Pedra, Papel e Tesoura

16 de março de 2019

What I learned by reading “Understanding and Transforming Teaching”.

Filed under: Notícias e política, Organizações — Tags:, , — Yure @ 13:38

Understanding and Transforming Teaching” was written by J. Gimeno Sacristán and A. I Pérez Gomez. Below, what I learned by reading this text.

  1. The school curriculum reflects the relationship between society and education as well as the relationship between theory and practice.
  2. The curriculum changes as society changes its essential knowledge standards.
  3. The curriculum also implies the elucidation of the resources we use when teaching, which also change with time.
  4. The school curriculum is not static; it changes as society changes.
  5. The curriculum is a historically conditioned project, its content is selected by the dominant social forces.
  6. The curriculum has both a theoretical and a practical side.
  7. The curriculum conditions the teacher’s training.
  8. Schooling is a social construct.
  9. Modern schooling dates from the industrial revolution: school was not always like this, school does not have to be this way.
  10. What guides the composition of the curriculum is our social expectation for the next generation.
  11. “Curriculum content” is a concept that is subject to interpretation.
  12. So there is no consensus on what goes in and what comes out of the school curriculum.
  13. “Content” is also a social construct.
  14. The content of the curriculum changes over time.
  15. In the end, the content ends up reflecting the values ​​of the school in a cultural context.
  16. Because the curriculum responds to social demand, it is not possible to guide it with a specific philosophy or psychology or anything like this: the “essential things to be taught” are not easy to choose, it must take societal expectation into consideration.
  17. “Content”, in the strict sense, is an academic summary (the Canudos war, for example) organized within a school discipline (history of Brazil).
  18. It is important to remember that the content taught may not match the content learned.
  19. Knowledge alone doesn’t build character: students need to have attitude, values, discipline and critical thinking.
  20. This is done by learning the consequences of our actions.
  21. In a broad sense, “content” is all that occupies school time, whether as part of the official curriculum or not (” hidden curriculum”).
  22. In a broad sense, “content” is everything that occupies school time, whether as part of the official curriculum or not (” hidden curriculum”).
  23. Teaching critical thinking is not like teaching math.
  24. How to teach independence?
  25. The child should learn to behave autonomously .
  26. The adolescent should be aware of local beliefs and choose the one he or she thinks best for his / her personal development.
  27. Because of the demand for critical and civic subjects, the school content can not be academicist, a “knowledge for sake of knowledge”, but a knowledge that builds the person and that can be used by the student in his daily life.
  28. If teaching is a science, then it’s object of study is the student’s mind, but how do you measure a mind?
  29. Training students for the labor market alone is mediocre and insufficient.
  30. The availability of content outside of school also raises the need to review what is relevant as school content.
  31. The hidden curriculum is also socially conditioned.
  32. School content changes slower than society.
  33. Revolutionary educational discourse is omnipresent, but the practice of teaching and organizing content the same way we did in the last century is also omnipresent.
  34. Academic formation and human formation have the same importance in the formation of the complete individual: abolishing or underestimating academic formation in the name of the humanities is a dismantling of teaching, as much as abolishing humanities to build pure workforce.
  35. Curriculum content selection criteria are generally not technical, nor scientific.
  36. This is because the curriculum must respond to social cultural demand.
  37. So if society is the source of the curriculum, it is clear that curriculum content can not be determined scientifically, as if it were possible to create a definitive curriculum, which would imply a society that does not change.
  38. The proposal of the school is to form an individual through the curriculum, so the function of the school is to form the individual that society wants.
  39. What kind of person does our society need?
  40. History is relative and times change.
  41. When values ​​change, the curriculum changes.
  42. Better to have the means to find and judge an answer than to memorize answers.
  43. The education of the dominant groups, the more intellectual education, is given in high school for a reason: the poor do not always enter high school.
  44. The creation of the curriculum panders to social pressures indirectly, through the suggestions of the government, entrepreneurs, parents, specialists and writers of didactic material.
  45. Although the school eventually reproduces the hegemonic culture, there are spaces of autonomy that teachers and staff can use to question such culture.
  46. The traditional curriculum wants to naturalize events, while the critical curriculum wants the student to judge what he considers to be natural.
  47. No school curriculum is impassive of change.
  48. Revolutionizing teaching is not something that should be done by ignoring what the established culture thinks, just for the pleasure of starting from scratch.
  49. Social movements, by changing values, operate changes in the curriculum.
  50. “Education for all” is not merely a humanistic ideal but also a labor market requirement: the student must learn general skills in school so that he can choose what to specialize next.
  51. This ideal is also a consequence of the demand for quality workforce.
  52. This makes the positive sciences overrated, compared to humanities.
  53. Reformists call this “rational education,” not that it makes a complete education.
  54. Because positive sciences are overrated, some people think it’s a good idea to remove humanities from school curriculum completely.
  55. In times of economic crisis or recession in the labor market, people use the circumstances to try and push for the removal of humanities.
  56. This is where neoconservatives find a loophole to interfere with education.
  57. Neoconservative critiques of the school have the interests of production as their starting point: for them, what matters is to create an employee, not a citizen.
  58. If things go that way, the most valued disciplines will be those that prepare for the jobs that pay the most.
  59. And that is why we study a lot of Portuguese language and mathematics.
  60. The cultural source of the curriculum is divided into three elements: what is worth conserving from our culture, the needs of the present time and what kind of society we want to create.
  61. Although early childhood education comes before primary education, it is not a requirement for primary education, since early childhood education was conceived after elementary, which has historically been the foundation of all other levels.
  62. Early childhood education responds to a family demand: the working woman has to leave her children somewhere, so why not in a place where the tyke can study?
  63. Although primary schooling is regarded as the basis of others, it was not the first to emerge: the first level of institutional education to emerge was the superior.
  64. The university influence in the school is omnipresent: even the lessons in elementary look like college lessons.
  65. There is no scientific method for building a school curriculum.
  66. This is because the curriculum is not a pedagogy, it is not a teaching method (there are scientific methods of teaching content), but a list of what to teach, which needs to respond to society’s demand.
  67. Teaching is more a question of general principles than of static methods.
  68. The ages of compulsory education vary from country to country.
  69. If education is compulsory, for example, from six to seventeen, we may sometimes force a gifted student to remain at a mediocre level because that is the level “appropriate” to his age.
  70. All countries should have public education, since education is the right of all.
  71. Education has homogenizing properties: if everyone has the same education, the most serious conflicts that could occur in a country are most easily avoided because citizens share a common set of beliefs and values.
  72. Thus, public education is also a way of exercising power over citizens, a soft power, but still a power.
  73. Public education makes the family less necessary.
  74. Moreover, without public education, quality workforce becomes harder to find.
  75. As the demand for quality workforce is high, not having qualification means having no job and having no qualified workforce in a territory means less private investment in that territory.
  76. Moreover, without public education, where would children stay when parents are working?

