The order aims at the satisfaction of the one who orders, the advice is aimed at the satisfaction of those who listen.
  274. Knowing the law is the obligation of all citizens.
  275. There must be harmony of intentions between the counselor and the adviser, because, if those people want different things, the adviser will give bad advice.
  276. The advice should be clean, of course, should not have metaphors, should not be long, should not excite passions, should not be ambiguous, should not have difficult expressions …
  277. Political advisors must be intellectuals .
  278. The counselor must have experience.
  279. He who has no judgment gives bad advice.
  280. Those who have more experience in a given subject will have a better judgment.
  281. In an assembly, someone who defends a certain opinion, hearing a very good speech that defends the contrary opinion, may feel ashamed of his own opinion and change it, so as not to appear silly in front of the others who applauded the contrary opinion.
  282. If what you want is simple advice, consulting a trusted person is enough.
  283. There are laws common to all States.
  284. If the sovereign can revoke laws when he wants, then he is practically not subject to them.
  285. If you make a vow to yourself, you did not vow at all.
  286. If there is no law against it, then it is not a crime.
  287. If there is no government, there is no law.
  288. The function of the laws is to restrain freedom.
  289. Whoever has the right to dissolve an association also has the right to control it.
  290. The two arms of the state: the laws and the force.
  291. If you only study one subject, you expose yourself to the risk of spending too much time studying a subject that holds no truth at all.
  292. Anyone who can not learn the laws for whatever reason is oblivious to observing them.
  293. Rule of thumb: Do not do to others what you do not want done to you.
  294. If someone gives you a position and does not say how to exercise it, you are bound to use reason to find a way to exercise it perfectly.
  295. The judges themselves should teach the laws to the people.
  296. A person should study the written laws if possible.
  297. Before prosecuting someone, make sure that person actually committed the crime.
  298. The golden rule may be misinterpreted, albeit only in bad faith.
  299. Short laws can be misinterpreted, just like longer laws.
  300. The correct interpretation of a law depends on the possession of the final causes: what is the purpose of this law?
  301. If the philosopher formulates a revolutionary law , the state likely won’t sanction it.
  302. The judge must represent the will of the sovereign.
  303. Heaven and earth will pass away, but the Law will not pass away and this is the Law and the prophets: do to the neighbor what you would have it done for you.
  304. Comments on the laws are not official interpretation.
  305. The lawyer studies the laws, but the judge interprets them.
  306. There are two types of law: moral and positive.
  307. Morality always existed, based on the human virtues that tend towards peace (or só we think).
  308. The positive is the one written by the sovereigns.
  309. Two types of positive law: human law and godly law.
  310. There are two kinds of human law: distributive (grants rights) and penal.
  311. Godly positive laws are those that are revealed by prophets.
  312. An immoral positive law must be questioned.
  313. A law can be fundamental or not.
  314. Fundamental laws are the ones that ensure that state will continue existing.
  315. Rights are freedoms.
  316. Having fantasies like “damn, it would be nice to have sex with that woman”, but without any real intention of actually acting on such fantasy doesn’t count as adultery.
  317. Similarly, fantasizing about someone’s death, while aware that killing him would turn you into a criminal, doesn’t make you a murderer.
  318. Pleasuring oneself with fantasies is an inherently human trait.
  319. You can do crimes of omission.
  320. Originally, the term “sin” meant “crime”, a violation of a particular law.
  321. If there’s no law, there’s no sin.
  322. Understanding and reasoning are different things.
  323. Doing to others what you wouldn’t like to have done to yourself is always crime.
  324. A person who breaks a law that they didn’t know about should be instructed, but not really punished.
  325. On the other hand, if you commit a crime, but then you say something like “oh, but I didn’t know that the penalty would be só high”, you pretty much sentenced yourself: you implied that you see no problem in commiting any crime, if the penalty is small.
  326. Whenever you act, you must accept the consequences of your act.
  327. If people do not feel intimidated by the penalties, they will commit crimes if they can profit from them.
  328. If something becomes a crime today, the law must not criminalize the acts that were commited before the promulgation date (retroactive laws are unfair)!
  329. The fact that justice was violated several times doesn’t make justice an empty concept.
  330. The state needs stable laws to provide peace, só it can’t legalize everything that has worked before.
  331. If you are able to manipulate judges, that doesn’t mean you are able to manipulate the law.
  332. The occasion makes the criminal.
  333. It’s never a crime to kill, if you are trying to defend your life.
  334. One thing is being attacked, something completely different if being threatened, case in which you should seek the authorities, rather than revenge.