11 de março de 2019

What I learned by reading “The German Ideology”.

Filed under: Livros, Notícias e política, Organizações — Tags:, , , — Yure @ 17:19

The German Ideology” was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Below, what I learned by reading this text.

  1. All the great philosophical currents before Hegel have a position on the dichotomy between subject and object.
  2. The formal logic is Aristotelian.
  3. What contradicts itself may be false.
  4. But if something moves, it is contradictory.
  5. The attempt to know an object impartially, that is, to keep the object distant from the subject in order to know the object by itself (what we call “objective knowledge”), is a positivist idea.
  6. “Work” is the alteration of the objective world through subjective action, which can even be done without us being aware of it.
  7. Humans create “their” world.
  8. Reality is not in another world, but even so things are not as they appear to be.
  9. Our world is result of the collective work of all of us, men.
  10. Awareness is not enough if it does not lead to change.
  11. Ironically, the more objects are valued, the less value is given to those who make objects: the workers.
  12. Workers become commodities.
  13. The worker becomes the object of the object he makes.
  14. Although Engels and Marx had foundations on Hegel’s philosophy, they later became critics of Hegel.
  15. Men work, that is, only men are able to change the world instead of just adapting to it.
  16. The next generation will inherit the changes made today.
  17. Although work is good for us all, most humans, though capable of working, do not want to work (reminding that work is the ability to change objective world through subjective ways).
  18. That’s because the transformations that the upper classes order from us are not the transformations we want to make.
  19. So we use our ability to work (power to transform) to follow the interests of others, not ours, producing transformations we do not want.
  20. This is called alienated labor: we don’t recognize ourselves in the work that is done.
  21. Societies arise from the need that humans have to unite against the threats of nature.
  22. The German Ideology is an unfinished work: the original text has damaged pages and even missing pages.
  23. A text is not the propaganda that is made of it.
  24. Bruno Bauer is accused by Marx and Engels of strawman argumentation: he had a review of the Holy Family , then he criticized the review as if he criticized the book, which is not the same thing.
  25. Reducing philosophy to self-consciousness operates no change anywhere.
  26. Solving real problems requires real solutions: one does not solve the problem of poverty with “self-consciousness”.
  27. The practical materialist wants to transform the world, not only at a conceptual level, but also at concrete level.
  28. Do not confuse the concept of man with the men you see on a daily basis.
  29. It is wrong to contemplate reality, if you are not going to act upon it.
  30. Your concept of man may be invalid to the point of applying only to the men of your country.
  31. Our world is a historical construction.
  32. The human world is not autonomous, it is not static, it changes with our actions.
  33. Without human activity, science would be weak or non-existent.
  34. If human activity (work) ceased completely for one year the world would be different.
  35. The human being is a sensitive object, but he is also capable of sensitive activity, so that it is not possible to understand a man without understanding his actions as well.
  36. To say that all human beings are equal is a lie: compare a rich man to a poor man.
  37. Explaining the world is not enough.
  38. Human potential is only activated if the subject has its survival conditions satisfied.
  39. History is the product of human labor, which would not exist if men were dead.
  40. Therefore, the satisfaction of survival needs is a condition of possibility for work and, consequently, for history.
  41. Families should be studied empirically, a study that has nothing to do with the current “concept” of family.
  42. The history of mankind can not be abstracted from the history of labor, from the history of industry (in a broad sense, not in the strict sense of “factory”).
  43. Language arises from the need to communicate.
  44. The human being has to build his life, but he is limited by his physical capacity and his conscience.
  45. The human consciousness is improved by the increase of the necessity and the increase of the production, both based on the increase of the population.
  46. With the increase of the population, the division of labor begins, in principle, according to aptitudes : the strongest are those who carry things, the more intelligent are in charge of planning things and só on.
  47. Work could also be divided casually or according to need.
  48. The division of labor reaches its apex with the division between practical (material) work and theoretical (spiritual) work: some think and others act.
  49. This is where the aspiration for “pure” knowledge begins, as if we could abstract our thought from the practical world.
  50. If there is a religion, the division between thought labor and practical labor creates the need for a priestly class.
  51. The deeper the division of labor, the greater the chances that there will be those who only produce and those who only consume.
  52. The apex of the division of labor: thought without activity and activity without thought.
  53. When the work is divided, profession is imposed by need and you have to perform that function, or you will lose your means of subsistence.
  54. This makes us employ our work force in things we would not like, because we are doing what we are told to do, not what we want.
  55. The collective interest, in the form of the state, appears to have an “autonomous” existence.
  56. The class that “represents” this “collective interest” becomes dominant (see note 86).
  57. For workers to impose their interests as the “collective interest,” they must acquire political power.
  58. All struggles within a state are apparent manifestations of a deeper struggle between the ruling and dominated classes.
  59. Communism is not a state of affairs, but a movement.
  60. Communism can not prevail at the local level, but only at the global level.
  61. Communism needs the sudden action of the dominant classes, which imply that workers must ascend to power first (see note 58).
  62. The next generation uses, under different conditions, the means of production of the former generation.
  63. A phenomenon that subverts governments can surely called a “historical” thing.
  64. Those subvertions are practical, never purely spiritual.
  65. It is with practical elements that reality changes.
  66. Individuals form one another, either materially or spiritually.
  67. Revolution is necessary when the overthrowing of dominant power is not enough: we need revolution when there’s a need that those who come to dominate do so without the impurities of a pre-existing system (for example: coming to power by democracy does not eliminate social classes).
  68. New ideas are born from practical problems.
  69. We are influenced by circumstances, but that does not mean we can not influence such circumstances.
  70. If you can not put an idea into practice, it is not the repeated proclamation of the idea that alone will create the circumstances of fulfillment.
  71. Nature and history are complementary, not opposed to each other.
  72. A history that disregards the practical historical elements is eluded by the current prejudices.
  73. The social organization of states is born from practical issues, because the state is not organized without practical goals.
  74. Germany has neither the monopoly of thought nor the monopoly of historical action.
  75. It is not enough to explain without acting.
  76. Attacking something as a philosophical category does not eliminate that thing.
  77. The class that owns the means of material production also has means of intellectual production.
  78. Because of this, the ideas of the ruling class are the dominant ideas of an era.
  79. Beware of those who say that “some evils should be accepted”.
  80. Ideas are not abstracted from the people who think such ideas.
  81. An idea has no autonomous existence: it resides in the people who think alike.
  82. For a class to dominate, it must make its interests be seen as public interests, and they usually do so by claiming to act according to higher ideals (“freedom”, “equality”, among others).
  83. As soon as the class begins to dominate, that public interest becomes the particular interest of the class that comes to dominate.
  84. To make it appear that ideas are more important than the people who think them:
    1. You abstract the idea, as if an idea could stand alone.
    2. Connect the dominant ideas to each other.
    3. Assign the resulting current of ideas to the intellectuals of the time, so that it seems that the idea arose not from an empirical, material need, but from an activity of disinterested speculation.
  85. The way we look at our times may be wrong: maybe we only understand this current year in the future, when we will look back.
  86. So we can not interpret a historical period by accepting what the period says of itself, but by what such period objectively is.
  87. Nature produces instruments of production, but they are, of course, very different from the means of production made by civilization.
  88. Instruments of natural production: the field and the water, among others.
  89. The industry that uses civilized means of production can only exist by division of labor.
  90. The division between manual labor and intellectual labor is what generates social differences between city and countryside.
  91. With the emergence of the city, the need for politics (community organization) is greater.
  92. When you divide the population between the thinkers and the workers, you create two groups with interests that are farther apart at each passing day.
  93. Cities are created by the need of defense of private property, of more means of production or of security, for example.
  94. When you totally master a craft, instead of just mastering part of it, you can perform such craft “artistically,” which allows you to draw pleasure for your work.
  95. But when you master only part of the craft, you tend to be indifferent to such craft.
  96. The seller didn’t necessarely made what he is selling.
  97. The division of labor may extend to cities, with each city exploiting a specific industrial branch.
  98. Without trade, a regional invention disappears if the region disappears (or is dominated).
  99. The first manufacture was weaving, and it became a manufactory thanks to the need for large amounts of clothing.
  100. Handmade weaving still exists, tho.
  101. Manufacture created the relationship between employer and employee, a relationship mediated by money, when before there was only the relationship between apprentice and master.
  102. If there is no further stimulus to production, capital remains stable … or diminishes.
  103. You can not increase your capital without increasing your output.
  104. In the seventeenth century, commerce and shipping expanded faster than manufacturing.
  105. During this period, there was demand for raw material produced in the territory itself and the export of such material could even be prohibited: the raw material produced in one country should not be given to others .
  106. Historically, it was necessary to make a revolution to win the rights fro free competition in a nation.
  107. The great industry has universalized competition.
  108. With this, each citizen depends on “the whole world” to maintain his level of comfort (we use goods that come from outside, as we export our goods to others).
  109. In places with a presence of the large industry, less advanced forms of production become infrequent or cease to exist (such as crafts).
  110. When private property interferes in industry or when industry is subordinated to private property, industry becomes destructive.
  111. The great industry has been destroying the particularity of each country.
  112. The industry has the same interest in all the nations in which it is established.
  113. Despite this, industrial development is not uniform across all areas of a given territory.
  114. Industry demands from the worker all of his energies, leaving no time for “higher” interests, which in turn weakens the religion and morals of a place.
  115. The conflict between productive forces and forms of interchange generates historical “collisions.”
  116. Competition brings workers together without uniting them , on the contrary: when several workers are together, but competing to each other, then each worker is effectively isolated.
  117. Because of this, the necessary union for the changes in favor of the working class is delayed, unless the great industry itself has produced means for faster communication.
  118. To say that we are the product of our nations would only make sense if the state was born before the citizen.
  119. Identical conditions, identical oppositions and identical interests make up for identical customs.
  120. The bourgeoisie is also divided into fractions based on the division of labor.
  121. As long as people feel no need to fight against an oppressive class, oppressed individuals will compete with each other.
  122. Personal freedom is possible in community.
  123. It is possible to liberate in isolation (liberating myself or others as individuals), but it is also possible to liberate myself as a class (all traders, all teachers, all workers, among others).
  124. The proletarians can only change something together and only by working with other proletarians; the help of other classes may become disruptive.
  125. When individuals free themselves, they do not necessarily destroy the conditions of existence that continue there.
  126. Even modern sheep and dogs are the product of a historical process: dogs were not always domestic animals, for example.
  127. Ending the state is something that can only be done via revolution.
  128. Colonization and conquest make the colonized or conquered territory receive the forms of exchange of the dominant country, causing the territory to experience a productive advance without going through all the stages that the dominant country had to go through in its own development.
  129. When the conquest takes place, the conquering country takes over the productive forces of the conquered country, which gives rise to new means of production.
  130. When the united individuals take ownership of the total means of production, private property may be extinguished.
  131. What is observed today, however, is the private acquisition of each isolated individual.
  132. The basis of the state is the social organization directly derived from production and exchange.
  133. Private property really begins with the concept of movable property.
  134. The state exists because private property needs to be protected.
  135. Collective institutions, when mediated by the state, acquire a political form.
  136. With private property, a demand for private law arises.
  137. Private property does not rest simply on private will.
  138. Private property is independent of the community.
  139. How can you be entitled to something you do not have?
  140. The law is not simply based on our individual will.
  141. The division of labor influences science as well.
  142. How do individuals’ lives escape their own control?
  143. Feuerbach’s philosophy is summed up in philosophy of nature, anthropology and morality.
  144. The human being only reveals his potential in community: alone, a man does not go far.
  145. This also holds true for our current needs: we depend on each other.
  146. The division of labor also occurs in Protestantism.
  147. Not everyone is happy with their condition, so being discontent is normal.
  148. You are not your profession, your job is not your essence.
  149. The set of questions addressed by the German critique comes from the Hegelian system.
  150. Many German critics claimed to have surpassed Hegel … but they could never stop depending on him.
  151. A Hegelian man understands the world only as long as it can be reduced to a Hegelian category.
  152. How can a young man “shake the world” if he is conservative ?
  153. Fighting words with words makes no difference to the world.
  154. A young man’s idea of ​​his own attitudes may be different from the celebration around such attitudes and the opinion of foreigners about such attitudes.