  335. Depending on the circumstances, a softer penalty is fair.
  336. It’s not a crime to break the law if that’s needed for survival.
  337. If you break the law because you think that you are too strong (or rich or powerful, for example) to be punished makes you more worth punishment than if you break the law because you think that you can flee.
  338. Incitement to criminal activity is crime.
  339. A crime commited on impulse is less worth punishment than the crime that was planned.
  340. If the law is taught in schools, all crimes are more worth punishment, because you can’t say that you didn’t know the laws.
  341. If the access to the laws is made more difficult, all crimes are less worth punishment.
  342. Stealing public money is worse than stealing private money, because you are robbing from everyone.
  343. All crimes related to public services are more worth punishment.
  344. Stealing money or belongings from a poor man is worse than stealing from the rich.
  345. Only the state can punish.
  346. However, all punishment must aim for the well-being of the state, rather than merely causing suffering to the person who commited the crime.
  347. Punishment is not enough: the state must also reward those who accomplish good deeds.
  348. Faith and reason can be conciliated.
  349. Teaching history to young people sets them against monarchy.
  350. In a monarchy, history books must be read in private and never by the young.
  351. Church and state are different lords in a same territory… and that can be a problem.
  352. Some elements that compose the state, such as citizens, cities and organizations, may rivalize with the very state if they grow too powerful or charismatic.
  353. If you are healthy, that doesn’t make you secure: your belongings must also be secured, not only your body.
  354. Giving up your goals means giving up the means to achieve the goals; giving up the means to achieve is also giving up the goals.
  355. The state must teach the people about their rights, because, if they feel that they don’t have enough rights, they will be more prone to rebellion.
  356. And there’s no effective law against rebellion.
  357. The laws must have solid principles as foundation.
  358. The principles that serve as foundation for the laws can be twisted to fit the desires of the person in charge of interpreting the principles.
  359. Turns out poor people are better at understanding those principles.
  360. Prosperity is a matter of harmony within a state, not much a matter of what’s the best form of goverment (if monarchy or democracy, for example).
  361. In the ten commandments, the four first commandments can be summed as “love Jehovah with all of your soul, heart and mind”, while the other six can be summed as “love the neighbor as yourself”.
  362. There should be isonomy between rich and poor.
  363. When a law is broke, the state is offended.
  364. To avoid unemployment, you gotta legalize as many informal jobs as possible.
  365. Good laws are fair laws.
  366. Fair laws are those that are accepted by government and population.
  367. One should never approve laws that are not needed.
  368. A law that benefits only one person, rather than everyone, is automatically a bad law.
  369. Rather than having long legal text, each law must be small and concise, and also come with the reason why it was promulgated, in order to make interpretation easier.
  370. The worst crimes are those that afflict public stuff.
  371. One should not reward a bad behavior, or other people will incurr in such behavior too.
  372. Politics is harder than geometry, só, if you can only exercise geometry with a method, you can’t exercise politics without method.
  373. Never give advice in a rush.
  374. Humans seem to never be content with the present.
  375. If you believe in God and believe that God can punish and reward, you are subject to God.
  376. God can be understood through three ways: reason, internal revelation and external revelation.
  377. If God is wise, God will want to rule.
  378. Paying respect to God is what we call worship.
  379. You can worship with your acts: if you like God, you will want to do what he tells us to do.
  380. Some forms of worship are the prayer, the thanksgiving and obedience.
  381. A sign must be understood to be called a sign.
  382. Para um sinal ser chamado de sinal deve ser entendido.
  383. If God is the cause of the world, then pantheism (which affirms that God is the world) is not possible.
  384. If God is God, he has to be eternal: it must not be creature and must be immune to death or corruption.
  385. If God didn’t care about us, he would not have given us orders.
  386. If God is God, he must be only one.
  387. If you make statues, you are not making idols: the idol is made by the person who worships the statue.
  388. Thus, idolatry is not a sin that is commited by the sculptor.
  389. Teology is a fertile field for sin: when trying to study God with philosophy or science, which are imperfect, we assume the risk of concluding a blasphemy.
  390. A good prayer is prepared beforehand.
  391. Non-christians dutifully respect their gods, then how come christians are só lax with the God they say is the only true God?