  155. Real individuals, their material conditions, and their actions are solid assumptions upon which to begin reasoning.

  156. There is human history and natural history.

  157. Human history influences the natural history and natural history affects the human history.

  158. Good assumptions are empirical and verifiable.

  159. The bodily organization of the human being allowed him to produce his own means of life.

  160. By producing your livelihoods, you indirectly produce your entire life.

  161. However, producing your livelihoods is not something that can be done without relying on existing and natural livelihoods (such as water and air).

  162. Production is stimulated by population growth, which, in turn, stimulates trade, which in turn is conditioned by production.

  163. The first historical act of the human being was the production of his means of life, not reflective thought (because history is change and thinking alone does not change anything).

  164. The relationship between one country and another as well as the internal structure of that country depends on the development of its production and its interchange (internal and external).

  165. The first form of property was the tribal one.

  166. The second form was communal .

  167. Along with communal property develops mobile private property.

  168. Later, we have privately owned property.

  169. Nevertheless, these forms of private property are subordinated to the communal property in that first moment.

  170. Communal property increases the power of the people, while private property reduces the power of the people.

  171. The third form was feudal.

  172. The old property was centered on the city, while the feudal property is centered on the countryside.

  173. The Roman conquests stimulated agriculture.

  174. As the population grew, the number of artisans remained more or less stable, facilitating the hierarchy, within the cities, between master and apprentice.

  175. The feudal property was constituted by the property of land and by the work of the servants.

  176. Social structure and the state are the results of the actions of particular, empirical individuals who act as they can under conditions which such individuals often have no power over.