  392. Obedience is better than sacrifice and tribute.
  393. If there’s no expressive religious majority, the state doesn’t have an official religion.
  394. All pleasures have a share of pain.
  395. Eating too much leads to illness, fleeing for danger to save your life may lead to oppression, neglecting your people to take it easy may cause rebellion, feeling superior will cause ruin…
  396. Such punishments are given by nature.
  397. It would be nice if the ruler was also a philosopher.
  398. A government can have easy principles.
  399. Being religious doesn’t mean throwing all reason through the window.
  400. Forcing an atheist to worship doesn’t make him christian.
  401. Claiming divine inspiration is a dubious claim.
  402. If you are a prophet, make a miracle.
  403. A true prophet doesn’t teach against religion.
  404. Deuteronomy wasn’t finished by Moses: he couldn’t write about his own death.
  405. The name of a book isn’t an indicator of who wrote it.
  406. A book gives clues about when it was written.
  407. If the Book of Judges, chapter 18, verse 30, refers to the babylonian captivity, then the Book of Judges was written way later.
  408. Although the books of Samuel refer to Samuel, maybe they were about Samuel, not by Samuel.
  409. Some books in the Holy Bible make reference to books that no longer exist.
  410. A fact is older than the register of the fact.
  411. The books in the Old Testament were updated; the versions we have aren’t the originals (obviously).
  412. According to apocrypha, the Law was burned during the babylonian exile and rewritten by Ezra.
  413. With the exceptions of the pauline epistles, the Gospel According to Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, all books and letters in the New Testament were written by disciples or people who lived around Jesus.
  414. The only goal of the Holy Bible is to call people back to God.
  415. If a text really is inspired, God is the author.
  416. “Spirit” isn’t always “ghost”.
  417. To say that the “spirit of life” was in the wheels is saying that the wheels were alive.
  418. A person who has a hallucination will be the only one: others won’t share the hallucination.
  419. Let the Bible explain itself.
  420. Angels are messengers.
  421. Angels are not putti.
  422. An angel might be an indication of God’s presence.
  423. When Jesus, calling himself a king, became enemy of Caesar, he implied that the Kingdom of God might have an earthly aspect.
  424. The Kingdom of God isn’t a metaphor.
  425. A “holy” person is whoever directs their life according to the pursuit of God.
  426. There are degrees of holiness.
  427. The two most important rituals in the Old Testament are circumcision and passover.
  428. The two most important rituals in the New Testament are baptism and the Lord’s supper.
  429. The reason can also make illusions of it’s own.
  430. Moses was friends with God.
  431. When someone says “do this, and you will be happy”, they are trying to command everyone, since everyone wants to be happy.
  432. That being said, whoever tries to lay out a path to happiness is trying to recommend a behavior to everyone.
  433. Most prophets are false.
  434. God gives us the criteria for evaluating a prophet as true or false.
  435. Whoever denies that Christ has already come is an antichrist.
  436. There are only two things that make us amazed: rare events or events without a known natural cause.
  437. Something that is both rare and seemingly random can be regarded as miracle.
  438. Miracles don’t happen at random, tho: they have a function.
  439. When the Bible promises a heavenly afterlife and when people believe that hell exists, the state can’t be almighty: the most powerful tool for submission is death penalty and such penalty loses all power against a person who believes that a serious transgression will be rewarded in afterlife.
  440. The heaven may very well be on Earth.
  441. If we become immortal, reproduction loses it’s purpose.
  442. Souls can be ressurrected.
  443. The Kingdom of God is an institution that governs the Earth from above.
  444. We are not immortal, nor are our souls.
  445. That might change after ressurrection.
  446. Hell is death.
  447. A fiery hell is a metaphor.
  448. The association between hell and fire is etimological.
  449. Everything that is said about hell should not be understood literally.
  450. It’s possible to die again after ressurrection.
  451. If you are talking about religion, you must use the sacred texts.
  452. “Church” is a group of christians, not a building.
  453. And earthly government can have a spiritual component.
  454. If two doctrines are taught as absolute, either is necessarely wrong, which doesn’t eliminate the possibility of both being wrong.
  455. Government can’t act like a “thought police”.
  456. In the Bible, there’s only one leader at oce: first Moses, then Jesus replaced him.
  457. If you want to replace Jesus, you need approval from God himself.
  458. Jesus gave orders and orders aren’t meant to be reflected about.
  459. Only Moses in the Old Testamente and Jesus in the New Testament can elect others to teach in their absence.
  460. In the Book of Judges, priests were also rulers under God’s guidance, but, from Samuel onwards, the kings that ruled Israel were completely earthly.
  461. Matter of fact, a king could remove the priesthood from someone (Solomon did that).
  462. The kings of Isreal and Judah were rewarded when they listened to the prophets.
  463. All in all, the prophets were rulers, because they king would be blessed for following their advice and punished for not following.
  464. Jesus has three roles: savior, teacher and king.
  465. Jesus died só that we could attain forgiveness from our sins.
  466. Jesus’ last role, king, will only be fulfilled after ressurrection.
  467. The only thing that Jesus did was to teach and to operate miracles and neither thing is sin according to Moses’ law.
  468. Jesus didn’t teach against the laws.
  469. There’s a Father, a Son and a Holy Spirit, but nothing guarantees that they form a three-in-one entity.
  470. The church received from Jesus the duty to teach, and not the duty to command.
  471. Unless a priest is a also king, he can’t order people to convert to his religion.
  472. You can testify in place of someone eles.
  473. “Heretic” is a person who is inside the church and teaches something forbidden by the church.
  474. But that’s not a reason to excommunicate that person.
  475. Excommunication implies church: a christian who isn’t filiated to any church can not be excommunicated.
  476. A church can’t excommunicate another.
  477. Each evangelist was an interpreter of his own gospel.
  478. If each person had their own interpretation of the Bible, that would not be a problem.
  479. You can only push a particular view of to the Bible if you are, at same time, king and priest.
  480. A book is canonical only as long as the reader says só.
  481. Under two contradictory texts, you must pick either as truth (os disregard both).
  482. Jesus didn’t destroy Moses’ law, but he also didn’t put non-jews under such law, só the jews are doing the right thing by keeping the observance.
  483. A real apostle needs to have lived when Jesus was on Earth, must have seen him and must have seen him ressurrected.
  484. The twelve legitimate apostles were in the church of Jerusalem.
  485. The same person can have different roles in a church.
  486. The tithe must not be forced.
  487. Arguing that Peter received the keys to the heavens doesn’t prove that he was the first pope.
  488. Antichrist is anyone who claims that Jesus didn’t come in the flesh to Earth.
  489. The Bible actually testifies against the pope’s authority.
  490. The pope must instruct, but must not rule over the catholics.
  491. The pope’s authority isn’t valid for all christians.
  492. The Apostolic Decree is advice, according to Hobbes.
  493. To obey the state and Jesus is to obey two lords: either has to have more authority than the other and the one that takes priority can be called “Lord”.
  494. If your priest makes a mistake and teaches you something wrong, the wrong behavior is the priest’s fault, not your fault.
  495. There are several false prophets around.
  496. Supposing that a bishop receives his authority directly from God, how can the pope remove that authority?
  497. Though in no place the Bible says that the bishop’s authority comes from God anyway…
  498. For some people who lived around the time when the book was written, an excommunicated king who doesn’t ban the heretics from their territory exposes himself to rebellion, because it would not be sin to rebel.
  499. Several countries have catholicism as official religion, but how many of them really bow to the pope?
  500. Jesus never gave to any follower the power to command, to judge or to punish.
  501. Loving God with all that you have and the neighbor as yourself makes you elegible for salvation.
  502. There’s no biblical evidence that shows that the church can not fail.
  503. Purgatory has no biblical foundation.
  504. There are several implied beliefs in the belief that Jesus is the christ.
  505. You can’t say that you are a follower of christ without doing what he commanded you to do (see, for example, chapter 18 of Luke).
  506. The purpose of the Bible is to prepare us for the Kingdom of God.
  507. But that same Bible, depending on who uses it, can be used to steer people away from God.
  508. The gospel should is a sum of the divine teaching and the reason is the only real tool for hermeneutics.
  509. The history of christianity is bloody.
  510. Signs that your priest or pastor is not going to be useful to you:
    1. he didn’t read the full Bible;
    2. he mixes different religions or philosophies;
    3. he doesn’t rely on exegesis;
    4. he tries to harmonize the teaching with something eles;
  511. That type of spiritual leader is going to teach you false things sooner or later.
  512. The Kingdom of God is not the church.
  513. If you call yourself christian, you are supposed to obey the christ and not your spiritual leader.
  514. Your priest or pastor isn’t God.
  515. Tithing is not 10% of your income; that would be abuse.
  516. Back in Middle Ages, the power of the pope was such, that he could order christians to not pay their taxes, actively stifling the survival of any state.