  177. Early ideas were intertwined with material life.

  178. These ideas were fundamentally linked to material activity and only in later moments did men form more abstract ideas.

  179. Abstract ideas can originate from ” sublimations ” of the everyday empirical process.

  180. Thus, for example, metaphysics bears little resemblance to the concrete fact, because it’s extremely abstracted.

  181. Thus the evolution of metaphysics is, in fact, the evolution of man: when man changes, his thoughts and the products of his thought also change.

  182. Consciousness is therefore determined by life and can not determine such a life alone.

  183. Some intellectuals stir up riots to bring their ideas back to the memory of the public who no longer remember them.

  184. The contradiction within a philosophy is a problem of that philosophy, and probably doesn’t reflect a contradiction in the world.

  185. Ideas are not the foundation of the empirical world!

  186. Philosophers are not heroes, not every philosopher revolutionizes the world.

  187. The desires we feel are a force that originates in us and dominates over us: we can not choose what feelings we have.

  188. Some authors hate when people understand their books.

  189. For example, when I understand a work correctly, I can make a relevant criticism to it.

  190. Criticism is not abstracted from critics, we can not treat concepts as independent of the people who conceive them.

  191. You should read a book objectively, not necessarily as the author wanted you to read, because some people write books expecting you to think in a certain manner, rather than allowing you to draw your own conclusions about the issue presented.

  192. If you do not read objectively, your interpretation of the text will be biased.

  193. Philosophy must participate in political life.

  194. Hegel recommended the reading of reviews because they could exceed the object appreciated by them (presumably the original work), but this is incorrect, because there are reviews that have nothing to do with the work reviewed.

  195. It is best to read the original work.

  196. Before you complain that justice does not pay attention to you, ask yourself if justice exists in the first place.

  197. Children are not metaphysicians.

  198. Teens are not metaphysicians either.

  199. It is necessary to confess that children and adolescents are generally not guided by greater principles, but by pleasure, and that one’s own conscience isn’t scary enough to keep someone’s actions within the law.

  200. You do not need metaphysics or logic to enjoy life.

  201. You are not alone in the world, not even metaphorically.

  202. The thing you think about is indifferent to what you think about it.

  203. Destroying your own opinion about something destroys neither the thing nor its universally valid concept.

  204. Changing your opinion doesn’t change your world.

  205. Believing something is not the same as conquering something, especially if you believe in something false.

  206. Do not be gullible, do not be naive.

  207. To seek a better world is to admit that the current world is not satisfying.

  208. Contrary to popular belief, the natural family is not a very important value in Christendom (Matthew 10: 35-39, Matthew 12: 46-50, Matthew 19:10).

  209. The concept of “wise man” varies from one philosophical school to another.

  210. The Stoics did not condemn incest.

  211. The theory of the social contract, that is, that the state is born of mutual agreement among men, seems to have been mentioned for the first time by Epicurus.

  212. To prove a thesis, unscrupulous thinkers omit historical details, but a “truth” that can only be sustained by the omission of things that have happened is false.

  213. When you know little, you can speak more about the few things you know, but less about the relation of these things to others.

  214. If you consider something as true, you generally do not look for another truth that replaces the first, unless you fail to consider the first truth as true for some reason.

  215. That being said, destroying something regarded as truth can not be done without proving that such “truth” is actually false, in a conceptual, but specially in a practical way.

  216. In assuming something, you’d better be able to prove such assumptions as correct.

  217. Nothingness is infertile.

  218. Not having a function doesn’t make you less of a human.

  219. There are people willing to defend falsehoods with false evidence and false logic.

  220. One does not make phenomenology of anything with only one aspect of the object of study.

  221. Industrial and exchange conditions influence society, which adapts to them, consequently also resulting in adaptation by the state, which may even lead to an adaptation of the local religion.

  222. “Obsession” is the thought that submits men.

  223. It can not be said that a politician is corrupt because the newspaper says he is, but that the newspaper says that the politician is corrupt because the corruption of the politician already exists, unless the newspaper is lying.

  224. “Sacred” varies according to culture: our Holy Bible may not be regarded as holy in other cultures.

  225. Thus, our moral customs can not be regarded as absolute, as if, for example, certain types of sexual intercourse were universally disapproved.

  226. Ideas do not punish anyone, só people are paid to punish.

  227. “Not following any maxim ” is already a maxim .

  228. Black people have historical importance: remember that Egypt, where there was a rapid development of mathematics, is in Africa.

  229. The Catholic church was an aspect of the Middle Ages, not the Middle Ages, which had a profane aspect, as all ages have.

  230. Different “stages” of human “evolution” may not be arranged in hierarchy: the previous stage may be as good or even better than the present one.

  231. For example, the Protestant Reformation does not make Protestantism any better than Catholicism.

  232. You do not change the world just by fighting ideas.

  233. The Hegelian system does not reflect the world: Hegel’s world view is not the real world.

  234. The present is not necessarily better than the past .

  235. For you, are abstract things more important than material to the point of deserving total dedication?

  236. Understanding history through a particular historical theory is not the same as understanding a historical period being studied.

  237. Arguments do not come from ignorance .

  238. Transgressing the rules of a group is something a person can do on a case by case basis, but that person may still want everyone else to respect those rules.

  239. This is because the group would cease to exist (as well as the benefits of belonging to it) if all rules were broken by all.

  240. The bourgeois family is just one kind of family.

  241. For example: among the workers, the family is very flexible, organizing itself according to real needs.

  242. The family was a social , economic need.

  243. The development of the industry ends up requiring a new type of family, but ideally the family should not exist.

  244. The underpaid teacher consoles herself by reminding herself that her job is important.

  245. It is ridiculous to say, even implicitly, that only hegelian knowledge educates a man.

  246. If you are going to plagiarize someone, at least understand the text you are plagiarizing.

  247. A work with a goal of being universal can not have as its presupposition the local history, be it of a city or a country.

  248. To change what is said of a thing does not change the thing.

  249. Good will alone is not enough.

  250. Having goodwill without taking action is a sign of helplessness.

  251. Without economic conditions, there will be no political concentration.

  252. A social movement may not be represented by the image that is made of it.

  253. When there are economic conditions, industrial conditions and competition, absolute monarchy becomes a hindrance.

  254. Your boss pays you little because the government allows and the government allows because the boss pays a high tax to that government: it’s like the boss bought from the government the right to pay you a low wage.

  255. Do not put limits on your thinking.

  256. A belief without actions is infertile.

  257. Money has no power in itself, but is made powerful by society.

  258. Gathering the workers in a block to fight for a common goal is very difficult.

  259. Strikes can only achieve good results if they are revolutionary.

  260. True revolutions involve weaponry.

  261. Directions for the future can not be found in speculative philosophy, which is explanatory and non-prescriptive by nature.