  517. The consagration of the bread and the wine doesn’t imply a change in substance.
  518. The bread and the wine shouldn’t be idolized.
  519. Hobbes says: the Hell does not exist.
  520. Soul = life.
  521. There’s no evidence that the soul is immortal, só there should not be ghosts, psychography, spiritism, eternal damnation, purgatory…
  522. In face of death, man and beast are the same.
  523. There was a time when corpses were baptized.
  524. Purgatory was a successful lie.
  525. Christ could have gone to Hell, if we understand Hell as death, but in no way he ever visited the supposed purgatory.
  526. Pagan beliefs were easily manipulated for sake of public order.
  527. If evil spirits exist, why isn’t their birth narrated in Genesis?
  528. Cristo pode até ter descido ao Inferno (sepultura), mas nunca ao purgatório.
  529. As crenças pagãs eram facilmente manipuladas em nome da paz pública.
  530. Se os espíritos malignos existissem, por que sua criação não é narrada no Gênesis?
  531. One shouldn’t worship images, even if they represent something holy.
  532. You can’t make images of things that are invisible.
  533. You can’t paint or sculpt something that is infinite.
  534. The person drawing or sculpting can be lax about referencing the work according to the original model.
  535. An idol doesn’t need to be a sculpture: it could be the sun, the moon, the stars, animals…
  536. If something is used as a tool for worshipping, it’s not idolatry, unless you worship the tool as God.
  537. The Greeks also attributed omnipotence to their gods.
  538. “Scandal” is the act of luring someone into sinning.
  539. The saints are dead and dead people can’t listen to prayer.
  540. The canonization of saints has roots in Roman apotheosis.
  541. Same goes for several Catholic solemnities.
  542. Experience, prudency and memory are common to men and beasts.
  543. Studying philosophy isn’t the same as practicing it.
  544. Philosophy is something you often do when you have nothing eles to do.
  545. The Greeks were not the first philosophers.
  546. The Greeks also influenced the Jews.
  547. Geometry, when well used, never lies, that’s why it never subjected itself to any state.
  548. Some people doubt of geometry because geometry is never wrong, and human mind seems to attribute credit to things that are falseable.
  549. There should be a branch of philosophy devoted to just defining key terms, só that all other philosophers could stick to a common language.
  550. It could be metaphysics.
  551. Custom is what gives power to words.
  552. If souls are incorporeal, how can they “burn” in Hell?
  553. Theology is wasted effort.
  554. Theology tries to catch it’s own tail.
  555. Marriage doesn’t mean you have to stop being chaste.
  556. Marriage doesn’t make you impure.
  557. If marriage is impure, let alone peeing or pooping.
  558. Paul advised against marriage for political reasons: Christians were persecuted back then and it’s easy to flee from a territory if you don’t have wife and children.
  559. The power of the laws come from the weapons and those who hold the weapons, not from laws themselves.
  560. “The law rules the state” is a metaphor.
  561. Several laws are inspired by the Bible.
  562. If I’m doing something and you find it disgusting, but it’s not a crime, your disgust won’t stop me.
  563. A text that was originally written in Latin, but doesn’t make sense when translated to a modern language, probably doesn’t make sense in Latin either.
  564. When a text speaks the truth, that truth isn’t attainable by those who don’t understand that language.
  565. Some people make up tales about the saints, but the saints would deny such stories if they were alive.
  566. Some people try to discourage the pursuit of the truth by making people scared to seek it.
  567. If you wanna know who commited a certain crime, a good start would be asking yourself: “who would benefit of such act?”
  568. “Priest” is the person who offers the sacrifice.
  569. Marriage isn’t a sacrament in the Bible, although it is for Catholics.
  570. Confessions can serve in politics: imagine a president confessing his sins to a priest.
  571. The value we attribute to martyrs is an encouragement to disobedience.
  572. Back in the first century, there were several apostolic doctrines, with each christian following whichever they wanted.
  573. Don’t evaluate the Gospel according to who is preaching it to you.
  574. Priests aren’t needed, if you have a Bible at home.
  575. You may thank the church with your money, but the church doesn’t thank you with money as well.
  576. The fading of catholic influence could bring occasion to even worse religious doctrines.
  577. Conquering is obtained the right to rule over another state after a victory over such state.
  578. Several respectable nations have a reproachable past.
  579. Don’t make justice with your own hands, because you will likely act on emotion and emotion doesn’t operate justice.
  580. If you read the Bible casually, you are more likely to understand it than the person who reads it with a certain goal in mind.

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