  262. The bourgeois state maintains itself with the freedom of work, that is, with the competition among the workers.

  263. Thus, the defeat of the state can be done by suppressing labor: if everyone quite their jobs, what will happen to the state?

  264. The child has human rights!

  265. The child must be liberated!

  266. If there is anything wrong with society, fix it.

  267. You are not to blame for not getting along with society, but society is to blame.

  268. For example, we can not say that the child who works and suffers because the job is too heavy for her is to blame for not liking her situation.

  269. No, society is to blame for allowing and sometimes stimulating child labor.

  270. In fact, to say that it is your fault and that it is only up to you to change yourself is to discourage your cooperation with others in favor of a beneficial social change for all, and therefore an invitation to isolation.

  271. The state of need must be abolished.

  272. Society allows personal development.

  273. The reward of the worker is more work: notice how everyone wants to pay as little as possible for your service.

  274. Communism is a practical movement that pursues practical goals through practical means.

  275. No Communist is bogged down in theoretical questions; the thing is to identify the problem, draw up the action plan and act accordingly.

  276. The Communist does not want everyone’s salary to be the same!

  277. At most, communists would want the end of the salary, but if there is salary, it can not be the same for all functions.

  278. The fact that you have many possessions does not give you the right to take advantage over those who do not have as much as you.

  279. Take advantage of your citizenship.

  280. Beware of those who do not see you as a human being, but only as a worker.

  281. Communism is amoral.

  282. Sentimentality is not an argument.

  283. You are not your profession.

  284. Many Christians cease to be Christians because they can no longer endure their misery.

  285. You can not demand complete abnegation from anyone.

  286. One of the attributes of private property is its marketability.

  287. People treat you differently when you are rich.

  288. Capitalist relationships are social.

  289. A revolutionary idea can be appropriated and used in a reactionary way.

  290. Fighting against concepts is not the same as fighting against the things to which the concepts refer.

  291. A coreless book is a bad book.

  292. To dissuade a person from his or her behavior, talk about the practical consequences of such behavior, not abstract concepts.

  293. The selfish harms himself with the practical negative consequences of his selfishness.

  294. Our lives influence our principles, which are also created for the sake of life.

  295. Some dichotomies, once explained, disappear.

  296. Communism is amoral.

  297. The general interest is always professed by private groups.

  298. The general interest and private interest may coincide.

  299. To satisfy a longing is to satisfy oneself.

  300. Our image we have of ourselves will not be the image that future generations have of us, but that does not mean that their image about us is true, as if we did not know what we are now.

  301. To say that the satisfaction of your desire is not the real satisfaction, the satisfaction of oneself, is to try to put yourself against yourself, casting doubt on your self-concept.

  302. There are those who use the maxim “love your neighbor as yourself” to justify selfishness (“each one is the neighbor of oneself”).

  303. We do not cease to exist when we no longer perceive ourselves.

  304. The development of our abilities depends on favorable circumstances: it is no use for you to have a medical talent and not have the resources to actually attend to medicine classes in order to perform such a function.

  305. Your multiple skills can not develop without an environment that provides development.

  306. So, personal success does not depend only on yourself.

  307. A hidden talent stays unnoticed, until the circumstances uncover it.

  308. You are limited by your ability and your environment.

  309. Doing what you can is not omnipotence.

  310. There is no sense in a “revolutionary” discourse that defends a conformist idea.

  311. Some real contradictions can only be reconciled in appearance and with a lot of rhetoric.

  312. An idea that makes no difference in your life has no value to you.

  313. A text that uses a key term in different senses throughout the text without saying that such a term is being used in different meanings is dishonest: the term must be correctly defined in each new use.

  314. A word should not have its meaning distorted.

  315. Do not use etymology or phonetics to equate terms with patently different meanings , as if they could be applied in the same way.

  316. Making something complex or absurd sound easy to laymen facilitates the acceptance of the argument, even when the argument is wrong.

  317. Changing the subject in the middle of the reasoning hinders your understanding and, consequently, hinders your ability to criticise.

  318. “No” can be understood in more ways than one.

  319. Do not take concepts as reality: neutralizing, exposing or overturning a reasoning does not change the world, unless some practical action also happens.

  320. The excess of examples hides the lack of content in an argument.

  321. What’s the point of believing in an idea that will not benefit you?

  322. The judgment that people who are inferior to you have of your actions does not matter.

  323. Criticizing one’s religion does not work if one feels benefited by religion.

  324. To criticize one’s religion is to criticize the representation you have of that religion.

  325. You decide which books deserve your attention.

  326. The police is a bourgeois power.

  327. Prison does not improve your morals.

  328. You have the vocation and the mission to satisfy your needs.

  329. If you work fourteen hours a day, you are literally working as much as a beast.

  330. If your conditions are bad, it is your mission to change them.

  331. Some workers do not get enough resources to survive.

  332. Lack of determination is a determination.

  333. The nature can prove that your reasoning is wrong.

  334. In hypocritical societies, naive people see “the sacred” everywhere.

  335. Self-renunciation is not freedom.

  336. The primitive man is not totally free as is commonly thought; he is subject to other kinds of “chains”.

  337. It is possible not to understand the elements that limit your freedom.

  338. The balloon was invented before the train.

  339. New inventions are born from need.

  340. No one regrets new beneficial inventions, no one lamented the invention of the train just because it could not fly.

  341. Some inventions perpetuate men’s subordination to money, but this is because men generally do not want to get rid of money, but to have more and more of it.

  342. There is negative freedom (freedom not to do) and positive freedom (freedom to do).

  343. If your body feels pain, that pain is yours, not just your body’s pain.

  344. No one is born to be a slave.

  345. When someone is dismembered, the torturer is interested in causing pain, not in having the leg for himself.

  346. When you are a spoiled bourgeois, problems seem to be solved by themselves, but problems that are not solved “by themselves” are also held to be unsolveable.

  347. There are philosophers and other intellectuals who are só just out of obligation and would not want to be so, because the division of labor may also be unfair even to the elites.

  348. A book may simply not explain its key terms, making the terms are not intelligible in or out of context.

  349. Sensations occur in you without you having to accept them, but they are still properly your sensations.

  350. Nobody can and no one wants to deprive the worker of his right to eat.

  351. It is possible to make a speech dishonestly by using homonyms in a chaotic way , sometimes as synonyms, sometimes as not being synonyms.

  352. It is possible to use a word abstracted from its meaning.

  353. It is very difficult to put workers in union.

  354. The social status of a child isn’t inherent to the child, but attributed to the child as consequence of the parent’s status.

  355. Royalty does not just depend on recognition.

  356. The law derives from power .

  357. A type of right (such as human rights ) does not act against other types of rights (such as children’s rights ).

  358. The existence of law and state is independent of the will of the dominated classes.
  359. The will to eliminate the law or the state only arises under certain conditions; generally, these are not goals that most pursue.

  360. Crime is the struggle of the isolated individual against the ruling laws.

  361. Democracy is not exercised for just one moment, it does not end after the elections.

  362. After all, you can make choices that you regret later.

  363. To destroy the state is not a question of mere will, it is not a question of mere change of attitude.

  364. Without a Penal Code, there’s no punishment for a crime.

  365. The violence done by the state is not always moral , the violence done by the citizen is not always a crime.

  366. The will alone can not free the body?

  367. An oppressor can not be convinced by reason.

  368. If you do not feel shame, no amount of words will instill shame in you.

  369. Do not rely on a speech that calls you to conformism.

  370. Only a state that is “sacred” will promote censorship.
  371. The republic is older than the constitutional monarchy.

  372. You do not attack the state by attacking the idea of state, but by attacking the state itself.

  373. The employer generally does not like the worker’s child.

  374. Nothing wrong with asking for salary increase.

  375. When there are many wealthy people, the state ends up in debt.

  376. When the bourgeoisie has enough money, it can buy portions of the state.

  377. If your philosophy has conscience as a foundation, eventually you will do moral philosophy.

  378. No one is poor because they wants to, no one likes to be poor.

  379. Generally, you do not need state authorization to compete with others.

  380. The difference between the poor and the rich is beyond their patrimony: it is not only a question of who has more.

  381. The price of something is not arbitrary, but determined by things such as production costs.

  382. The demand changes every day, nothing guarantees that you will continue wanting certain merchandise tomorrow.

  383. Competition is conditioned by supply and demand.

  384. Competition can drain even one’s spiritual assets, such as their religion, their decency, and their modesty.

  385. The honor, decency and even the sound religious doctrine are taken away from workers if the elites see fit .

  386. If you give something because you were forced to, it is not giving it “kindly”.

  387. To say that things compete, not people, is as valid as saying that it is the weapons that kill, not its users .

  388. Money is not as popular as it sounds.

  389. The state will not die on its own, we can’t expect government to “die from old age.”

  390. Good will is not enough.

  391. The philosopher who has his ideas constantly denied by reality is powerless in the face of reality.

  392. We can not change the conditions of the world without organizing ourselves and without doing public acts.

  393. “The price I see fit” is arbitrary and is not the same as “fair price”, which is defined by the laws of the market, supply, demand and costs of production.

  394. You can not take something from someone by violence and then say you did not take anything from that person.

  395. Usually, you ask for a raise after you are doing something to make you deserve a raise.

  396. The increase in salary does not guarantee an increase in the quality of work.

  397. Receiving payment is not profit: profit and salary are different things.

  398. The boss does not need the employees’ money, since he probably already has a hundred times more than each of them.

  399. What is the meaning of an intellectual work that has no pretensions of triggering practical changes in the world?

  400. If the workers took all the boss’s money and distributed equally among themselves, they would not have enough.

  401. No one employs a guy who only wants to work for the highest possible wage.

  402. The price of something in worldwide market has nothing to do with the wages of those who produce the item.

  403. The price of something on the world market has nothing to do with the wages of those who produce the commodity.
  404. Price is defined by supply and demand.

  405. The strike is only one type of protest: more united and more organized workers can protest in other , perhaps more effective ways .

  406. Your work is copyable, the product of your work can be usurped (plagiarism).

  407. In a world where there is division of labor, talent is never enough to succeed: you also need the luck of being born into the elite or able to become elite.

  408. Even though you have an elite education, your success is still conditioned to the demand for your work.

  409. The division of labor is also bad on the other hand: there is a greater demand for the work of few intellectuals.

  410. Ideally, no one should be attached to a profession: you should be able to perform whatever function you desire whenever you wish.

  411. Do not fight against phrases , but against the conditions that make the phrases plausible .

  412. Your money is not proportional to your ability.

  413. Which means the fact that you work hard will not guarantee that you will manage to pay your bills at the end of the month.

  414. The problem is not the inability to get money, but money itself.

  415. The fact that you do not have money is not always your fault.

  416. To say that everything belongs to everyone is not the same as saying that each one has his own belongings, because the former doesn’t imply private property.

  417. When two opposing forces come to an agreement, they will break this agreement at the first opportunity.

  418. You need a boss to give you wages in exchange for work and the boss only tend to you because he needs a worker: such relationship wouldn’t exist without a need.

  419. People do not elect a ruler expecting him to act as a worker.

  420. The relationship of helpfulness is only one of the many human relations: not everything is exploitation of the potential of others.

  421. How you will be exploited, this depends on the social position of the exploiter.

  422. The more you work, the more you need to have fun.

  423. On the other hand, if your options are few, you may want to turn to vicious fun.

  424. Because fun isn’t “vital”, you always have the feeling that fun is useless.

  425. Each one has fun the way they can , which gives rise to “the amusements of the poor” and the “diversions of the rich”.

  426. You can not solve a problem by forgetting the problem.

  427. The developmental capacity of the child depends on the developmental capacity of the parents: children with parents who have more developed potential will also be more likely to develop their own potential.

  428. This problem is largely due to the lack of opportunity and can be mitigated by providing opportunities for realization and discovery of personal talent.

  429. Biological differences do not imply that people of any kind will all be always inferior.

  430. Nature is not a definite limitation of potential.

  431. It can not be said that a “dumb person” will never be anything in life: everyone has potential for something and must have their talents stimulated after discovery.

  432. The more we hate something we claim to be a lie , the more we admit to ourselves that it is true .

  433. Some of our characteristics do not depend on our humanity: we humans use language, but the fact that I speak German or French in particular does not depend on my humanity, but on the circumstances.

  434. Languages ​​derive from other languages, either by direct descent or by mixture, in addition to being modified by other factors .

  435. Not knowing what a human is doesn’t invalide your humanity.

  436. On the other hand, there are people who have no humanity.

  437. It is because social classes are inherently different that every relation between proletarian and bourgeois is, in addition to a relationship between individuals, a relationship between classes.

  438. Unless these classes are equaled or cease to exist, it will not be possible to deal with subjects without an implicit class relation.

  439. The advantage one has over another only makes sense in society.

  440. The division of labor deforms and determines the subject, which receives as a fate: either he thinks or he works, he either exploits others or works for others.

  441. The next generation inherits the means of production from the former (which does not prevent them from seeking new means of production).

  442. You will develop, but you must fight against the forces that try to condition your development.

  443. Private property transforms the means of production and the means of exchange into destructive forces.

  444. However, using these means of production and exchange, it is possible to end the division of labor and private property, if this is done by individuals who pursue this goal.

  445. The only just determination for our development is the connection we have between us, though such a connection is not free from economic, supportive, and productive elements.

  446. You can only declare something as “unmatched” after trying to compare it with other things.

  447. Read without allowing the books to distort your view of reality: the only thing that ensures that the author of the book is right is how well that book describes reality.

  448. A word can not do anything outside the realm of words: words are not things.

  449. The philosopher who claims that the lack of ideas is the death of philosophy is trying, even if inadvertently, to kill philosophy.

  450. If a concept has no relation to reality , it is a meaningless concept.

  451. True socialism has practical motives and practical goals: it is not a movement that only does theory.

  452. Communism was not born of “pure thoughts,” just as any philosophical, political, or economic system does not spring from mere thought.

  453. A legitimate movement is based on practical needs .

  454. Socialism must be presented in a way that anyone can understand it, because otherwise it will be a movement for intellectual elites, when we need the workers to make it a thing.

  455. Socialism is revolutionary, not “philanthropic.”

  456. There is no socialism without the working class.

  457. Socialism is a French idea.

  458. When the subject’s mind is still small, it is easier to convince him with the narrative genre (novels, chronicles, fiction, comics, and other forms of popular literature) than with the essay genre (scientific article, monograph, theses, and other forms of scientific literature).

  459. The narrative genre can function as propaganda.

  460. Sometimes it is better to think of an idea as subject to time than to think of it from the viewpoint of eternity: if something is urgent, thinking about whether it should last forever can result in wasted time.

  461. Animals masturbate.

  462. Strange is a person with political engagement labeling behaviors as “natural” or “unnatural.”

  463. There is no “false” private property and “true” private property: private property exists only in one way.

  464. The communist who wants to succeed as a communist can not pretend that class struggles do not exist: he must admit it, not disguise it.

  465. Germany is not the world’s judge.

  466. Nationalism is a bourgeois idea.

  467. “Happy life” is not a natural state: it’s either handed to you or acquired.

  468. For some people, getting back to square one is development.

  469. Appealing to nature is a technique that has already been used to justify social inequality and slavery.

  470. “Natural human affinity” is a historical construction.

  471. The police is the consequence of the division between men.

  472. The police is not the only force to exercise coercion over the human will.

  473. Abstraction does not precede fact, abstraction must not lose a real connection with fact.

  474. Our life is not all fruition, and work often enters the group of activities which you derive no happiness from.

  475. Germany is a country like the others and can not claim to rise above other nations.

  476. A nation can not claim the right to be a guide of the world .

  477. It is an insult to hear that a foreigner knows your nation better than you.

  478. Cursing at your opposers isn’t the same as critiquing them.

  479. If you say that you are wiser than others, you’d better be able to prove it…

  480. A review of a work is not the reviewed work.

  481. A review of another review is also not the reviewed work.

  482. Several people marry for interest, not for love.

  483. A good biographical account is chronological and is not abstracted from the motives of the narrated acts.

  484. To hide a plagiarism, some authors criticize the author they copied.

  485. Everyone will have to work eventually.

  486. Do not talk about what you did not read .

  487. The history of the state is directly linked to the history of economy.

  488. Moral is the restraint of human passions.

  489. Some people take only fantasies seriously.

  490. The end of marriage was already occurring at the time the book was written.

  491. Human life is the foundation of religion and politics, not the reverse.

  492. The means of production, better with each generation, end up producing excess goods, which may not be consumed.

  493. When you write a book, you generally do not expect your readers to write theirs, but only that the reader’s formation is improved.

  494. Overproduction only unleashes a crisis when it begins to affect the exchange value of commodities.

  495. Do not think that your plagiarism will not be detected just because you plagiarized someone who has little importance to you .

  496. Incidentally, that person of little importance may be more intellectually qualified than you (after all, you copied them).

  497. The parliament and the aristocracy can create crisis on purpose in order to get support from the people in a cause of their choice.

  498. Miracle workers take advantage of people’s ignorance about the natural world or the social world .

  499. These miracle workers also rely on the fear they can instill in their hearers.

  500. They try to incite emotions so that they can be believed more easily, because emotion suspends reason.

  501. German idealism is no different from other national ideologies, no better than them.

  502. Ignoring is not refuting: saying that your opponent is too weak to deserve refutation does not refute him.

  503. A materialism that only considers its objects as concepts is blind to the revolution.

  504. Evidence is given in practice.

  505. The quest for truth is a practical quest.

  506. Men change the circumstances around them.

  507. Revolution is a change of circumstances.

  508. What is sensitive is practical.

  509. The human relations are part of the human essence.

  510. Social life is practical life.

  511. Interpreting the world is not enough; you have to transform it.

7 de março de 2019

O que aprendi lendo “A Importância da Pesquisa na Formação e Ação Docente”.

Filed under: Notícias e política, Organizações — Tags:, , — Yure @ 09:01

A Importância da Pesquisa na Formação e Ação Docente” foi escrito por Andréa Bengozi. Abaixo, o que aprendi lendo esse texto.

  1. O professor deveria ser pesquisador.
  2. Este estudo acompanha dez professores para saber qual é o impacto da pesquisa em sua atividade.
  3. Mesmo que o professor seja pesquisador, nada garante que a escola fará bom uso dessa habilidade.
  4. O senso crítico começa na capacidade de questionar.
  5. Por que não usar nossas salas de aula como laboratório de pesquisa?
  6. Como usar dados coletados em sala para pesquisas científicas?
  7. No Brasil, é difícil que um professor produza conhecimento.
  8. A pesquisa bibliográfica apenas reúne dados de outros trabalhos e os apresenta.
  9. Enquanto que a pesquisa bibliográfica usa livros e artigos científicos, a pesquisa documental usa outras fontes e registros, o que inclui os que não são acadêmicos por natureza.
  10. As pesquisas práticas não são totalmente abstraídas da literatura, mas procuram principalmente extrair dados da realidade concreta para testar uma hipótese.
  11. A pesquisa prática se divide em pesquisa de campo (busca testar hipótese) e pesquisa com ação (tenta compreender e transformar o objeto, em vez de estudá-lo apenas para obter dados).
  12. É preciso ensinar a pesquisar, para que o professor não saia da faculdade apenas sabendo como interpretar um texto.
  13. A ideia do professor pesquisador data dos anos setenta: a sala é um laboratório e os alunos são sujeitos de estudo.
  14. Que a aula seja pesquisa também para os alunos.
  15. O caráter formativo da educação não é plenamente alcançado pela mera reprodução de informações já coletadas por outros.
  16. O conceito de pesquisa na prática docente é muito amplo, às vezes amplo demais, e isso dificulta sua aplicação, porque ninguém sabe exatamente o que isso significa.
  17. O consenso é: “a pesquisa é necessária à formação do professor.”
  18. Mas não há consenso sobre o quão útil de fato seria a prática de pesquisa na profissão de professor.
  19. Se a pesquisa for sobre a área da educação, será útil ao professor que pesquisa e também aos outros no campo.
  20. O aluno entra na escola já sabendo alguma coisa e ele aprende o conteúdo novo fazendo ligação entre o que ele não conhece e o que ele já conhece.
  21. O professor que aspira ser pesquisador, mas não teve formação pra isso (o que é impressionante), pode aprender essa perícia na prática junto com os alunos, os quais, presumivelmente, também não tem tal formação.
  22. Uma forma de coleta de dados é o questionário, que permite obter dados de várias pessoas sem a mediação de entrevistador.
  23. Mas coletar dados por questionário só presta se o questionário for anônimo.
  24. A pesquisa quantitativa se apoia em estatísticas, enquanto que a qualitativa se apoia em relatos e narrativas.
  25. A pesquisa é usada como instrumento didático?
  26. Dos dez professores estudados, apenas cinco participaram de projetos de pesquisa.
  27. Apesar disso, todos usam a pesquisa ao menos dentro de sala de aula, como meio de apresentar conteúdo.
  28. As dificuldades para a aplicação da pesquisa como ferramenta de trabalho vem do desinteresse e da falta de material (o que leva ao uso inadequado do material já existente).
  29. O tipo de pesquisa que os professores mais fazem é a bibliográfica.
  30. A pesquisa bibliográfica é obrigatória se quisermos pesquisar fatos passados.
  31. O aluno deve aprender a pesquisar autonomamente.
  32. Por causa da falta de material, é mais difícil empreender pesquisa na escola do que na universidade.
  33. Este estudo não tem pretensão de generalização.
  34. Uma sala barulhenta não necessariamente é preguiçosa, uma sala silenciosa não necessariamente é produtiva.

2 de março de 2019

What I learned by reading “Metaphysics”.

Filed under: Livros — Tags:, , — Yure @ 17:22

Metaphysics” was written by Aristotle. Below, what I learned by reading this text.

  1. Curiosity is part of human nature.
  2. Art is the set of information abstracted from an inductive process with practical purpose.
  3. The hallmark of mastery over something is the ability to teach others to do that thing.
  4. The wise must know everything as far as possible, although he is not obliged to know everything in its depth.
  5. The wise must be concerned with the causes of things.
  6. Philosophy was born when people, astonished at the world, realized that they were ignorant and sought knowledge primarily to escape ignorance without necessarily aiming at practical utility.
  7. The causes of the substance are four: formal (what the thing is), material (what is it made of), efficient (what made it exist) and final (what is the purpose of it).
  8. To know something is to know those four causes.
  9. The early philosophers were interested in the cause of the world, identifying it in a simple and material element: Thales believed that the principle was the element water, Anaximus believed it was air, Heraclitus believed in fire, among others.
  10. Many of the earliest naturalistic philosophies were failures, because they suppress movement: what force impelled water, for example, to become other things (assuming that everything “came from water”)?
  11. Admitting only material causes for everything means suppressing incorporeal entities.
  12. Democritus believed that the principles were “full” and “empty” (ie, atoms and void).
  13. Pythagoras believed it was the number.
  14. Some Pythagoreans believed in the existence of ten principles, each consisting of two opposing elements.
  15. Naturalistic philosophers fall into two categories: those who believe in purely material origins (regardless of the number of principles) and those who believe in material origins and motor origins (the latter being one or multiple).
  16. Plato admitted movement, but he did not accept that Heraclitus’s doctrine of the “all flowing” was valid also for immaterial things, since if it were, nothing could be known (according to the Platonic system, concepts have to be static to be fully understood, because movement could change the concept and invalidate previously attained knowledge).
  17. The naturalists erred in many points, by suppressing the essence, by suppressing the incorporeal beings or by suppressing movement.
  18. It is soon seen that the number of ideas is a problem in the theory of ideas .
  19. The theory of forms entails “forms of forms,” ​​if abused, allowing something to be both model and copy.
  20. The origin of the movement is not clear in the theory of forms.
  21. It is not possible to apprehend something without the right sense (you can’t work with images if you don’t have sight).
  22. Everyone makes their contribution to the truth, even those who made mistakes.
  23. If something is too obvious, it is easy to miss.
  24. The causes can not be reversed indefinitely.
  25. If you want to be understood, please, speak clearly.
  26. Mathematics deals with things abstracted from matter.
  27. To solve the difficulties, it is necessary to expose them, to analyze them.
  28. Mathematics is not qualitative , but quantitative , concerned with number and quantity, not with good and bad.
  29. The essence of something is not empirically demonstrable.
  30. If nothing is eternal, nothing would exist.
  31. Eternal things and contigent things do not share the same origin.
  32. Ancient philosophy seems to imply that discord creates things, because it separates things from one another, giving them particular form, and friendship destroys things by putting everything together into one thing, making everything abdicate of particular existence.
  33. Not every potential becomes action.
  34. The philosopher’s duty is to study everything.
  35. Philosophy must question the axioms of other sciences .
  36. Logic is part of philosophy.
  37. Acceptance without proof is necessary to discourse: it is not possible to arrive at any conclusion about anything if you ask about proof and then the proof that the proof is reliable and só on.
  38. If the statement is deformed, the meaning of the terms contained in it has priority.
  39. For Anaxagoras, everything is mixed, there being no particular existence.
  40. If one’s senses were different, even for the better, it would be considered an abnormality and that person most likely would not be taken seriously.
  41. If everything were constantly changing, nothing could be said with certainty; there can be no science without regularity.
  42. The final cause also sets things in motion.
  43. Potential is the opposite of act: something is potential when it didn’t happen yet, but may happen later.
  44. “Impossible” is any false statement that is necessarily false (that is, which could not be true in any circumstance), such as “square circle.”
  45. “Good” is something that is perfect, excellent, or has reached its goal.
  46. “Genre” is a class of things (such as “mankind”).
  47. Accident is something that occurs along with the essence, but that does not modify essence (if the sky is cloudy or clear, it is still sky).
  48. Physics deals with things that are subject to movement, whereas metaphysics deals with abstract things.
  49. One substance is produced from the act of another.
  50. Essence (concept) is independent of senses.
  51. The essence of the animal is the soul (principle of movement, animal is a living being that moves by itself).
  52. Every definition is definition of the universal; accidents are not taken into account in a definition (the definition of “sky” is independent of whether or not the sky is cloudy).
  53. In “biped animal”, animal is genus and biped is difference (what differentiates that specimen from others of the same genus).
  54. You need to know what you are looking for before you start looking for something.
  55. “Calmaria” means “tranquility of the sea”: tranquility is act, sea is substrate.
  56. “Animal” is “soul in a body”.
  57. It is not possible to generate a form, but it is possible to generate an individual, which is matter and form.
  58. Not everything has four causes.
  59. Knowing an object may imply knowing its opposite.
  60. The best way to learn is in practice.
  61. Nothing comes from nothing.
  62. Stability is necessary to knowledge; it is not possible to know something that is constantly changing.
  63. One can not say that everything is true or that everything is a lie.
  64. If the sciences are hierarchical according to their objects, then theology is the greatest science.
  65. Accidental knowledge is not scientific.
  66. “Chance” is not “effect without cause,” but an unexpected effect of unknown cause.
  67. The final cause moves by attraction.
  68. The mission of each individual begins in their nature .
  69. Number and greatness are in the things, those things aren’t abstracted in nature.

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